Biology and the Environment

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Scientific inquiry is largely based on
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an incremental approach to truth
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The conservation ethic holds that we should
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be responsible for wise management while using natural resources
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A paradigm
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is a dominant view in science
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Advances in agriculture
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resulted in alteration and destruction of natural systems
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The scientific process and knowledge is based on
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testing hypotheses that are build on observations
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Ecological economists argue that
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if nothing is done to rein in population growth and increased resource consumption, human economies will plunge into ruin
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Ecosystem services include
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essential services including items such as water purification and oxygen production
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In a controlled experiment
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the scientist controls for the effects of all variables but the one(s) of interest
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Environmental policy aims to
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promote fairness among people in the use of resources, protect the values people hold, protect the natural resources people use (all of the above)
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Rachel Carson’s book Silent Spring, published in the 1960’s,
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awakened the American public to negative effects of pesticides, focused on chemical pollutants including industrial chemicals, was the beginning of the third wave of U.S. environmental policy, warned of bird losses through pesticide use (all of the above)
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The categorical imperative
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is an ethical standard, can be used to differentiate between right and wrong, is a told for a decision making, is roughly Christianity’s Golden rule (all of the above)
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Solutions to environmental problems
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must be sustainable
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The principle of utility
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holds hat something is right when it produces the greatest benefit for the greatest number of people
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One ecological lesson from Easter Island is that
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humans and their environment are integrated
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A centrally planned economy is
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a state socialist economy
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A worldview is developed a sa result of
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religion, culture, education, sex (all of the above)
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“Ecosystem services” include:
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erosion control
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Which of the following is an assumption of neoclassical economics
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growth is good
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Aldo Leopold’s “Land Ethic” essay describes
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ecological communities are comprised of interdependent parts
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An ecological footprint is a measure of
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the amount of land required to sustain a lifestyle
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The use of the ocean as a site waste disposal for all is an example of
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a commons
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Using the ocean as a waste disposal site
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benefits some people for a limited amount of time
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Following the concept of ecological economics, the use of the ocean for surfing
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represents an ecosystem service
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To change the situation, Josie can,
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vote, lobby, organize her fellow surfers, contribute to the campaign of like-minded politicians (all of the above)
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The horizontal line shows
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productivity of the land is relatively constant, productivity of the ocean is relatively constant, the ocean’s ability to absorb waste is relatively constant, the atmosphere’s ability to absorb waste s relatively constant (all of the above)
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The solid line shows
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humanity’s ecological footprint has been increasing
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The fact that the solid line exceeds the dashed line (an overshoot) after 1977 suggests:
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environmental degradation is occurring at a rate faster than the planet can restore itself
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The fact that the overshoot continues to increase each year suggests
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the day that the overshoot occurs is happening earlier each year
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Which of the variables of the experiment is the dependent variable?
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the number of seeds that germinated
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Which of the variables of the experiment is the independent variable?
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the light level
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What problem(s) do you see in Dr. Williams’ experimental design and conclusions
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he did not control for temperature changes due to different light levels, he did not control for evaporation effects due to different light levels, he did not have adequate replicates to reduce the chance that the results were not due to chance, he idd not use a statistical analysis to determine the significance of his results (all of the above)
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In order to publish this work in a legitimate scientific journal, what will need to happen
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the manuscript that details the experiment and results will need to be reviewed positively by other scientists
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The GDP measures
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the monetary value of goods and services exchanged
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An increase in the GDP
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is not necessarily a good or bad thing
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An increase in the GPI
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is a good thing
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A steady-state economy means that the economy
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stays stable
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“Humans have dominion over the environment” is a view primarily espoused by
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anthropocentrics
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“All life is sacred and needs to treated as such” is a view primarily espoused by
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biocentrics
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Aldo Leopold, Deep Ecologists, and Transcedentalists are most closely aligned to
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ecocentrics
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The utilitarian viewpoint of the environment is a view primarily espoused by
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anthropocentrics
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The two processes that determine the world’s current biodiversity (the number of species) are
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extinction and speciation
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Which list includes biomes in the correct order of highest to lowest rainfall
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tropical rainforest, temperate deciduous forest, grassland, desert
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The overall number of species has generally _______ sinces 4.5 billion years ago
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increased
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The carrying capacity is the
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maximum population size that a given environment can sustain
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Variation in populations
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is what natural selection “selects” for or against
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Primary succession
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is community development on bare rock following removal of previous community including growth substrates such as soil
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Atoms can bond to form
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molecules
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A population is a
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group of individuals of single species that live in one area
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All organisms with organelles in their fluid-filled inner chambers are
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eukaryotes
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Chemical energy is
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potential energy, the energy held in the bonds between atoms
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The pH scale was devised to quantify the ______ of a solution
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acidity
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If the presence of species A reduces the growth rate of species B and the presence of species B reduces the growth rate of species A, the relationship between the two species is said to be
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competitive
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Which of the following equations represents cellular respiration
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C6H12+602—> 6H20+6CO2+ENERGY
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Macronutrients
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are required in large doses for organisms to survive
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How energy flows in an ecosystem is often diagrammed as
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food web
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Evolution in response to competition through altered resource use
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is called resource partitioning
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Which macromolecule encodes the genetic messages that are transmitted between generations
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DNA
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A network of relationships among a group of parts, elements, or components, that interact with and influence one another through exchange of matter and/or information is referred to as
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a system
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An invasive species
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may outcompete native species, is a species that spreads wildly and rapidly becomes dominant can refer to exotic species, ma alter the food web (all of the above)
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Unregulated populations tend to increase by
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exponential growth
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the overall patter of this type of population is called
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logistic growth
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the region on the curve around the number 2, where growth rate is positive, best reflects
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exponential growth
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the population size at the number 1 is called
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the carrying capacity
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the fact that the population becomes stable may imply
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there is a limit of resources, the birth rate is density depended, the mortality rate is density dependent, there is a negative feedback (all of the abolve)
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the transfer of which gas goes from plants to animals
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oxygen
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the transfer of which gas goes from animals to plants
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carbon dioxide
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the transfer of which type of energy goes from plants to animals
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chemical
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the transfer of which type of energy goes from animals to plants
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none of the above
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If Shawn only suffered injury that rendered him unable to reproduce (and he had not produced any offspring yet), his fitness, in terms of evolutionary theory, would be
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zero
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If this is a typical behavior of someone with a small bladder (assume bladder size has a genetic basis), and those with small bladders suffer similar fates in this population, what model of selection would apply
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directional selection would occur favoring those with larger bladders
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If bladder size has a genetic basis, this means the information that determines bladder size is carried by
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nucleotide chains
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natural selection assumes
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there is individual variation
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the climate is
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seasonal
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the months where drought is most likely to occur are
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june-august
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the location of the climate regions is most likely
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in the northern hemisphere
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if infrequently disturbed, the most likely biome for this climatograph is
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shrubby desert
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life began in which era
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precambrian
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humans began in which period
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quaternary
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which of the following is in the proper sequence from earliest to the most recent
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prokaryotic life, eukaryotic life, terrestrial life, vertebrate life, human
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extinction and speciation occurred in which era
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cenozoic, mesozoic, paleozoic, precambrian (all of the above)
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the largest component of atmospheric gases is
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nitrogen
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the green revolution prevented
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the starvation of millions of people
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one of the problems that occurs as a consequence of CFC pollution is
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increasing skin cancer in humans
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the increase in atmospheric greenhouse gases over the last two centuries is primarily due to
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fossil fuel use
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soil can be characterized by
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the amount of sand, silt, and clay, pH, number and types of horizons, amount of organic material (all of the above)
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insecticides often kill
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pollinators, pests, organisms that can act as biocontrol agents, organisms that feed higher on the food chain (all of the above)
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aquaculture
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is typically more energetically efficient than raising terrestrial livestock
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life expectancy in countries in countries such as botswana in southern africa
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has fallen dramatically compared to expectancies of the 1950’s because of AIDS
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crops made with genes extracted from other organisms are
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genetically engineered
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Earth’s climate
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is subject to change through human and natural processes
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seasons are a result of
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the tilt of the earth on its axis
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the impact of humans on the environment depends primarily on
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the number of people and how they live
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exponential growth
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increases by a fixed percentage o=per unit time
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keelin’s mauna loa data on carbon dioxide demonstrated
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an increase in carbon dioxide since recording began
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pesticides become less useful over time because
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resistance is acquired by larger andlarger numbers of individuals
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populations in less developed nations
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are growing much more rapidly than those in more developed nations
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the breakdown of large rocks into smaller pieces is termed
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weathering
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the impacts of global climate hcange on forests will likely include
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shifts in the abundance of certain tree s[ecies
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the practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock for human use and consumption is
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agriculture
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during most of our species’ 100,000-year existence and until about 10,000 years ago, we depended on
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hunting and gathering
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lakes with high levels of nutrients are called
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eutrophic
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which lake would you expect ot have more algae growth
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lake one (the one that recies high levels of nutrient inputs
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which lake would you expect to have higher levels of oxygen
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lake two (lake that does not have less nutrients)
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nutrients found in florida lake systems include
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agricultural fertilizers, lawn fertilizers, phosphorous, nitrogen (all of the above)
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which population is most likely stable
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square bottoms and slightly stairs up
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which population is most likely growing
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stairs
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which population is most likely shrinking
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up side down stairs
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which population has an uneven sex ratio
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the weird looking boxes
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the numbers 1 to 12 on the y-axis are in the
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billions
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the population seems to level off shortly after the year 2100. at this point
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the birth rate equals the death rate
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population growth after 2000 AD is concentrated most in
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lesser developed world
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base on the ipat model, an increase in population size leads to
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an increased environmental impact
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this process depicted above is known as
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biomagnification
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if you were a native american, eating which animal would be the least damaging in terms of PCB
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zooplankton
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if PCBs function as endocrine disruptors, what may happen to the porpoises
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the sexuality of them will be altered
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this process is similar to one rachel carson found with
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insecticides
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atmospheric carbon dioxide has been ______ since 1958
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increasing
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the seasonal ups and downs relate primarily to
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cycles of terrestrial plants photosynthesizing
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the general trend of atmospheric carbon dioxide is caused by
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fossil fuel burning
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carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is in part responsible for the
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greenhouse effect
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water that reaches earth’s surface that does not evaporate can
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infiltrate the surface, be taken up by animals, run off, end up in the aquifer (all of the above)
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changes in habitat have tremendous effects on the organisms that depend on them. theses effects are
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generally negative because organisms are already adapted to the habitats in which they occur, so that any change is likely to render the habitat less suitable for them
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mangroves are
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adapted to often flood, marine environments
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the most dramatic form of timber harvesting in terms of habitat loss result from
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clear cutting
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we build dams to
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generate electricity, ease irrigations, prevent floods, provide drinking water (all of the above)
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of the fresh water that exists in the ecosphere, most of it is found where
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ice caps and glaciers
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presently, extinction occurs primarily from
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habitat destruction
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habitat disturbance that occurs as a result of logging includes
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soil erosion
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a species
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can freely breed with one another to produce fertile offspring
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biodiversity refers to
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genetic variants of a single species, communities of organisms, individual species, ecosystems (all of the above)
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coral reefs are
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found primarily in tropical regions
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the energy that corals use is derived from
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symbiotic algae that are capable of photosynthesis
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the greatest general problem with suburbs is
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they spread environmental impact over a larger area
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what percentage of total water on earth is freshwater
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2.5%
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layers develop in the ocean due to
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sunlight penetration providing heat
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which of the following change global species diversity
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speciation and extinction
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sinkholes result from
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over consumption of water from aquifers
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which of the following is the major source of oil pollution in the oceans
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runoff from terestrial sources
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the greatest diversity of organisms can be found in
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insects
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which of the following leads to changes in local species diversity
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immigration and extinction
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the system
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has a variety of plant communities
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the flow of water presently is
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reduced from 200 years ago
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channelizing the kissimmee river led to
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a reduction in flooding
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which is part of the overall everglades restoration plan
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re-establishing the flow patterns of the kissimmee river
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according to the theory of island biogeography, which islands should have the higher rates of extinction
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the smaller islands
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according to the theory of island biogeography, which islands should have the higher rates of immigration
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the two closer islands
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according to the theory of island biogeography, which island would you expect to have the most species
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the closer bigger island
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according to the theory of island biogeography, which island would you expect to have the least species
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the smaller further one
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the dominant life form in terms of species number found in the system is
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insects
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the dominant life form in terms of biomass found in the system is
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trees
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individual species niche space here, compared to latitudes further away from the equator
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is typically more finely divided
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the number of unknown species estimated to live in this system is
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1,000,000-30,000,000
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which time period has the most interior forest
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the most dark area
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which time period has the highest edge to interior area ratio
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the least amount of dark
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which forested landscape would be considered the most connected
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the most dark area
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which time period would you expect there to be more native vertebrate species
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the most dark area
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which region would you expect a large clockwise surface gyre
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in between america and africa
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which region does the warming/cooling associated with el nino/la nina occur
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near south america, on the equator
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which region would you expect to find kelp forests
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near california
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which region would you expect o find mangrove forests
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on the equator below europe

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