BIOLOGY: Campbell’s Chapter 12: Cell Cycle

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small body single color chromosomes same to produce without, lack of, not self both, double
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micro- -some(or soma-) haplo- chrom- ploid homo-(or homeo-) -gen- a-(or an-) auto- diplo-
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one between moving thread many two before cell end segment, body section
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uni- inter- kin-(or kinet-) mito multi- bi- pro- -cyte(or cyto) telo- -mere
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During _____ both the contents of the nucleus and the cytoplasm are divided. G2 S mitosis G1 the mitotic phase
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the mitotic phase
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During _____ the cell grows and replicates both its organelles and its chromosomes. cytokinesis G1 S interphase mitosis
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interphase
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Nucleoli are present during _____. prophase anaphase prometaphase metaphase interphase
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interphase
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Cytokinesis often, but not always, accompanies _____. anaphase telophase prometaphase metaphase interphase
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telophase
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Chromosomes become visible during _____. metaphase prophase prometaphase anaphase interphase
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prophase
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Centromeres divide and sister chromatids become full-fledged chromosomes during _____. anaphase interphase prometaphase metaphase telophase
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anaphase
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Spindle fibers attach to kinetochores during _____. telophase anaphase prometaphase interphase metaphase
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prometaphase
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During prophase a pair of chromosomes consists of _____. four chromosomes and two chromatids two chromosomes and four chromatids two chromosomes and two chromatids one chromosome and four chromatids one chromosome and two chromatids
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two chromosomes and four chromatids
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Which of the following is a function of the S phase in the cell cycle? The synchronization of organelle division The separation of sister chromatids The sorting of chromosomes The synthesis of sister chromatids
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the synthesis of sister chromatids
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The copying of chromosomes occurs during which of the following phases of the cell cycle? G2 phase G1 phase S phase M phase
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S phase
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For the first several divisions of early frog embryos, cells proceed directly from the M phase to the S phase and back to M without gaps. Which of the following is likely to be true about dividing cells in early frog embryos? The number of chromosomes decreases with each generation. Frog embryos do not have DNA. The cells get smaller with each generation. The cells do not divide by mitosis.
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the cells get smaller with each generation
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True or false? The M phase is characterized by the replication and division of a cell’s chromosomes. True False
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false
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If an organism normally has 34 chromosomes, how many molecules of DNA should there be in the G1 phase of the cell cycle? 136 34 68 17
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34
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Which of the following events would cause the cell cycle to arrest? Complete chromosome replication Poor nutrient conditions Synthesis of cyclins by growth factors and activation of a cyclin-Cdk complex Chromosomes lined up along the metaphase plate
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poor nutrient conditions
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DNA replication produces two identical DNA molecules called _______.
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sister chromatid(s)
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After chromosomes condense, the _______ is the region where the identical DNA molecules are most tightly attached to each other.
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centromere(s)
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During mitosis,, microtubules attach to chromosomes at the ________.
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kinetochore(s)
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In dividing cells, most the cell’s growth occurs during _______.
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interphase
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The _______ is a cell structure consisting of microtubules, which forms during early mitosis and plays a role in cell division.
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mitotic spindle(s)
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During interphase, most of the nucleus is filled with a complex of DNA and protein in a dispersed form called _________.
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chromatin
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In most eukaryotes, division of the nucleus is followed by ________, when the rest of the cell divides.
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cytokinesis
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The _________ are the organizing centers for microtubules involved in separating chromosomes during mitosis.
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centrosome(s)
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Are sister chromatids present in all or part of this phase?
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G1: no S: yes G2: yess beginning of M: yes End of M: no
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Is the DNA condensed in all or part of this phase?
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G1: no S: no G2: no beginning of M: yes end of M: yes
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Does the cell contain twice as much DNA in this phase as it did in the G1 phase?
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G1: no S: yes G2: yes beginning of M: yes end of M: yes
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Sort each process into the appropriate bin to indicate the stage of mitosis in which it occurs. If a process occurs in more than one stage, sort it to the stage when it first occurs. microtubules attach to kinetochores cohesins break down cohesins join sister chromatids of duplicated chromosome kinetochores are motionless in relation to poles of cell kinetochores move toward poles of cell spindle microtubles disassemble tubulins assemble into spindle microtubules
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PROPHASE tubulins assemble into spindle microtubules cohesins join sister chromatids of duplicated chromosome PROMETAPHASE microtubules attach to kinetochores METAPHASE kinetochores are motionless in relation to poles of cell ANAPHASE kinetochores move toward poles of cell cohesins break down TELOPHASE spindle microtubules disassemble
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During prophase,the microtubules of the mitotic spindle_______ During anaphase, the nonkinetochore microtubules______and move past each other, and the kinetochore microtubules_____ During telophase, the nonkinetochore microtubules ______.
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lengthen lengthen, shorten disassemble
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Will this cell elongate during mitosis? Will the sister chromatids separate from each other? Will the chromosomes move to the poles of the cell?
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yes yes no
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Vinblastine is a standard chemotherapeutic drug used to treat cancer. Because it interferes with the assembly of micro-tubules, its effectiveness must be related to suppression of cyclin production. disruption of mitotic spindle formation. inhibition of regulatory protein phosphorylation. inhibition of DNA synthesis. myosin denaturation and inhibition of cleavage furrow formation.
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disruption of mitotic spindle formation
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One difference between cancer cells and normal cells is that cancer cells are unable to synthesize DNA. are arrested at the S phase of the cell cycle. continue to divide even when they are tightly packed together. cannot function properly because they are affected by density-dependent inhibition. are always in the M phase of the cell cycle.
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continue to divide even when they are tightly packed together
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The decline of MPF activity at the end of mitosis is due to the accumulation of cyclin. the destruction of the protein kinase Cdk. synthesis of DNA. decreased synthesis of Cdk. the degradation of cyclin.
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the degradation of cyclin
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In the cells of some organisms, mitosis occurs without cytokinesis. This will result in destruction of chromosomes. cells with more than one nucleus. cells lacking nuclei. cells that are unusually small. cell cycles lacking an S phase.
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cells with more than one nucleus
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Which of the following does not occur during mitosis? separation of the spindle poles spindle formation replication of the DNA condensation of the chromosomes separation of sister chromatids
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replication of the DNA
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A particular cell has half as much DNA as some other cells in a mitotically active tissue. The cell in question is most likely in G1. prophase. anaphase. metaphase. G2.
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G1
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The drug cytochalasin B blocks the function of actin. Which of the following aspects of the animal cell cycle would be most disrupted by cytochalasin B? cleavage furrow formation and cytokinesis cell elongation during anaphase spindle formation spindle attachment to kinetochores DNA synthesis
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cleavage furrow formation and cytokinesis
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If a eukaryotic cell is in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, which statement about the cell’s chromosomes must be correct? Each chromosome is made of a complex of DNA and associated proteins. The chromosomes are preparing for DNA synthesis. Each chromosome consists of two identical chromatids.
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each chromosome is made of complex of DNA and associated proteins
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Which statement provides the best description of the interphase portion of the cell cycle? Interphase is a resting stage prior to cell division. During interphase, a cell is metabolically active. Interphase is a brief period between mitosis and chromosome duplication.
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during interphase, a cell is metabolically active
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How do cancer cells differ from normal cells? Cancer cells may be immortal. Cultured cancer cells exhibit anchorage dependence. Cancer cells trigger chromosomal changes in surrounding cells.
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cancer cells may be immortal
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The cell cycle control systems of cancer cells differ from those of normal cells. Select the best explanation for this fact. Cancer cells divide excessively and invade other tissues. Genetic changes alter the function of the cancer cell’s protein products. Cancer cells are immortal.
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genetic changes alter the function of the cancer cell’s protein products
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During mitosis,, microtubules attach to chromosomes at the ________.
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kinetochore(s)

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