Biochemistry Vitamins

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Vitamin A
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aka Retinol & Beta-carotene / function: visual pigments in the retina; regulation of gene expression and differentiation/ disease: night blindness, xeropthalmia; kertinization of skin
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Vitamin D
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aka Calciferol/ function: Maintenance of calcium balance; enhances intestinal absorption of Ca2+ and mobilizes bone mineral; regulation of gene expression and cell differentiation/ disease: rickets= poor mineralization of bone & osteomalacia= bone dimineralization
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Vitamin E
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aka Tocopherols & tocotrienols/ function: antioxidant, especially in cell membranes; roles in cell signaling/ disease: extremely rare- serious neurologic dysfunction
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Vitamin K
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aka Phylloquinone:menaquinones/ function: coenzyme in formation of gama-carboxy-glutamate in enzymes of blood clotting and bone matrix/ disease: impaired blood clotting, hemorrhagic disease
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Vitamin B1
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aka Thiamine/ function: coenzyme in pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenases, and transketolase; regulates Cl- channel in nerve connection/ disease: peripheral nerve damage or cns lesions
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Vitamin B2
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aka Riboflavin/ function: coenzyme in oxidation and reduction reactions (FAD & FMN); prosthetic group of flavoproteins/disease: lesions of corner of mouth, lips, and tongue, seborrheic dermatitis
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Niacin
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aka Nictonic acid & nicotinamide/ function: coenzyme in oxidation and reduction reactions functional part of NAD and NADP; role in intracellular calcium regulation and cell signaling/ disease: pellagra- photosensitive dermatitis, depressive psychosis
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Vitamin B6
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aka pyridoxine, pyridoxal,& pyridoxamine/ function: coenzyme in transamination and decarboxylation of amino acids and glycogen phosphorylase; modulation of steroid hormone action/ disease: disorders of amino acid metabolism, convulsions
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Vitamin B9
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aka folic acid/ function: coenzyme in transfer of one-carbon fragments/ disease: megaloblastic anemia
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Vitamin B12
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aka cobalamin/ function: coenzyme in transfer of one-carbon fragments and metabolism of folic acid/ disease: prenicious anemia= megaloblastic anemia with degeneration of the spinal cord
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Vitamin B5
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aka pantothenic acid/ function: functional part of CoA and acyl carrier protein: fatty acid synthesis and metabolism/ disease: peripheral nerve damage (nutrional melalgia or “burning foot syndrome”)
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Vitamin H
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aka biotin/ function: coenzyme in carboxylation reactions in gluconeogenesis and fatty acid synthesis; role in regulation of cell cycle/ disease: impaired fat and carbohydrate metabolism, dermatitis
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Vitamin C
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aka ascorbic acid/ function: coenzyme in hydroxylation of proline and lysine in collagen synthesis; antioxidant; enhance absorption of iron/ disease: scurvy- impaired would healing, loss of dental cement, subcutaneous hemorrhage

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