Bio 122 Chapter 26

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Taxonomy
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Is the science of describing, naming, and classifying extant species, those that still exist today, as well as extinct species, those that have died out.
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Hierarchy
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Is a system of organization that involves successive levels. In biological taxonomy, every species is placed into several different nested groups within a hierarchy
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Species are subdivided into three domains of life
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Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya
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Taxonomic group
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Domain, Supergroup,Kingdom, Phylum( plural phyla)Class, Order, Family, Genus, and species. (Did Sanam know price cut of flowery green shirt?)
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Systematics
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Is the study of biological diversity and the evolutionary relationships among species , both extinct and extant.
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Phylogeny
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Is the evolutionary history of a species or group of species.
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A phylogenetic Tree
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Is a diagram that describes the evolutionary relationship among various species, based on the information available to and gathered by systematists.
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Supergroup- 7
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Excavata, Land plants and relatives, Aveolata, Stramenopila, Rhizaria, Amoebo
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The domain Eukarya formerly consisted of four kingdoms called
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Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia
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Binomial Nomenclature
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Is the standard method for naming species
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The genus name is capitalized. They are always nouns
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But the specific epithet is not. Could be nouns or adjectives.
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Anagenesis
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Is when a single species is evolves into a different species, or more commonly by cladogenesis, in which a species diverges into two or more species.
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Nodes
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Are the branch points in phylogenetic tree illustrates times when cladogenesis has occurred .
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Clad
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A clad is consists of a common ancestor species and all of its descendant species.
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Cladogenesis
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Is the splitting or diverging of a population into two or more species.
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Key goal of modern systematics is
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To create taxonomic groups that reflect evolutionary relationships. Systematics attempts to organize species into clades. Which means that each group includes an ancestor species and all of its descendents.
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A monophyletic group
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Is a taxon that is a clades. Ideally, every taxon whether it is a domain, supergroup, kingdom, phylum, class. Order, family, or genus, should be monophyletic .
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A paraphyletic group
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Contains a common ancestor and some, but not all, of its decendents
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Polyphyletic group
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Consists of members of several evolutionary lines and does not include the most recent common ancestor of the included linages
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Homology
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The term refers to a similarity that occurs due to decent from a common ancestor.
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Paleontologists
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A person studying the science of the forms of life existing in former geologic periods, as represented by their fossils.
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Molecular systematics
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The field that involves the analysis of genetic data such as DNA sequences.
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Cladistics
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Is the classification of species based on evolutionary relationships.
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A goal of modern taxonomy is to
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Classify all organisms in monophyletic groups
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The study of systematics is usually based on
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Morphological or Genetic Homology
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Systematic involves
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Reconstructing and study of the evolutionary relationships among organisms
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Systematic is used to study both
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Extinct and extant organisms
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Hierarchy
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A term that describes a system of organization that involves successive levels.

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