BIO 150 Exam 1

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Which polymers are composed of amino acids? Proteins Nucleic acids Carbohydrates Monomers
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Proteins
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Which of the following is not attached to the central carbon atom in an amino acid? A carboxyl functional group An amino functional group A side chain (“R group”) An oxygen
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An Oxygen
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Which part of an amino acid is always acidic? Amino functional group Side chain (“R group”) Carboxyl functional group None of the above
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Carboxyl Functional Group
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Which monomers make up RNA? Nucleotides Simple sugars Polymers Amino acids
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Nucleotides
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Which of the following statements about the formation of polypeptides from amino acids is true? A. Polypeptides form by condensation or hydrolysis reactions. B. A bond forms between the carboxyl functional group of one amino acid and the amino functional group of the other amino acid. C. The reaction occurs through the addition of a water molecule to the amino acids. D. A bond can form between any carbon and nitrogen atom in the two amino acids being joined.
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A bond forms between the carboxyl functional group of one amino acid and the amino functional group of the other amino acid.
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True or false? Enzymes in the digestive tract catalyze hydrolysis reactions. True False
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True
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Proteins are polymers of _____. hydrocarbons nucleotides CH2O units glycerol amino acids
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Amino Acids
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What type of bond joins the monomers in a protein’s primary structure? ionic peptide S – S hydrogen hydrophobic
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Peptide
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Alpha helices and beta pleated sheets are characteristic of a ____________________________.
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protein’s secondary structure.
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The secondary structure of a protein results from _____. ionic bonds hydrophobic interactions bonds between sulfur atoms peptide bonds hydrogen bonds
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Hydrogen Bonds
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Tertiary structure is NOT directly dependent on _____. peptide bonds bonds between sulfur atoms ionic bonds hydrophobic interactions hydrogen bonds
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peptide bonds
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Which of these is exhibiting kinetic energy? A. the high-energy phosphate bonds of a molecule of ATP B. a person sitting on a couch while watching TV C. an archer with a flexed bow D. a space station orbiting Earth E. a rock on a mountain ledge
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D. a space station orbiting Earth Kinetic energy is energy of motion.
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“Conservation of energy” refers to the fact that _____. A. energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be converted from one form to another B. if you conserve energy you will not be as tired C. the net amount of disorder is always increasing D. no chemical reaction is 100 percent efficient E. the entropy of the universe is always increasing
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A. energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be converted from one form to another
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Chemical energy is a form of _____ energy. potential kinetic motion heat entropic
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potential
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In your body, what process converts the chemical energy found in glucose into the chemical energy found in ATP? potentiation redox digestion anabolism cellular respiration
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cellular respiration
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Which of these are by-products of cellular respiration? ATP and carbon dioxide glucose, carbon dioxide, and water ATP, carbon dioxide, and water heat, carbon dioxide, and water carbon dioxide and water
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heat, carbon dioxide, and water
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Which term describes the degree to which an element attracts electrons? Reduction. Polarity. Electronegativity. Oxidation.
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Electronegativity.
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Which terms describe two atoms when they form a bond in which electrons are completely transferred from one atom to the other? Ionic and covalent. Polar and nonpolar. Proton and electron. Anion and cation.
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Anion and cation.
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Which of the following statements is true of the bonds in a water molecule? A. There is equal sharing of the electrons between the oxygen atom and the two hydrogen atoms, and the net charge is zero. B. Oxygen holds electrons more tightly than hydrogen does, and the net charge is zero. C. The electron in each hydrogen atom is completely transferred to the oxygen atom, and each hydrogen atom has a net charge of +1. D. Oxygen acts as the electron acceptor and is oxidized.
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B. Oxygen holds electrons more tightly than hydrogen does, and the net charge is zero.
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Which of the following statements is not true of most cellular redox reactions? A. Changes in potential energy can be released as heat. B. The reactant that is oxidized loses electrons. C. The electron acceptor is reduced. D. A hydrogen atom is transferred to the atom that loses an electron
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D. A hydrogen atom is transferred to the atom that loses an electron A hydrogen atom (proton, or H+) is often transferred to the atom that gains an electron.
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What kind of bond is formed when lithium and fluorine combine to form lithium fluoride? Nonpolar covalent. Polar covalent. Redox. Ionic.
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Ionic
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Gaseous hydrogen burns in the presence of oxygen to form water: 2H2 + O2 → 2H2 O + energy Which molecule is oxidized and what kind of bond is formed? Oxygen, nonpolar. Oxygen, polar. Hydrogen, nonpolar. Hydrogen, polar.
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Hydrogen, polar.
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The following reaction A –> B + C + heat is a(n) _____ reaction. dehydration synthesis exergonic exchange endergonic anabolic
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exergonic
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A(n) _____ reaction occurs spontaneously. exergonic kinetic chemical endergonic anabolic
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exergonic
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Which of these reactions requires a net input of energy from its surroundings? hydrolysis endergonic ATP –> ADP + P exergonic catabolic
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endergonic
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In cells, what is usually the immediate source of energy for an endergonic reaction? glucose ATP ADP as spontaneous reactions, endergonic reactions do not need an addition of energy sugar
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ATP
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The reaction ADP + P –> ATP is a(n) _____ reaction. spontaneous chemical exergonic endergonic hydrolysis
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endergonic
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The energy for an endergonic reaction comes from a(n) _____ reaction. glucose + glucose –> maltose synthesis exergonic ADP + P –> ATP anabolic
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exergonic
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What is the fate of the phosphate group that is removed when ATP is converted to ADP? It is acquired by a reactant in an endergonic reaction. It is acquired by a reactant in an exergonic reaction. It is used to convert an ATP into an AQP. It is broken down into one phosphorus and four oxygen atoms. It is acquired by a reactant in a spontaneous reaction.
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It is acquired by a reactant in an endergonic reaction.
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Select the INCORRECT association. potential energy … positional energy exergonic … uphill exergonic … spontaneous kinetic energy … motion enzyme … protein
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exergonic … uphill
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What is energy coupling? A. the use of an enzyme to reduce EA B. the use of energy released from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction C. a description of the energetic relationship between the reactants and products in an exergonic reaction D. a barrier to the initiation of a reaction E. the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP + P
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B. the use of energy released from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction
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Which of these is a difference between a DNA and an RNA molecule? A. DNA is usually double-stranded, whereas RNA is usually single-stranded. B. DNA contains five-carbon sugars, whereas RNA contains six-carbon sugars. C. DNA contains nitrogenous bases, whereas RNA contains phosphate groups. D. DNA contains uracil, whereas RNA contains thymine. E. DNA is a polymer composed of nucleotides, whereas RNA is a polymer composed of nucleic acids.
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A. DNA is usually double-stranded, whereas RNA is usually single-stranded.
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Which of these nitrogenous bases is found in DNA but not in RNA? uracil adenine guanine cytosine thymine
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thymine
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In a nucleotide, the nitrogenous base is attached to the sugar’s _____ carbon and the phosphate group is attached to the sugar’s _____ carbon. 1′ … 5′ 1′ … 3′ 1′ … 2′ 2′ … 1′ 2′ … 3′
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1′ … 5′
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Nucleic acids are assembled in the _____ direction. 2′ to 3′ 4′ to 5′ 1′ to 5′ 5′ to 3′ 5′ to 1′
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5′ to 3′
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In a DNA double helix an adenine of one strand always pairs with a(n) _____ of the complementary strand, and a guanine of one strand always pairs with a(n) _____ of the complementary strand. uracil … cytosine cytosine … uracil guanine … adenine thymine … cytosine cytosine … thymine
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thymine … cytosine
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If a strand of DNA has the nitrogen base sequence 5′-ATTTGC-3′, what will be the sequence of the matching strand? 3′-TAAACG-5′ 3′-TUUUCG-5′ 3′-ATTTGC-5′ 3′-UAAACG-5′ 3′-GCAAAT-5′
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3′-TAAACG-5′
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If a DNA double helix is 100 nucleotide pairs long and contains 25 adenine bases, how many guanine bases does it contain? 75 150 50 25 200
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75
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The two strands of a DNA double helix are held together by _____ that form between pairs of nitrogenous bases. hydrophilic interactions S—S bonds ionic bonds covalent bonds hydrogen bonds
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hydrogen bonds
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A nucleotide is composed of a(n) _____. A.sulfhydryl group, a nitrogen-containing base, and a five-carbon sugar B. phosphate group, a nitrogen-containing base, and a hydrocarbon C. amino group, a nitrogen-containing base, and a five-carbon sugar D. glycerol, a nitrogen-containing base, and a five-carbon sugar E. phosphate group, a nitrogen-containing base, and a five-carbon sugar
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E. phosphate group, a nitrogen-containing base, and a five-carbon sugar
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DNA is composed of building blocks called _____. nucleic acids Gs nucleotides adenines amino acids
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nucleotides
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In eukaryotic cells DNA has the appearance of a _____. single strand letter U double helix triple helix circle
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double helix
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You are an oncologist in charge of a basket study. Which of the following is true? A. Your patients do not need to have the same type of cancer. B. You need to have a large control group. C. All of your patients need to be the same sex. D. All of your patients must lack a family history of cancer.
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A. Your patients do not need to have the same type of cancer.
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Which of the following individuals is most likely to have a BRAF mutation? A man with lung cancer. A man with prostate cancer. A woman with melanoma. A woman with pancreatic cancer.
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A woman with melanoma.
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After more basket studies are completed, who will ultimately decide the fate of the drugs being tested and how they can be used? National Cancer Institute Individual cancer treatment centers Food and Drug Administration Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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Food and Drug Administration
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These basket studies became possible because of which of the following? high-end MRI machines gene sequencing targeted chemotherapy targeted radiation
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gene sequencing
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Your aunt has medullary thyroid cancer and is part of a large, randomized study of a new drug for treatment. What is she enrolled in? Emergent study. Phase 3 study. Recombinant study. Basket study.
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Phase 3 study.
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Prokaryotic cells are found in the domain(s) _____. Bacteria and Archaea Bacteria and Eukarya Bacteria and Protista Bacteria Protista and Archaea
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Bacteria and Archaea
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In the five-kingdom system, prokaryotes are placed in the kingdom _____. Protista Animalia Fungi Plantae Monera
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Monera
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A human is classified in domain _____ and kingdom _____. Eukarya … Fungi Eukarya … Protista Eukarya … Plantae Eukarya … Animalia Bacteria … Archaea
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Eukarya … Animalia
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A rose bush is classified in domain _____ and kingdom _____. Eukarya … Fungi Eukarya … Protista Eukarya … Plantae Eukarya … Animalia Bacteria … Archaea
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Eukarya … Plantae
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In the five-kingdom system, which kingdom consists primarily of unicellular eukaryotes? Fungi Protista Plantae Animalia Monera
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Protista
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In the two-kingdom system, why were fungi classified in the kingdom Plantae? They are sedentary. They are heterotrophs. They lack cell walls. They are unicellular. They are autotrophs.
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They are sedentary.
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There is(are) _____ eukaryotic domain(s). one two three four five
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one
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Which of the following statements about natural selection is true? A. Natural selection is a process whereby genes are selected randomly for preservation in the next generation. B. Natural selection can be used by farmers to generate organisms with desirable traits. C. Natural selection occurs in opposition to evolution. D. Natural selection favors individuals that reproduce more than others.
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D. Natural selection favors individuals that reproduce more than others.
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Which term describes a trait that increases an individual’s ability to survive in a particular environment? Fitness Adaptation Heritability Evolution
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Adaptation
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Which term describes the ability of a trait to be passed on to offspring? Adaptation Fitness Heritability Evolution
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Heritability
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Which of the following organisms could be produced by artificial selection? A dog that serves as the “eyes” for a blind individual. A chimpanzee that communicates through sign language. A rabbit that is housebroken. A cow that produces a large quantity of milk.
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A cow that produces a large quantity of milk.
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Which pair of chickens should a farmer breed to produce larger chickens? Small hen, small rooster Large hen, small rooster Small hen, large rooster Large hen, large rooster
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Large hen, large rooster
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A farmer wishes to develop a strain of high-yield corn that is also resistant to drought. He has the following individuals from the current year’s crop: Individual A—Yield: 179 bushels/acre; drought resistance: high Individual B—Yield: 220 bushels/acre; drought resistance: low Individual C—Yield: 185 bushels/acre; drought resistance: medium Individual D—Yield: 140 bushels/acre; drought resistance: high Individual E—Yield: 200 bushels/acre; drought resistance: medium Which of the following crosses would produce the highest corn yield with the highest resistance to drought? C and E A and E A and B B and B
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A and E
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Each water molecule is joined to _____ other water molecules by ____ bonds. three … ionic two … polar covalent four … polar covalent two … hydrogen four … hydrogen
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four … hydrogen
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The unequal sharing of electrons within a water molecule makes the water molecule _____. have a low surface tension change easily from a liquid to gaseous form ionic hydrophobic polar
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polar
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The tendency of an atom to pull electrons toward itself is referred to as its _____. electronegativity tonicity polarity covalency ionic potential
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electronegativity
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The innermost electron shell of an atom can hold up to _____ electrons. 1 8 18 32 2
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2
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Which of these relationships is true of an uncharged atom? A. The number of neutrons is equal to the number of protons. B. The number of electrons is equal to the number of neutrons. C. The atomic mass is equal to the atomic number. D. The number of protons is equal to the number of electrons. E.The atomic mass is equal to the number of electrons.
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D. The number of protons is equal to the number of electrons.
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What determines the types of chemical reactions that an atom participates in? A. the number of protons it contains B. the number of electrons in the innermost electron shell C. its atomic mass D. its atomic number E. the number of electrons in the outermost electron shell
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E. the number of electrons in the outermost electron shell
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Atoms with the same number of protons but with different electrical charges _____. have different atomic numbers are different ions have different numbers of neutrons are different isotopes have different atomic masses
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are different ions
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In salt, what is the nature of the bond between sodium and chlorine? hydrogen polar covalent ionic nonpolar covalent hydrophobic
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ionic
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An ionic bond involves _____. water avoidance the unequal sharing of an electron pair an attraction between ions of opposite charge no atoms other than sodium and chlorine the sharing of a single pair of electrons
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an attraction between ions of opposite charge

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