Biochemistry – Rate Limiting Steps

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Aspartate transcarbamoylase (ATCase)
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What is the rate limiting step of de novo pyrimidine synthesis
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Glutamine-PRPP amidotransferase
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What is the rate limiting step of de novo purine synthesis
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Phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK-1)
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What is the rate limiting step of glycolysis
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Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (F-1,6-BP)
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What is the rate limiting step of gluconeogenesis
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Isocitrate dehydrogenase
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What is the rate limiting step of the TCA cycle
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Glycogen synthase
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What is the rate limiting step of glycogen synthesis
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Glycogen phosphorylase
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What is the rate limiting step of glycogenolysis
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Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)
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What is the rate limiting step of the HMP shunt
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Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, sytrate=synthesis, uses citrate shuttle)
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What is the rate limiting step of fatty acid synthesis
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Carnitine acyltransferase I (carnage, uses carnitine shuttle)
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What is the rate limiting step of fatty acid oxidation
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HMG-CoA synthase
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What is the rate limiting step of ketogenesis
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HMG-CoA reductase (inhibited by statins)
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What is the rate limiting step of cholesterol synthesis
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ALA synthase
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What is the rate limiting step of Heme synthesis
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Carbamoyl phosphate synthase I
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What is the rate limiting step of the urea cycle
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32 (heart and liver, malate-aspartate shuttle) or 30 (muscle, glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle)
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ATP produced by aerobic metabolism

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