bio. Anthropology

Chapter 1

Charles Darwin is know for his scientific voyages to the
Galapagos Islands

Jean-Baptiste Lamarck’s theory of evolution was based on
the inheritance of acquired characteristics

the steps of the scientific method, in proper order, are:
Hypothesis-Experimentation-Data collection-Supporting or refuting hypothesis

Anglican Archbishop James Ussher claim;ed to have established the origin of the Earth as
Sunday, 23 October, 4004 BC

George Culvier, a famous French anatomist and fossil expert, explained the different fossil creatures found in different layers of the Earth as a result of
the result of a series of catastrophic event when life was destroyed and replaced by more complex forms

James Hutton and Charles Lyell both advocated the principle of uniformitarianism, which stated that
the process that shaped the Earth in the past are the same as those operating today

Darwin’s slow, deliberate process of preparing to publish his new theory was interrupted by his receiving a body of research work stating virtually the same principles, done by
Alfred Russell Wallace

According to the Theory of Evolution by Means of Natural Selection, the key concept in understanding how evolution is:
*All of these are basic concepts in Darwin’s theory:
-members of a species produce more offspring than will survive and reproduce successfully
– characteristics which are advantageous will be more common in succeeding generations
-some variations are better adapted to reproduce in the environment
-members of a species show variation (not all are exactly the same )

During Darwin’s voyages, he performed detail studies of variation and similarity among species of which animal?
Finches in the Galapagos

****chapter 2

According to Darwin, the differences between “artificial” selection, or selective breeding and natural selection is that
natural selection is a result of random processes, while artificial selection is done with a goal in mind (i.e. increasing milk production in cows)

scientist working on genetic therapies for diseases are working in which genetic field?
molecular genetics

Classical or Mendelian genetics involves the study of:
pedigrees of related individuals

Behavioral genetics is the study of how:
genetics influence behavior

Which of the following is an example of multicultural organism?
Worms

a single-celled organism with a nucleus is an example of a:
eukaryote

Somatic cells ______
are the cells of the body that are not gametes

tissues are comprised of:
somatic cells

Tissues are comprised of:

Mitochondria have their own DNA separate from that within the cell’s nucleus. T/F
True

Hormones, antibodies, and hemoglobin are all:
proteins

Proteins are comprised of long chains of:
amino acids

An individual who is homozygous for a gene has
two of the same alleles for that gene

Two identical daughter cells result from which process?
mitosis

Meiosis results in:
****=(all of these)****
*gametes
*haploid cells
*sex cells

what is the diploid number of human chromosomes?
46

the ancient DNA studied is usually mtDNA because mtDNA:
is so abundant

****chapter 3

structural genes___
****=(All of these)****
-may be similar across species
-are surrounded by regulatory regions
-contain information to make proteins

in some cases, the ____ interacts with factors in the environment to create a ____
genotype, phenotype

which of the following best defines the term genotype?
the actual alleles an organism carries

the observable physical features of an organism comprise its:
phenotype

A recessive allele_____
needs to be present on both chromosomes to be expressed

An allele that needs to be present on only one chromosomal locus to be expressed is called a:
dominant

which of the following best describes Mendel’s Law of Segregation?
Chromosomes randomly segregate into sex cells

Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment indicates that:
segregating pairs of unit factors assort independently

mutation during meiosis are especially important because they:
are inherited

A point mutation occurs when ____ is changed
a single base in a gene

which of the following is true of sickle cell disease?
=(all of these)
-it damages the spleen
-it shortens the life span of red blood cells
-it causes blood cells to clump together in small blood vessels

the vast majority of mutations are probably:
neutral

Mutations often have little phenotypic effect because:
****=(all of these)****
-codon changes are often insignificant
-they often occur in non-coding regions
-proteins can withstand minor amino acids variations

The _____ chromosome is larger
X

traits that occur as a continuum in a population are likely due to
polygenic inheritance

***chapter 4

where do new variations come from?
****=(all of these)****
-point mutation
-changes in the genetic material
-chromosomal mutaions

Evolution by natural selection works directly on ____, transforming _____
individuals, populations

The process of stabilizing selection results in:
keeping a population uniform

when populations migrate, their genes’ are experiencing:
gene flow

a change in the frequency of a gene in a population over time due to entirely random factors is called:
genetic drift

the difference in size, shape, or color between the sexes within a species is referred to as:
sexual dimorphism

features that are homologous are similar due to:
shared evolutionary history

parallel evolution results in:
analogous traits

organisms are composed on both ancestral and derived characters. T/F
True

A species’ derived characters are:
what distinguishes it from other related species

A scientist working mostly with fossils is likely to use which species concept?
evolutionary

Recent genetic studies of gorillas have revealed
a surprising amount of genetic diversity

geography separation is an important factor in ___ speciation
allopatric

Gradualism asserts that:
species slowly transform into other species

Macroevolution and punctuated equilibrium help explain
gradualism

MIDTERM

Which of the following best defines anthropology?
the study of humankind in all its forms

According to biological anthropology, humans are primates and are the products of millions of years of evolution by natural selection.
True

The study of the skeleton is known as
Osteology

A paleoanthropologist is likely to study:
the fossil remains of humankind and its ancestors

Forensic anthropologists study:
the identification of skeletal remains and the means by which individuals have died

Which of the following species were not used as examples by Charles Darwin in his discussions of natural selection?
Giraffes

Which of the following areas of study have contributed to the modern, or Synthetic Theory of Evolution?
****(All of these)****
-DNA research
-Genetics
-Taxonomy

Gregor Mendel, the “Father of Genetics,” studied which organisms in his famous breeding experiments?
Garden peas

Classical geneticists focus more on __________ than __________.
traits, molecules

The basic building block of life is the __________.
cell

The __________ are directly involved in reproduction
gametes

In most eukaryotic cells, the most prominent structure is the
nucleus

The two main functions of DNA are
protein synthesis and cell reproduction

Mitochondria have their own DNA separate from that within the cell’s nucleus
True

Virtually every cell of the body contains the same copy of DNA.
True

Permanent changes in the DNA of a cell are called mutations.
True

An individual who is homozygous for a gene has
two of the same alleles for that gene

In some cases, the __________ interacts with factors in the environment to create a __________
genotype, phenotype

Which of the following best defines the term genotype?
the actual alleles an organism carries

The observable physical features of an organism comprise its
phenotype

An allele that needs to be present on only one chromosomal locus to be expressed is called a _________ allele
dominant

Mutations during meiosis are especially important because they
are inherited

Genetic mutations can never be good
False

Females are usually only carriers of X-linked disorders
True

Traits that occur as a continuum in a population are likely to be due to
polygenic inheritance

Natural selection works on the __________ of an individual organism
phenotype

When populations migrate, their genes are experiencing
gene flow

A change in the frequency of a gene in a population over time due to entirely random factors is called
genetic drift

Which of the following best defines the concept of analogous traits?
traits shared due to convergent evolution

Which of the following best defines the concept of ancestral characters?
traits shared between species due to a shared evolutionary history

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