Bio chapter 4

organic chemistry is a science based on the study of..?
-Carbon compounds

Early 19th century scientists believed that living organisms differed from nonliving things as a result of possessing a”life force” that could create organic molecules from inorganic matter. This term is…?

The Experimental approach taken in current biological investigations presume that….?
-living organisms can be understood in terms of the same physical and chemical laws that can be used to explain all natural phenomena.

One of the following people set up a closed system to mimic Earths early atmosphere & discharged electrical sparks through it. A variety of organic compounds common in organisms were formed. Who did this?
-Stanley Miller

Which of the following people was the first to synthesize an organic compound, urea, from inorganic starting materials?
-Friedrich Wohler

How many electron pairs does carbon share in order to complete its valence shell?

A carbon atom is most likely to form what kind of bond with other atoms?

Which of the following statements best describes the carbon atoms present in all organic molecules?
-they were incorporated into organic molecules by plants.
-they were processed into sugars through photosynthesis.
-they are ultimately derived from carbon dioxide.

Why are hydrocarbons insoluble in water?
-the majority of their bonds are non polar covalent carbon-to-hydrogen linkages.

How many structural isomers are possible for a substance having the molecular formula C4H10?

Which of the following statements correctly describes geometric isomers?
-They have variations in arrangement around a double bond.

Research indicates that Ibuprofen, a drug used to relieve inflammation and pain, is a mixture of two enantimomers; that is, molecule that….?
-are mirror images of one another.

Why is it important for this drug to consist of only one enantimetric form, rather than a mixture of enantiomers ?
-different enantiomers may have a different or opposite physiological effects.

3 or 4 of the following illustrationd depict different structural isomers of the organic compound with molecular formula C6H14. Which one if any is NOT a structural isomer of this compound?
l l

Thalidmide & L-dopa, shown below, are examples of pharmaceutical drugs that occur as enantiomers, or molecules that…?
– are mirror images of one another.

A compound contains hydroxyl groups as its predominant functional group. Which of the following statements is true concerning this compound..?
-it should dissolve in water.

Which is the best description of carbonyl group?
– A carbon atom joined to an oxygen by a double covalent bond.

What is the name of the functional group shown?
R-C=O -o-h

Which of the following contains nitrogen in addition to carbon, oxygen, & hydrogen?
-an amino acid such as glycine.

Which of the following is a false statement concerning amino groups?
-They are nonpolar.

Which two functional groups are always found in amino acids?
-carboxyl & amino

Amino Acids are acids because they always possess which functional group?

A carbon skeleton is covalentley bonded to both an amino and a carboxyl group. When placed in water it…?
-Would function as both an acid and a base.

A chemist wishes to make an organic molecule less acidic. Which of the following functional groups should be added to the molecule in order to do so?

Which functional groups can act as acids?
-carboxyl and phosphate

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