Biological Oceanography Exam 1

question

The first exclusively oceanographic expedition was undertaken on the:
answer

HMS Challenger
question

Who is considered by many to be the first marine biologist?
answer

Aristotle
question

T/F. Water is a polar molecule.
answer

True
question

Heat is measured in:
answer

Calories
question

Compared to air, the specific heat of water is:
answer

Much higher
question

Hydrogen bonds hold water together. This property is known as:
answer

Cohesion
question

The maximum density of pure water occurs at what temperature?
answer

4 o C
question

Above 4 oC, what effect does increasing temperature have on water density?
answer

Density decreases
question

T/F. When salts are dissolved in water, the density of the water decreases.
answer

False
question

As light passes through water, it is absorbed and scattered by:
answer

water molecules ions suspended particles
question

T/F. A positively charged ion is called a cation.
answer

True
question

How many grams of salt are contained in a liter of typical seawater?
answer

35
question

Which of the following ions is a major constituent of seawater?
answer

sulfate bicarbonate sodium
question

During photosynthesis, plants use:
answer

carbon dioxide
question

During respiration, plants use:
answer

Oxygen
question

If there are more H+ cations than OH- anions in a solution, it would be considered:
answer

Acidic
question

The pH of an acidic solution would be:
answer

below 7
question

The pH of seawater (average) is:
answer

7.8
question

The saturation concentration of a gas in seawater depends on:
answer

temperature salinity pressure
question

T/F. Desalination is the process of obtaining salt water from fresh water.
answer

False
question

Instantaneous solar radiation per unit area on Earth is greatest at the:
answer

equator
question

What percent of incoming solar radiation is absorbed at Earth’s surface?
answer

47.5
question

The oceans can absorb and release large amounts of heat with little change in temperature due to the high ? of water.
answer

Specific Heat
question

The layer of the atmosphere closest to Earth is the:
answer

Troposphere
question

The ozone layer is mostly in the:
answer

stratosphere
question

The atmosphere is composed mostly of:
answer

nitrogen
question

Which reservoir holds the largest amount of carbon dioxide?
answer

The ocean
question

In the northern hemisphere, air is deflected in which direction relative to Earth’s surface?
answer

To the right
question

In the southern hemisphere, the Trade Winds come from the:
answer

southeast
question

El Nino is characterized by:
answer

a period of anomalous climatic conditions warm surface water in the eastern Pacific a lack of upwelling off the Peruvian coast
question

Biodiversity
answer

Ocean covers 70% of Earth’s surface and provides 99% of all habitable space Life probably originated in the sea
question

Chronometer
answer

Timekeeping device of great accuracy, especially used in measuring longitude
question

Atoll
answer

A former volcanic island; ring-like island and coral reef that surrounds a lagoon. Island sank. Theory by Darwin
question

SONAR
answer

Sound navigation and ranging developed during WWII to find submarines Used today to determine: Water depth Bottom characteristics Schools of fish
question

ROV
answer

Remotely operated vehicle Unmanned Tethered to a ship Take samples Smaller, more maneuverable than submarines Jason took first pictures of Titanic
question

AUV
answer

Autonomous underwater vehicel for mapping, long periods of time, no people, deeper, has sensors affiliated with sonar salinity and temp
question

Scientific Method
answer

Scientific conclusions are based on observations
question

Induction
answer

using separate, specific observations to arrive at general principles
question

Deduction
answer

using general principles to make specific conclusions
question

Azoic Theory
answer

proposed by Edward Forbes, stated that life did not exist on the sea depths beyond 300 fathoms
question

Aristotle
answer

“first marine biologist” Realized that fish use gills to breathe
question

Carolus Linneaus
answer

System for naming species
question

Georges Cuvier
answer

Major scheme for classification based on body plan
question

James Cook
answer

first to make scientific observations, beginning in 1768 Full time naturalist on board brought back specimens of plants and animals Explored all oceans on three voyages First to use chronometer
question

Edward Forbes
answer

used a dredge to collect organisms on sea floor Different species found at different depths No. of animals decreased with increasing depth Azoic Theory
question

Charles Darwin
answer

sailed around world on HMS Beagle Theory of evolution by natural selection Treatise on barnacles Theory of formation of atolls
question

HMS Beagle
answer

5 year voyage of Charles Darwin
question

HMS Challenger
answer

was first dedicated oceanographic expedition Led by Charles Wyville Thompson in 1872 Sailed around the world over 3 years Collected samples of water and organisms Systematic fashion Meticulous notes Took 19 years to publish in 50 volumes Foundation for modern marine science
question

Charles Wyville Thompson
answer

led the first true oceanographic expedition on the HMS Challenger
question

Covalent bond
answer

A chemical bond that involves sharing a pair of electrons between atoms in a molecule
question

Polar molecule
answer

Molecule with an unequal distribution of charge, resulting in the molecule having a positive end and a negative end
question

Hydrogen bond
answer

A type of weak chemical bond formed when the slightly positive hydrogen atom of a polar covalent bond in one molecule is attracted to the slightly negative atom of a polar covalent bond in another molecule.
question

Temperature
answer

A measure of the average kinetic energy of the atoms and molecules in the substance
question

Heat
answer

a measure of total kinetic energy of atoms and molecules in a substance
question

Latent heat of fusion
answer

the heat needed to change water from a solid to a liquid (without a change in temperature)
question

Latent heat of vaporization
answer

the heat needed to change water from a liquid to a vapor (without a change in temperature)
question

Specific heat
answer

the quantity of heat required to produce a unit change in temperature per unit mass
question

Cohesion
answer

Water molecules are attracted to each other and give water structure
question

Adhesion
answer

An attraction between molecules of different substances
question

Surface tension
answer

Cohesion of molecules at air-surface interface
question

Capillary action
answer

Movement of water in spaces of a porous material
question

Viscosity
answer

Resistance to motion
question

Density
answer

mass per unit volume
question

Freezing point depression
answer

As salinity increases, Initial freezing temperature of water decreases
question

Conduction
answer

heat applied at one location increases molecular motion; this is passed on to adjacent molecules
question

Convection
answer

density driven; a heated fluid moves and carries its heat to a new location
question

Radiation
answer

direct transmission of heat from its energy source; does not require a medium
question

Attenuation
answer

Decrease in light intensity over distance
question

Salts
answer

Compounds that can break apart into atoms that have opposite charges
question

Salinity
answer

Total quantity of dissolved salt Ocean water is 3.5% salt by weight
question

Ionic bonds
answer

Electrons transferred from a metal atom (Na) to a nonmetal atom (Cl) Creates ions of opposite charge that attract each other Easily broken in water due to polar nature of water molecules
question

Conservative constituents
answer

Cl-, Na+, So42-, Mg2+, Ca2+, K+
question

Non-conservative constituents
answer

Ions that change in concentrations due to biological action
question

Trace elements
answer

Elements present in seawater at less than 1 ppm
question

Residence time
answer

Average time that a substance remains in solution in ocean
question

Principle of constant proportion
answer

Regardless of total salt content, ratio of one major ion to another remains the same at all depths and locations
question

Conductivity
answer

Conductivity of electric current through seawater varies with temperature and salinity
question

Hydrometer
answer

Device used to determine density
question

Refractometer
answer

Light refracted (bent) by seawater as a function of salinity
question

Saturation concentration
answer

Maximum amount of gas that can be held in solution
question

Euphotic zone
answer

Depth to which light penetrates helps define
question

Plant Respiration
answer

Glucose + Oxygen → Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy
question

Hypoxic
answer

pertaining to a low level of oxygen
question

anoxic
answer

pertaining to the absence of oxygen
question

Biological pump
answer

Phytoplankton produces ~40% of earth’s organic material 90% is recycled in euphotic zone 10% is recycled below euphotic zone or deposited in sediments
question

pH
answer

pH = -log [H+]
question

Nutrients
answer

Ions required for plant growth
question

Organics
answer

Produced and taken up by organisms
question

Secchi disk
answer

A white + black plate-sized disk attached to a rope, that when lowered down into the water measures turbidity.
question

SOFAR
answer

Zone of minimum sound velocity is: (SOund Fixing And Ranging (SOFAR) Channel) Sound produced in this layer cannot escape; bends toward region of minimum speed Travel great distances Used to detect increases in ocean temperature
question

Redfield Ratio
answer

Found that molar ratio of C:N:P in seawater and phytoplankton was similar: 106:16:1 (when nutrients not limiting)
question

Desalination
answer

Process of obtaining fresh water from salt water Change of state (liquid to solid or liquid to vapor) Electrodialysis Ion exchange Reverse osmosis
question

Refraction
answer

Light is bent or refracted when it passes from air to water Affected by salinity, temperature and pressure
question

Sea ice
answer

Formed from seawater When freezing occurs, salts are left behind Cold, salty water sinks and is replaced by less salty water which can freeze
question

Icebergs
answer

Float with only 12% of mass above surface Formed by glaciers
question

Advective fog
answer

Warm air saturated with water vapor moves over colder water
question

Sea smoke
answer

Cold, dry air moves out over warmer water Air picks up water vapor and rises Rising air cooled below dewpoint
question

Radiative fog
answer

Warm, moist air condenses at night forming fog
question

Solar constant
answer

Without atmosphere, the radiation value at the equator would be 2.0 cal/cm2/min
question

Troposphere
answer

Lowest layer Temperature decreases with altitude
question

Tropopause
answer

minimum temperature zone between troposphere and stratosphere Contains jet streams
question

Stratosphere
answer

Layer above troposphere is stratosphere Temperature increases with increasing altitude Contains ozone (03)
question

Greenhouse gases
answer

Carbon dioxide Water vapor Nitrous oxide Methane
question

Convection cells
answer

Warmer, moist (less dense) air rises and cooler, dryer (more dense) air sinks Between these areas, the air that flows horizontally is the wind
question

Coriolis effect
answer

Air parcel moving north is displaced to the east (right) as the difference between the initial eastern velocity and the velocity at the higher latitude An air mass moving south would also be displaced to the east (left)
question

Polar cells
answer

convection cell in the atmosphere, formed by air that rises at 60° N and 60° S and sinks at the poles
question

Ferrel cells
answer

Mid-latitude convection cells that create westerlies between 30 and 60
question

Hadley cells
answer

A large-scale atmospheric convection cell in which air rises at the equator and sinks at medium latitudes, about 30 degrees north or south
question

ITCZ
answer

ITCZ associated with highest surface temperatures Deflected north in summer land warmer Deflected south in winter ocean warmer Wettest latitude on earth
question

Jet stream
answer

High speed winds of upper troposphere Polar jet streams are westerlies (50-60º N and S) Subtropical jet streams are easterlies (30º N and S) Position of jet streams important in determining weather in temperate zone
question

Hurricanes
answer

Most violent storms on Earth Four stages of development Tropical disturbance Tropical depression Tropical storm Tropical cyclone (hurricane) Form near equator over warm ocean waters Pushed to west by trade winds
question

Storm surge
answer

When storm reaches coast water level is raised due to: Elevated dome of water Wind pushing water ahead of storm Normal high tides
question

El Nino (ENSO)
answer

During an El Niño event, surface pressure in Indonesian low is unusually high It moves eastward High pressure replaces it This periodic reversal of high and low pressure regions is called the Southern Oscillation Results in reverse of normal pressure gradient; trade winds weaken or reverse Warm water pushed eastward and accumulates along coast of Americas

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member