BCOM Test 2 Test Questions

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1) The three primary steps involved in preparing a business message are A) planning, writing, and completing. B) informing, persuading, and collaborating. C) defining the purpose, the main idea, and the topic. D) satisfying the audience’s informational, motivational, and practical needs.
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A) planning, writing, and completing.
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2) Which one of the following is an element of the completing phase of the three-step writing process? A) Organizing the information B) Interpreting the research C) Proofreading the message D) Selecting the right medium
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C) Proofreading the message
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3) All of the following except ________ are elements in the planning phase of the three-step writing process. A) gathering information B) adapting to the audience C) selecting the right medium D) organizing the information
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B) adapting to the audience
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4) Planning is essential when writing business messages because A) it helps you provide the right information to the right people in the right format. B) it makes the writing process faster and less stressful. C) it can save you from embarrassing blunders that could hurt your company or your career. D) all of the above.
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D) all of the above.
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5) If you devote sufficient time to planning a business message before you begin writing it, you can expect all of the following outcomes except A) expediting the writing process. B) avoiding embarrassing blunders. C) experiencing extra work and stress in the writing and completing stages. D) delivering concise, compelling information that your audience wants and needs to know.
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C) experiencing extra work and stress in the writing and completing stages.
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6) In order to optimize your writing time, reserve about ________ of that time for revising, producing, proofreading, and distributing your message. A) 10 percent B) 20 percent C) 25 percent D) 15 percent
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C) 25 percent
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7) Which of the following is not a general category common to business communication? A) To inform B) To persuade C) To negotiate D) To collaborate
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C) To negotiate
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8) An example of a specific purpose for a business message would be A) to impart information to the audience. B) to inform employees about the new vacation policy. C) to persuade readers to take action. D) to obtain audience participation and collaboration.
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B) to inform employees about the new vacation policy.
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9) Most messages should not be sent unless they will A) bring about a change. B) increase your chances of being promoted. C) please your boss. D) do all of the above.
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A) bring about a change.
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10) The best reason to defer or cancel a message is if A) your news is bad. B) someone else wants to deliver it. C) your audience is highly receptive. D) the time is wrong.
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D) the time is wrong.
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11) The primary audience for your message should always include A) all who receive it. B) the key decision makers in the audience. C) those people with the highest status. D) those people who represent the opinions and attitudes of the majority.
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B) the key decision makers in the audience.
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12) In general, for internal communication, the higher up your message goes, the A) more details people want to see. B) fewer details people want to see. C) less likely you are to run into ethical problems. D) more likely you are to run into ethical problems.
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B) fewer details people want to see.
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13) Messages should contain supporting detail and background information when A) you expect a favorable response. B) you and your audience do not share the same general background. C) you and your audience share the same general background. D) all of the above are the case.
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B) you and your audience do not share the same general background.
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14) Forecasting your audience’s reaction to your message is A) impossible—there’s no way to know what it will be. B) vital, because potential audience reaction affects message organization. C) helpful only for internal communication. D) helpful only for external communication.
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B) vital, because potential audience reaction affects message organization.
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15) You’re writing a proposal to give permission to some employees at your company to telecommute. You know management will be skeptical, so you should A) be as straightforward as possible about stating your conclusions and recommendations. B) avoid stating your conclusions and recommendations. C) use less evidence in support of your points. D) build your case carefully, stating clear reasons for each conclusion you draw and recommendation you make.
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D) build your case carefully, stating clear reasons for each conclusion you draw and recommendation you make.
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16) A knowledge-management system A) helps companies limit the amount of information employees store on the network. B) enables organizations to test employees periodically to ensure they are doing adequate research. C) is a centralized database of experiences and insights of employees throughout an organization. D) is a tool for creating a bibliography when writing long reports.
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C) is a centralized database of experiences and insights of employees throughout an organization.
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17) Informal techniques for gathering insights and focusing your research efforts do not include A) listening to the community. B) asking the audience for input. C) distributing questionnaires and surveys. D) reviewing reports and other company documents.
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C) distributing questionnaires and surveys.
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18) When gathering information for a business message, keep in mind that audiences respond best to information that A) they could have found by doing their own research. B) has not been categorized or grouped in any way. C) has been filtered and prioritized according to their needs. D) pertains to a broad cross-section of possible scenarios.
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C) has been filtered and prioritized according to their needs.
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19) When meeting your audience’s informational needs, you should emphasize ideas A) of greatest interest to the audience. B) that are uncontroversial. C) that will have the least impact on the audience. D) that don’t need supporting evidence.
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A) of greatest interest to the audience.
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20) A good way to test the thoroughness of your business message is to check it for A) a main idea. B) a purpose. C) the who, what, when, where, why, and how. D) accuracy.
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C) the who, what, when, where, why, and how.
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21) After sending project cost estimates to a longtime client, you realize you failed to include information on some discount options. The best thing to do is A) take no action. B) blame someone else. C) contact the primary audience immediately and correct the error. D) start looking for a new job.
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C) contact the primary audience immediately and correct the error.
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22) Choosing the right medium for your message A) is not important as long as the content of your message is accurate. B) is important only when communicating with managers and supervisors. C) is vital for external communication, but not important for internal communication. D) can make an important difference in how your message is perceived.
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D) can make an important difference in how your message is perceived.
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23) Which one of the following is the “leanest” communication medium? A) Podcasts B) Posters and signs C) Telephone conversations D) Multimedia presentations
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B) Posters and signs
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24) Which media would be best for keeping in touch with a sales team whose members live in several different states? A) Written media B) Oral media C) Electronic media D) Presentations
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C) Electronic media
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25) Telephone calls are A) completely incapable of conveying nonverbal signals. B) now acceptable only for external communication. C) capable of conveying quite a few nonverbal signals. D) no longer practical when compared to email.
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C) capable of conveying quite a few nonverbal signals.
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26) Which of the following media would be best for sending a brief message (requiring no response from your audience) about an upcoming software update? A) Podcast B) Email C) Blog D) Videoconference
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B) Email
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27) VoIP is a A) widely used format for sending documents electronically. B) technology for making telephone calls via the Internet. C) highly technical videoconferencing program. D) type of voice-to-text translation software.
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B) technology for making telephone calls via the Internet.
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28) According to the concept of media richness, the richness of a medium does not depend on its ability to A) facilitate feedback. B) establish a personal focus. C) handle multiple information cues simultaneously. D) convey a sense of affluence and exclusivity.
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D) convey a sense of affluence and exclusivity.
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29) A ________ is the richest communication medium. A) telephone conversation B) retweet with a comment C) video podcast D) face-to-face conversation
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D) face-to-face conversation
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30) A key advantage of oral communication is A) the ability to plan and control the message. B) the opportunity to meet an audience’s information needs. C) the ability to transmit highly complex messages. D) the opportunity to get immediate feedback.
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D) the opportunity to get immediate feedback.
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31) As a new supervisor, you need to introduce yourself to your team of ten employees. The best medium for this type of non-routine message would be A) a face-to-face meeting. B) an email message. C) a conference call. D) a text message.
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A) a face-to-face meeting.
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32) A potential downside to the use of electronic media in business communication involves A) delivering messages quickly. B) maintaining employee productivity. C) promoting audience interaction. D) reaching geographically dispersed audiences.
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B) maintaining employee productivity.
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33) Of the following media, which is the richest? A) An electronic slide presentation that includes a series of images that are arranged to persuade the audience to take a specific position B) An interactive website enabling audiences to participate in the communication process C) A presentation on DVD D) A formal business letter
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B) An interactive website enabling audiences to participate in the communication process
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34) The ________ of a message is its overall subject, while the ________ is a specific statement about that overall subject. A) medium, theme B) topic, main idea C) scope, purpose D) focal point, rationale
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B) topic, main idea
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35) In high-context cultures, ________ media are often more effective than ________ ones. A) leaner, richer B) oral, written C) foreign, domestic D) none of the above
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B) oral, written
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36) Which of the following is not listed among factors to consider when choosing a medium for your message? A) Urgency B) Cost C) Sender preferences D) Audience preferences
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C) Sender preferences
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37) In general, audiences are likely to A) ignore poor organization if the message is important. B) draw inaccurate conclusions from poorly organized messages. C) fully understand most messages, even those that are poorly organized. D) none of the above.
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B) draw inaccurate conclusions from poorly organized messages.
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38) When you want to confirm, illuminate, or expand on the supporting points in a business message, use ________ if you believe that dramatic tension will stimulate your audience’s interest. A) facts and figures B) narration or storytelling C) references to authority figures D) examples and quotations
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B) narration or storytelling
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39) Use the ________ to organize a message if you believe your audience will be receptive to what you have to say. A) direct approach B) didactic approach C) dialectical structure D) diametric pattern
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A) direct approach
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40) The scope of a business message pertains to A) a specific statement about the overall subject of the message. B) the range of information you present to support your main idea. C) the efforts you expend when you proofread the message. D) the act of conveying the message through more than one informational cue.
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B) the range of information you present to support your main idea.
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41) If your audience will be skeptical of or resistant to your message A) state your main idea and then present your evidence. B) start with the evidence and build your case before presenting your main idea. C) start by asking rhetorical questions to arouse the audience’s interest in your message. D) open your message with a humorous anecdote to establish rapport with the audience.
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B) start with the evidence and build your case before presenting your main idea.
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42) As it applies to business communication, presenting information in a well-organized manner A) helps your readers understand the message. B) encourages your readers to accept the message. C) allows your readers to save time. D) all of the above.
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D) all of the above.
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43) Which of the following is an example of a message topic? A) “To get the board of directors to increase the research and development budget” B) “Competitors spend more than our company does on research and development” C) “Funding for research and development” D) “The research and development budget is inadequate in our competitive marketplace”
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C) “Funding for research and development”
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44) Whatever the length of your message, you should limit the number of major support points to roughly A) two. B) three. C) six. D) ten.
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C) six.
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45) Storytelling is A) inappropriate for professional communication. B) acceptable in business, but only for messages organized in the direct approach. C) an effective way to organize messages in a surprising number of business communication scenarios. D) none of the above.
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C) an effective way to organize messages in a surprising number of business communication scenarios.
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46) When allocating your time among the three stages of the writing process, you should use about a fourth of the time for planning, half the time for writing, and a quarter of the time for completing.
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FALSE
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All business messages have both a general purpose and a specific purpose.
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TRUE
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The three general purposes of business messages are to inform, to persuade, and to collaborate.
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TRUE
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Even if nothing will change as a result of your message, you should send it if you believe it is important
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FALSE
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Once you have established your purpose, it’s best to consider whether it is worth pursuing at this time.
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TRUE
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No matter how you feel personally about a situation, your communication should reflect your organization’s objectives.
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TRUE
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When analyzing your audience, you should ignore everyone except the key decision makers.
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FALSE
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As long as your message is clear, the size of your audience should not influence the approach you choose to take.
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FALSE
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One effective informal method for learning more about your audience’s information needs is to ask them directly for input.
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TRUE
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When you get a vague request for information, the best way to handle it is to provide all the information you can and allow the audience to pick and choose what is useful to them.
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FALSE
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Skilled communicators include only the information that their audience has specifically requested.
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FALSE
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Accuracy of information is less important in business communication than in other types of communication—everyone is busy, and mistakes are simply unavoidable.
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FALSE
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When it comes to business research, online sources generally require more careful evaluation than other types.
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TRUE
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If you provide inaccurate information in a business message, the best course of action is to say nothing and hope that no one notices.
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FALSE
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Messages can be unethical simply because certain details have not been included.
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TRUE
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As long as your message is clear and interesting, the medium you choose doesn’t really matter.
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FALSE
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As business communication models evolve, the lines separating oral, electronic, and written media have become more distinct and easier to define.
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FALSE
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In today’s fast-paced environment, traditional business messages rely primarily on graphical elements, with occasional support from text.
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FALSE
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Infographics refers to messages that combine powerful visuals with supporting text.
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FALSE
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Despite the advantages of electronic media, the growth of electronic communication options has caused great frustration for many audiences.
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TRUE
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Face-to-face communication is the richest medium.
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TRUE
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A real drawback of most visual media is that it requires skill to create effective images.
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TRUE
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Poorly organized messages are unlikely to be effective, regardless of their content.
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TRUE
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“Latest Investment Performance” is an example of a message topic, whereas “Poor Investment Performance Continues” is an example of a main idea.
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TRUE
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The indirect approach is best when your audience is likely to be skeptical.
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TRUE
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Step one of the writing process is ________, in which you analyze the situation, gather information, select the right medium for the message, and organize the information.
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PLANNING
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The final step in the writing process is ________ your message, which involves revising, producing and distributing it.
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completing
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The three general purposes of business messages are to inform, to persuade, or to ________ with the audience.
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collaborate
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In addition to having a general purpose, each business message has a (an) ________ purpose.
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specific
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During the planning step you need to analyze your ________, including its size and composition, existing knowledge about the subject, and probable reaction to your message.
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audience
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A good way to test the thoroughness of your message is to use the ________ approach and ask whether the message answers who, what, when, where, why, and how.
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journalistic
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Speeches, presentations, and meetings are all examples of ________ media.
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oral
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________ refers to the use of two or more media to craft a single message, typically some combination of audio, video, text, and visual graphics.
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multimedia
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Media ________ is the ability of a medium to convey a message using more than one informational cue, facilitate feedback, and establish personal focus.
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richness
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In deciding which ________ to use for a message to a manager in another department, you should consider factors such as formality, confidentiality, feedback, time, and cost.
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medium
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Good ________ helps readers understand and accept your message, and saves them time in the process.
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organization
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Your entire message supports, explains, or demonstrates your ________ ________—a specific statement about the topic of your message.
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main idea
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The ________ of your message is the range of information you present, the overall length, and the level of detail—all of which need to correspond to your main idea.
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scope
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No matter how long your message is, you should limit the number of major support points to roughly ________.
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six
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A positive email announcing a new, more convenient travel reimbursement policy should follow the ________ approach for organizing messages.
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direct
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Describe at least three of the tasks involved in developing an audience profile.
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Answer: – identifying your primary audience – determining Audience size – geographic distribution – composition – gauging your audience’s level of understanding – considering their expectations and preferences – forecasting their probable reaction to your message
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You’ve been asked to prepare a report on whether or not your company should consider other health insurance providers. List four informal techniques for gathering information to include in your report.
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Informal strategies for gathering information include (1) considering other viewpoints; (2) reading reports and other company documents; (3) talking with supervisors, colleagues, or customers; and (4) asking your audience for input.
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How can the journalistic approach help you include all required information in your business messages?
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The journalistic approach enables you to check the thoroughness of your message by seeing whether it answers who, what, when, where, why, and how.
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Briefly describe how to meet an unfamiliar audience’s informational needs.
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Answer: When you don’t know your audience, use common sense to identify points of particular interest. Audience factors such as age, job, location, income, and education can give you a clue.
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List at least three strategies to help ensure the accuracy of information you include in business messages.
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Answer: – double-checking every piece of information you collect – ask yourself whether they are current and reliable – Be particularly careful when using sources you find on the Internet – review any mathematical or financial calculations. – Check all dates and schedules examine your own assumptions and conclusions to be certain they are valid.
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Briefly explain how the growth of electronic communication has become both a blessing and a curse for business communicators.
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The proliferation of electronic communication media has advantages and disadvantages. You have more tools than ever to choose from, with more ways to deliver rational and emotional content. However, the sheer range of choices can complicate your job because you often need to choose among multiple media and you need to know how to use each medium successfully.
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Briefly define media richness, and provide at least one example each of a rich medium and a lean medium.
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Media richness is the value of a communication medium in a given situation. It is determined by a medium’s ability to convey a message by means of more than one informational cue, facilitate feedback, and establish personal focus. Face-to-face conversation is the richest medium, while unaddressed documents such as posters and signs are the leanest.
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Briefly explain the difference between the topic of a message and the main idea.
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The topic of a message is its broad subject, condensed to one idea. In contrast, the main idea is a specific statement about the topic.
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In preparing a letter to a vendor regarding a missing part of your order, would the direct or indirect approach be preferable? Briefly explain your choice.
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In this case, the direct approach would be best because the audience is likely to be receptive to the message. The indirect approach should be used when the audience will probably react with skepticism or resistance.
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Briefly distinguish between the direct and indirect approaches to organizing business messages.
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Messages organized with the direct approach begin with the main idea and then provide supporting evidence. Those organized with the indirect approach build a case with supporting evidence before presenting the main idea.
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What are the four tasks involved in planning business messages?
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Answer: (1) analyzing the situation (defining your purpose and developing a profile of your audience) (2) gathering information that will meet your audience’s needs (3) selecting the right medium to deliver your message (4) organizing the information by defining your main idea, limiting your scope, selecting a direct or an indirect approach, and outlining your content.
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Explain each phase of the three-step writing process.
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The three-step writing process includes planning, writing, and completing the business message. Planning involves analyzing the situation, gathering information, selecting the right medium for your message, and organizing the information. Writing the message involves adapting to your audience and composing your message. Completing a business message includes revising, producing, proofreading, and distributing it.
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List at least three helpful questions to ask in evaluating the purpose of a message.
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Once you have determined the specific purpose of a business message, you can decide whether that purpose merits the time and effort required for you to prepare and send the message. In order to test the purpose of a message, one should ask (1) Will anything change as a result of this message? (2) Is my purpose realistic? (3) Is the time right? and (4) Is the purpose acceptable to my organization?
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How can your audience’s level of understanding help you determine the appropriate amount of information to include in a business message?
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If audience members do not share your general background, your message will likely need to include an element of education. You should try to include only enough information to accomplish the specific purpose of your message. If the members of your audience have various levels of understanding, gear your coverage to your primary audience (the key decision makers).
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Briefly describe at least three factors to consider when choosing media for business messages.
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– media richness – facilitate feedback – establish personal focus – formality – media limitations – Urgency and cost – audience preferences
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1) Which of the following statements that would appear in a business message best reflects the “you” attitude? A) You failed to enclose a check for $25. B) We need a check from you for $25 so that we can send the merchandise by May 15. C) We will send you the merchandise as soon as we receive your check for $25. D) You will have your merchandise by July 15 if you send us your check for $25 today.
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D) You will have your merchandise by July 15 if you send us your check for $25 today.
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2) The best way to convey the “you” attitude is to express your message in terms of A) the needs and interests of your organization. B) your own personal needs and interests. C) a universal set of needs and interests. D) the needs and interests of your audience.
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D) the needs and interests of your audience.
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3) Use ________ to avoid categorizing or stigmatizing people based on their gender, race, ethnicity, age, level of ability, or other personal characteristics. A) abstract language B) descriptive language C) bias-free language D) denotative language
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C) bias-free language
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4) Select the sentence with the best “you” attitude: A) Because your report was poorly written, we cannot accept it. B) Your report failed to meet company requirements. C) When we receive a report that is professional, we can act on your recommendations. D) Once your application is complete, you should receive a response within two weeks.
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D) Once your application is complete, you should receive a response within two weeks.
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5) It is best to limit your use of the word “you” in business messages if A) you know your audience well. B) your organization prefers an informal, personal style. C) you are filling your audience’s informational needs. D) it will make your message sound overly authoritative or accusing.
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D) it will make your message sound overly authoritative or accusing.
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6) In part because of limited opportunities for feedback, written and most forms of electronic communication require ________ than oral communication. A) less care B) fewer nouns C) more tact D) more informality
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C) more tact
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7) Select the sentence with the most positive emphasis: A) We failed to complete the process audit on time. B) We hope to complete the process audit by Friday. C) We haven’t completed the process audit. D) Because of Joan’s inaccurate figures on the Haymen project, we are not finished with the process audit.
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B) We hope to complete the process audit by Friday.
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8) When you are criticizing or correcting, it is best to A) focus on what the audience members can do to improve. B) emphasize the audience’s mistakes so that they will not make the same ones again. C) be honest and call attention to the audience’s failures or shortcomings. D) single out the guilty audience members as an example for everyone else to learn from.
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A) focus on what the audience members can do to improve.
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9) A euphemism is a word or phrase that is A) possibly offensive. B) general or abstract in meaning. C) highly technical. D) a milder term for one with negative connotations.
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D) a milder term for one with negative connotations.
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10) The preferred title for women in business is ________, unless the individual says otherwise. A) Mrs. B) Miss C) Ms. D) Madam
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C) Ms.
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11) Using the term crippled in business communication is an example of A) the “you” attitude. B) emphasizing the positive. C) disability bias. D) none of the above.
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C) disability bias.
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12) To establish credibility with your audience, you should A) impress them with a long list of your accomplishments. B) be modest and deferential. C) show that you are confident and that you believe in yourself and in your message. D) use hedge words (“maybe,” “perhaps”) to demonstrate your knowledge that no issue is fully cut and dried.
answer

C) show that you are confident and that you believe in yourself and in your message.
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13) In business messages, using terms such as “if,” “hope,” and “trust” is A) usually a bad idea since it takes away from the writer’s credibility. B) a good way to show your modesty. C) common courtesy. D) acceptable for very formal contexts.
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A) usually a bad idea since it takes away from the writer’s credibility.
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14) The acronyms and shortcuts used in texting and IM are A) incompatible with professional business writing. B) your ticket to the inside track in today’s multinational corporations. C) a great way to show coworkers and managers that you’re tech-savvy. D) commonly used to communicate with top management.
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A) incompatible with professional business writing.
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15) What’s the problem with phrases such as “attached please find” and “we are in receipt of”? A) They are rude. B) They are too intimate. C) They are stale and pompous. D) They involve preaching and bragging.
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C) They are stale and pompous.
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16) Most business communication should aim for a ________ tone. A) formal B) colloquial C) conversational D) confrontational
answer

C) conversational
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17) Using humor in business messages is A) an effective way to build strong relationships with international clients you are not familiar with. B) usually not effective, and is always inappropriate for formal and intercultural messages. C) appropriate for external messages, but never for internal. D) none of the above.
answer

B) usually not effective, and is always inappropriate for formal and intercultural messages.
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18) Plain language is a style of writing A) used only for casual correspondence. B) designed to make complex materials more understandable to the audience. C) aimed primarily at readers for whom English is a second language. D) inappropriate for business communication.
answer

B) designed to make complex materials more understandable to the audience.
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19) Which of the following sentences contains the strongest and most effective wording? A) Given the parameters of the situation, the most propitious choice would be to make adjustments in certain budget areas. B) We need to cut the operating budget by 12 percent or profits will decrease. C) Someone’s going to need to do some budget cutting around here or heads will roll. D) Perusal of budgetary figures reveals that a 12 percent reduction in operations is called for if we are to stave off a negative impact on profits.
answer

B) We need to cut the operating budget by 12 percent or profits will decrease.
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20) Identify the voice in the following sentence: “Based on negative client feedback, the marketing department abandoned the campaign.” A) Active B) Passive C) Vocative D) State of being
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A) Active
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21) Using the passive voice makes sense when A) you want to be diplomatic in pointing out a problem or error. B) you want your sentence to be easier to understand. C) you need to make your sentences shorter. D) you want to emphasize the subject.
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A) you want to be diplomatic in pointing out a problem or error.
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22) If your workplace writing contains grammar errors and word choice mistakes, your readers will A) suppose that you’re uninformed. B) question your professionalism. C) think that you don’t respect them. D) all of the above.
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D) all of the above.
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23) The connotative meaning of a word is A) its dictionary meaning. B) its literal meaning. C) all the associations and feelings the word evokes. D) its objective meaning.
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C) all the associations and feelings the word evokes.
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24) When choosing words to convey a message, successful writers pay attention to A) convenience and mannerisms. B) correctness and effectiveness. C) metaphors and euphemisms. D) connotation and vocalization.
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B) correctness and effectiveness.
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25) The ________ of a word is its literal or dictionary meaning. A) figurative meaning B) denotative meaning C) connotative meaning D) contextual meaning
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B) denotative meaning
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26) As you create and refine your messages, evaluate your writing at all of the following levels except A) strong words. B) effective sentences. C) coherent paragraphs. D) multimedia enhancements.
answer

D) multimedia enhancements.
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27) Some terms and phrases called ________ have become so common that they have lost some of their power to communicate, and ________ are newly coined terms often associated with technology, business, or cultural changes. A) euphemisms, idioms B) clichés, buzzwords C) colloquialisms, clichés D) pull quotes, derivations
answer

B) clichés, buzzwords
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28) Most ________ express a concept, quality, or characteristic. Most ________ represent something you can see, touch, or visualize. A) abstract words, concrete words B) interpretive words, explanatory words C) incisive words, generalized words D) selective words, common words
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A) abstract words, concrete words
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29) Which of the following words are the most abstract? A) Two, contract, performance comm B) Software, code, signal C) Kick, move, walk D) Productivity, excellence, motivation
answer

D) Productivity, excellence, motivation
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30) “Although our servers are stable, the telephone system is a serious concern” is a A) simple sentence. B) compound sentence. C) complex sentence. D) compound-complex sentence.
answer

C) complex sentence.
question

31) “Insurance premiums have increased, and cost-of-living raises have not kept up” is a A) simple sentence. B) compound sentence. C) complex sentence. D) compound-complex sentence.
answer

B) compound sentence.
question

32) Which of the following is a compound sentence? A) Interest rates are low, and now is an excellent time to buy a home. B) Because interest rates are low, now is an excellent time to buy a home. C) Low interest rates make this an excellent time to buy a home. D) With interest rates low, now is an excellent time to buy a home.
answer

A) Interest rates are low, and now is an excellent time to buy a home.
question

33) A complex sentence consists of A) two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction. B) a single subject and a single predicate plus any modifying phrases. C) two or more independent clauses along with all modifying phrases. D) one main thought and one or more subordinate thoughts.
answer

D) one main thought and one or more subordinate thoughts.
question

34) You can emphasize key points by A) using extra words to describe them. B) making important ideas the subject of the sentence. C) placing them at the beginning or end of a sentence. D) doing all of the above.
answer

D) doing all of the above.
question

35) To downplay a dependent clause in a complex sentence, you should A) place it at the beginning of the sentence. B) place it at the end of the sentence. C) place it in the middle of the sentence. D) set it off with a semicolon.
answer

C) place it in the middle of the sentence.
question

36) A typical paragraph contains the three basic elements of A) a topic sentence, support sentences, and transitional words and phrases. B) simple, compound, and complex sentences followed by compound-complex sentences. C) the main idea, supporting ideas, and evidence. D) a problem, discussion, and a solution.
answer

A) a topic sentence, support sentences, and transitional words and phrases.
question

37) Words such as “nevertheless,” “however,” “but,” and “therefore” A) are called pointer words. B) introduce modifiers. C) occur only in complex sentences. D) are useful for making transitions.
answer

D) are useful for making transitions.
question

38) Skillful writers use transitional elements to A) automate text entry and correction. B) track footnotes and endnotes. C) ensure consistent formatting throughout a document. D) connect ideas and show the relationships between them.
answer

D) connect ideas and show the relationships between them.
question

39) In business writing, the topic sentence of a paragraph is A) usually implied and is rarely included in the paragraph. B) generally explicit and is often the first sentence in the paragraph. C) often vague and is usually placed in the middle of the paragraph. D) most often understated and normally is the last sentence in the paragraph.
answer

B) generally explicit and is often the first sentence in the paragraph.
question

40) In ________ paragraph, a writer analyzes the reasons for and/or the consequences of an action, an event, or a decision. A) an illustration B) a comparison and contrast C) a cause and effect D) a problem and solution
answer

C) a cause and effect
question

41) When you want to develop a paragraph by showing how a general idea is broken into specific categories, which of these methods would you use? A) Illustration B) Comparison and contrast C) Cause and effect D) Classification
answer

D) Classification
question

42) To ensure a consistent look for all company documents, many organizations provide employees with approved A) autocompletion software. B) spreadsheets. C) macros. D) style sheets.
answer

D) style sheets.
question

43) Two common examples of ________ are the mission statements of companies and the biographies of executives. A) key frames B) boilerplate text C) pulled quotations D) automatic writing
answer

B) boilerplate text
question

44) A piece of text copied from the main body of the document and formatted as a large, eye- catching visual element is known as a A) boilerplate. B) pull quote. C) template. D) style sheet.
answer

B) pull quote.
question

45) Which type of software feature inserts a ready-made block of text when you type the first few characters? A) Machine translation B) Mail merge C) Autocompletion D) Autocorrection
answer

C) Autocompletion
question

46) Adopting a “you” attitude in business writing is simply a matter of using the pronoun “you” as much as possible.
answer

Answer: FALSE
question

47) In general, the word “you” should be avoided when you are assigning responsibility for a mistake or problem.
answer

Answer: TRUE
question

48) You should always avoid using euphemisms, because they are inherently dishonest.
answer

Answer: FALSE
question

49) Using the word “young” to describe an employee can have negative implications.
answer

Answer: TRUE
question

50) Being too modest can reduce your credibility with your audience.
answer

Answer: TRUE
question

Bragging about your company’s accomplishments can be offensive to readers.
answer

TRUE
question

A conversational tone is not appropriate for most business messages.
answer

FALSE
question

Plain language is a style of writing used primarily for communicating to those who do not have a college degree.
answer

FALSE
question

“The evaluator noted several shortcomings” is written in the active voice.
answer

TRUE
question

Most companies expect you to use texting acronyms in professional business writing.
answer

FALSE
question

When composing a draft, you should never skip to another section of the document until you’ve finished the current one.
answer

FALSE
question

Grammarians and professional editors agree on the rules of grammar.
answer

FALSE
question

In business communication, it is best to use words that are low in connotative meaning.
answer

TRUE
question

Honor and progress are concrete words.
answer

FALSE
question

Abstract words should be completely avoided in business writing.
answer

FALSE
question

Clichés are a valuable tool in business writing, as readers find such words and phrases to be comfortable and familiar.
answer

FALSE
question

The amount of jargon you use in a message should reflect your audience’s level of familiarity with your topic.
answer

TRUE
question

A compound sentence contains one main thought (independent clause) and one or more subordinate thoughts (dependent clauses).
answer

FALSE
question

“Our clients have become more knowledgeable, and we need to accommodate them” is a complex sentence.
answer

FALSE
question

“The startup costs on this project increased considerably” is a simple sentence.
answer

TRUE
question

“If we can’t meet the deadline, our losses will be significant” is a compound sentence.
answer

FALSE
question

To emphasize a dependent clause, it is better to place it at the end of a sentence rather than in the middle.
answer

TRUE
question

Coherence between thoughts is achieved through the use of transitional words and phrases.
answer

TRUE
question

When developing paragraphs, you should use only one method within each paragraph and throughout a document.
answer

FALSE
question

Templates and style sheets can both help to ensure a consistent look for all company documents.
answer

TRUE
question

Using the ________ attitude allows you to establish empathy with your audience.
answer

“you”
question

In messages that need to deal with difficult negative situations, it is best to emphasize the ________ aspects of your topic.
answer

positive
question

Replacing harsh, unpleasant terms with milder words, or ________, can avoid negative connotations for your audience.
answer

euphemisms
question

To avoid embarrassing blunders in language related to gender, race, ethnicity, age, or disability, use ________ language.
answer

bias-free
question

Terms such as “handicapped employees” are examples of ________ bias.
answer

disability
question

If your audience is unfamiliar with you, you need to devote the initial part of your message to establishing ________: a measure of your believability based on how reliable you are and how much trust you evoke in others.
answer

credibility
question

Style is the way you use words to achieve a certain ________, or overall impression.
answer

tone
question

________ ________ is a way of presenting information in a simple, unadorned style so that your audience can easily grasp your meaning.
answer

Plain language
question

A sentence is in the ________ voice when the subject performs the action and the object receives the action.
answer

active
question

The ________ meaning of a word is its literal, dictionary meaning, whereas the ________ meaning includes all the associations and feelings it evokes.
answer

denotative, connotative
question

________ words express a concept or quality, not a tangible object.
answer

Abstract
question

________ sentences express two or more independent but related thoughts of equal importance.
answer

Compound
question

________ sentences express one main thought and one or more subordinate thoughts related to it.
answer

Complex
question

A(n) ________ is a cluster of sentences related to the same general topic.
answer

paragraph
question

A standard block of text used in various documents without being changed is called ________.
answer

boilerplate
question

List three strategies to become more sensitive to your audience’s needs.
answer

You should adopt the “you” attitude, maintain good standards of etiquette, emphasize the positive, and use bias-free language.
question

You are scheduled to discuss a negative performance evaluation with one of the employees you supervise. How can you emphasize the positive during your conversation?
answer

In cases like this, it is best to emphasize what the person can do to improve, rather than dwelling on his or her mistakes and shortcomings. Emphasizing the positive is more likely to yield the results you want.
question

Define bias-free language.
answer

Bias-free language avoids words and phrases that unfairly and even unethically categorize or stigmatize people in ways related to gender, race, ethnicity, age, or disability.
question

List at least two types of biased language and explain how to avoid each type.
answer

(1) Gender bias: Avoid sexist language by using the same label for everyone—police officer instead of policeman. (2) Racial and ethnic bias: Avoid language that suggests that members of a racial or ethnic group have stereotypical characteristics. (3) Age bias: Mention the age of a person only when it is relevant. (4) Disability bias: Avoid mentioning a disability unless it is pertinent. Put the person first.
question

List at least three personal characteristics that can help establish credibility with your audience.
answer

Audiences assign credibility to individuals who display (1) honesty, (2) objectivity, (3) awareness of audience needs, (4) credentials, knowledge, and expertise, (5) endorsements, (6) performance,, and (7) sincerity.
question

What is the difference between tone and style in business writing?
answer

Your communication style involves the choices you make to express yourself: the words you select, the manner in which you use those words in sentences, and the way you use individual sentences to build paragraphs. Your style creates a certain tone, or overall impression, when you write. The right tone depends on the nature of your message and your relationship with the reader.
question

List at least three guidelines to follow if you want to achieve a conversational tone in business messages.
answer

(1) Understand the difference between texting and writing; (2) Avoid obsolete and pompous language such as “in due course” or “we are in receipt of”; (3) avoid preaching and bragging; (4) be careful with intimacy—don’t be overly friendly or chatty; and (5) be careful with humor.
question

Briefly explain the difference between the active voice and the passive voice. Include an example of each one.
answer

You are using the active voice when the subject performs the action, and the object receives the action: “John rented the office.” You are using the passive voice when the subject receives the action: “The office was rented by John.”
question

How is the denotative meaning of a word different from its connotative meaning?
answer

The denotative meaning is the literal, or dictionary, meaning of a word. The connotative meaning includes all the associations and feelings evoked by the word.
question

Give the definition of a complex sentence, then provide an example of one.
answer

A complex sentence expresses one main thought (the independent clause) and one or more subordinate thoughts (dependent clauses). An example is, “Our company’s financials are impressive, despite current challenges in the economy.” (Answers will vary.)
question

What is the difference between delivering negative news and being negative?
answer

Sensitive communicators understand the difference between delivering negative news and being negative. Without hiding the negative news, they look for ways to emphasize positive aspects. When offering criticism or advice, for example, they don’t focus on a person’s shortcomings; instead, they focus on what he or she can do to improve. In persuasive situations, they help audiences see the benefits of taking specific actions. Finally, they use euphemisms carefully and ethically to soften the impact of negative news and avoid words that carry negative or unpleasant connotations.
question

List three situations in which the passive voice can help you demonstrate the “you” attitude.
answer

(1) pointing out a problem or error (2) when you want to point out what’s being done without taking or attributing either the credit or the blame (3) when you want to avoid personal pronouns in order to create an objective tone.
question

Explain what it means to choose “words that communicate well,” then list four techniques for selecting the best words when writing business messages.
answer

(1) choosing powerful words (2) choosing familiar words (3) avoiding clichés and buzzwords (4) using jargon carefully.
question

What are the five most common techniques for developing paragraphs?
answer

There are several common techniques for developing paragraphs. – Illustration Comparison and contrast Cause and effect Classification problem and solution
question

Briefly describe at least four software capabilities that can help business writers shape their writing.
answer

Although the names and details vary from system to system, most word processing programs contain features that can help you write more efficiently and effectively. These include (1) style sheets—collections of formatting choices for words, paragraphs, and other elements; (2) templates, which usually set overall document parameters such as page size and provide a specific set of styles to use; (3) boilerplate, which refers to a standard block of text that is reused in multiple documents; (4) autocompletion, which inserts a ready-made block of text when you type the first few characters; (5) autocorrection, which instantly corrects spelling and typing errors and converts texts to symbols; (6) file merge, which makes it easy to combine files; (7) mail merge—a feature that makes it easy to personalize form letters by inserting names and addresses from a database; and (8) endnotes, footnotes, indexes, and tables of contents—all of which are easy to produce with the help of word processing software.
question

Regarding the three-step writing process, all of the following except ________ are important elements of the completing step. A) proofreading the message B) revising the message C) forecasting the message D) producing the message
answer

C) forecasting the message
question

When you begin the ________, focus your attention on content, organization, style, and tone. A) production process B) editing process C) revision process D) research process
answer

C) revision process
question

In business communication, the ________ of a message usually have the greatest impact on the readers. A) body paragraphs B) bulleted and numbered lists C) topics and subtopics D) beginning and ending sections
answer

D) beginning and ending sections
question

When you need to revise a long, complex document, A) start the process as soon as you’ve finished your first draft. B) start by focusing on misspelled words and grammar errors. C) save time by multitasking while you’re revising the document. D) try to put your draft aside for a couple of days before you start.
answer

D) try to put your draft aside for a couple of days before you start.
question

When reviewing your document for content, you should be concerned with A) grammar and usage. B) punctuation and spelling. C) the accuracy and relevance of the information. D) style and tone.
answer

C) the accuracy and relevance of the information.
question

When evaluating the work of others, you should A) make sure you understand the writer’s intent before you begin suggesting or making changes. B) talk with the writer about his or her intent only after you suggest changes, since this is a good way to test the effectiveness of the document. C) avoid talking with the writer about the document, since other readers may not have that opportunity. D) compare the other person’s writing style with your own, and if yours is better, rewrite the document in your own style.
answer

A) make sure you understand the writer’s intent before you begin suggesting or making changes.
question

For general business messages, gear your writing toward readers at the A) first-grade to fourth-grade level. B) fifth-grade to sixth-grade level. C) eighth-grade to eleventh-grade level. D) twelfth-grade to fourteenth-grade level.
answer

C) eighth-grade to eleventh-grade level.
question

Because readability indexes are able to measure ________, they offer a useful reference point for improving your writing. A) document design B) sentence length C) tone of voice D) proper word usage
answer

B) sentence length
question

Using short paragraphs will help you improve the readability of your business messages because A) they will make your writing look inviting. B) they can help you emphasize your ideas. C) they are easier to read than long paragraphs. D) all of the above.
answer

D) all of the above.
question

Business writers use bulleted and numbered lists to accomplish all of the following except A) simplifying complex subjects. B) helping readers locate key points. C) enhancing the visual impact of their ideas. D) adding decorative elements to their messages.
answer

D) adding decorative elements to their messages.
question

When you’re writing a business message, use headings and subheadings to A) reveal how your document is organized. B) capture the attention of your readers. C) indicate shifts from one idea to the next. D) all of the above.
answer

D) all of the above.
question

Which of the following is not a technique for helping readers who skim your document? A) Using lists and bullets instead of narrative B) Keeping all sentences the same length C) Including headings and subheadings D) Using shorter paragraphs
answer

B) Keeping all sentences the same length
question

Skilled business writers A) use long sentences to emphasize important information. B) keep their sentences to an average length of 40 words or fewer. C) vary the length of their sentences. D) do all of the above.
answer

C) vary the length of their sentences.
question

When it comes to paragraph length, A) use long paragraphs with detailed information for direct-mail letters. B) use long paragraphs if you want your document to look more inviting. C) keep all paragraphs to fewer than 60 words. D) use one-sentence paragraphs only occasionally, for emphasis.
answer

D) use one-sentence paragraphs only occasionally, for emphasis.
question

When creating a list for a business document, A) always use bullets, rather than numbers or letters. B) keep in mind that the items need not be parallel. C) be sure to introduce it clearly. D) any text in the list should be typed in all caps.
answer

C) be sure to introduce it clearly.
question

Informative headings and subheadings A) simply identify topics covered in the document. B) guide readers to think a certain way about the topics covered. C) are easier to write than descriptive headings. D) are less helpful to readers than descriptive headings.
answer

B) guide readers to think a certain way about the topics covered.
question

Do all of the following except ________ when you’re editing a document for conciseness. A) eliminate redundancies B) shorten long words and phrases C) delete unnecessary words and phrases D) convert sentences to “it is” or “there are” structures
answer

D) convert sentences to “it is” or “there are” structures
question

Which of the following is an example of a hedging sentence? A) The employee’s performance appears to be less than satisfactory. B) The deadline is next Tuesday. C) The financial statement needs to have two sections. D) None of the above are hedging.
answer

A) The employee’s performance appears to be less than satisfactory.
question

What is wrong with the following sentence? “To waste time and missing deadlines are bad habits.” A) Similar ideas are not parallel. B) It contains a dangling modifier. C) It contains a split infinitive. D) Nothing—it is grammatically correct as written.
answer

A) Similar ideas are not parallel.
question

What is wrong with the following sentence? “Having stalled for two days, the assignment was now late.” A) It lacks parallelism. B) It contains a dangling modifier. C) It contains an awkward pointer. D) Nothing—it is grammatically correct as written.
answer

B) It contains a dangling modifier.
question

“Environmental impact consultant study results” is an example of A) redundancy. B) a dangling modifier. C) a dependent clause. D) a long noun sequence.
answer

D) a long noun sequence.
question

Which of the following sentences contains a camouflaged verb? A) Some do; others don’t. B) She is a marketing manager but also serves as ad manager. C) The recommendation of the committee is to proceed as planned. D) He slowly, deliberately added the numbers.
answer

C) The recommendation of the committee is to proceed as planned.
question

“The above-mentioned book” is an example of A) a redundancy. B) a strung-out sentence. C) an indefinite pronoun starter. D) an awkward reference.
answer

D) an awkward reference.
question

Which of the following sentences is the most concisely worded? A) The project manager is in charge of furnishing specifications until such time as the project gets underway. B) All specifications should be provided by the project manager prior to the start of a project. C) Project managers have the capability of changing specifications before the official start date. D) The project manager must give the engineers the revised specifications before the project starts.
answer

D) The project manager must give the engineers the revised specifications before the project starts.
question

“Visible to the eye” is an example of A) a clichĂ©. B) redundancy. C) the passive voice. D) obsolete language.
answer

B) redundancy.
question

Starting a sentence with “It is” or “There are” is A) usually a sign that the sentence could be shorter and more active. B) perfectly acceptable, and you need not try to rewrite the sentence. C) a sign that you are using active voice. D) a sign that you are using passive voice.
answer

A) usually a sign that the sentence could be shorter and more active.
question

The “replace all” feature in word-processing programs A) tracks down words or phrases and automatically changes them all. B) can save you time when revising messages. C) must be used with care, since it can make undesirable changes. D) is characterized by all of the above.
answer

D) is characterized by all of the above.
question

A spell checker A) cannot automatically correct misspelled words as you type. B) highlights words it doesn’t recognize. C) suggests synonyms. D) has eliminated the need for proofreading.
answer

B) highlights words it doesn’t recognize.
question

A computer thesaurus A) catches punctuation as well as grammar errors. B) highlights phrases in passive voice. C) suggests correct spelling. D) can help you find just the right word for a given situation.
answer

D) can help you find just the right word for a given situation.
question

You can count on grammar checking software to ________ when you’re using technology to revise a message you’ve written. A) assess the readability of your message B) show proposed changes and a history of revisions C) determine whether you’ve stated your message clearly and completely D) highlight potential concerns, such as long sentences and passive voice
answer

D) highlight potential concerns, such as long sentences and passive voice
question

Which of the following design elements would be the easiest to measure objectively? A) Paying attention to the details of design B) Balancing the various elements on a page C) Exercising restraint when applying design elements D) Using margins, typeface, type size, and spacing consistently
answer

D) Using margins, typeface, type size, and spacing consistently
question

32) The ________ of a message involves the total effect of elements such as page or screen design, typography, and graphics. A) resonance B) semantic structure C) production quality D) information value
answer

C) production quality
question

The term type style refers to A) the space around text and between text columns. B) any modification that lends contrast or emphasis to type. C) a combination of text, graphics, photographs, audio, video, and interactivity. D) the letters, numbers, and other text characters in a message.
answer

B) any modification that lends contrast or emphasis to type.
question

For effective document design, you should A) fit as much material as possible on each page. B) use a mix of several typefaces and type sizes and include a variety of decorative touches to make the pages look more interesting. C) balance the space devoted to text, artwork, and white space. D) do all of the above.
answer

C) balance the space devoted to text, artwork, and white space.
question

Using white space in a document A) is considered “cheating.” B) is only an option when you can’t use color. C) makes your document look unappealing. D) provides contrast.
answer

D) provides contrast.
question

Justified type is type that is A) set flush or “lined up” on the right and left. B) centered. C) set flush left and ragged on the right. D) set flush right and ragged on the left.
answer

A) set flush or “lined up” on the right and left.
question

Centered margins A) make the document easier to read. B) create a cleaner look because of increased white space along the right margin. C) are best for headings and tables. D) help get audience members’ attention, even before they start to read.
answer

C) are best for headings and tables.
question

Which type sizes are best for a business document? A) 10 point text and 10 point headings B) 12 point text and 16 point headings C) 12 point text and 24 point headings D) 18 point text and 36 point headings
answer

B) 12 point text and 16 point headings
question

Serif typefaces are generally preferable to sans serif fonts for A) display treatments. B) headings and captions. C) regular paragraph text. D) none of the above.
answer

C) regular paragraph text.
question

When selecting typefaces for most business documents, you should A) generally avoid using more than two typefaces on a page. B) make generous use of such styles as all caps, underlines, and boldface. C) choose a nice sans serif face for your main body text. D) use a large type size (at least 14 points) for your basic text if you need to fill up space.
answer

A) generally avoid using more than two typefaces on a page.
question

Multimedia documents A) are generally too expensive to produce to be useful in business. B) require highly technical training in order to create. C) convey information more slowly than traditional documents. D) can allow recipients to personalize the communication process to their own needs.
answer

D) can allow recipients to personalize the communication process to their own needs.
question

When you’re proofreading a workplace document, treat the process as a A) survey of convenience, security, and privacy issues. B) casual scan up and down the page or the screen. C) methodical procedure in which you look for specific problems that may occur. D) review of the content, organization, style, and tone of the document.
answer

C) methodical procedure in which you look for specific problems that may occur.
question

Which of the following techniques can help you proofread more effectively? A) Read each page backward, from the bottom to the top. B) Proofread the document as soon as you complete the draft. C) To ensure consistency, proofread long documents from beginning to end without stopping. D) Always proofread using your monitor (rather than printing out a hard copy of the document).
answer

A) Read each page backward, from the bottom to the top.
question

If you’re sending extremely large files, you should A) use overnight delivery to send a hard copy rather than sending them electronically. B) consider using a file compression utility, as long as your recipients have the ability to expand the file. C) always send them as MS Word attachments. D) send them through the mail to avoid excessive costs.
answer

B) consider using a file compression utility, as long as your recipients have the ability to expand the file.
question

When you’re determining the best way to distribute a business message, consider A) cost of distributing the message. B) convenience for you and your audience. C) security and privacy concerns. D) all of the above.
answer

D) all of the above.
question

After you have completed the first draft of your business message, the next step is to make a final, quick pass through it to check for typos and spelling errors.
answer

FALSE
question

With practice, most writers can create first drafts that do not need to be revised.
answer

FALSE
question

The best approach to completing your business message is to focus on the details first before addressing the document as a whole.
answer

FALSE
question

With more complex messages, it is a good idea to set aside a first draft for a day or two before beginning the revision process.
answer

TRUE
question

At the beginning of the revision process, you should evaluate the content of your message, then review the effectiveness of its organization.
answer

TRUE
question

The items in a bulleted or numbered list should be parallel; that is, they should all use the same grammatical pattern.
answer

TRUE
question

Although readability formulas are easy to apply, they ignore some factors that contribute to reading ease.
answer

TRUE
question

Skilled business writers keep all their sentences as short as possible.
answer

FALSE
question

Although you should vary the length of paragraphs in your business messages, in general you should strive for short paragraphs.
answer

TRUE
question

An example of an informative heading would be “Redesigning to Cut Material Costs.”
answer

TRUE
question

Readers can get a more out of a document just by reading its descriptive headings than by reading its informative headings.
answer

FALSE
question

One way to make your messages clearer is to break up overly long sentences into shorter sentences.
answer

TRUE
question

“The qualification of the runner in the race took one hour” is an example of a sentence with a camouflaged verb.
answer

TRUE
question

The subject and predicate of a sentence should be kept as close together as possible.
answer

TRUE
question

To increase the sophistication of your message, make liberal use of references such as “the latter,” “the former,” “the aforementioned,” and “as mentioned above.”
answer

FALSE
question

Words that do not affect the meaning of a sentence are usually unnecessary and contribute to sentence clutter.
answer

TRUE
question

Short words are generally more vivid and easier to read than long words.
answer

TRUE
question

“Three AM in the morning” is an example of a redundancy.
answer

TRUE
question

Using a spell checker guarantees that your documents will be free of spelling errors.
answer

FALSE
question

Today’s powerful grammar checkers can easily determine whether your document states your message correctly and communicates it clearly.
answer

FALSE
question

Because the first thing that readers will notice about your message is its appearance, you should pay special attention to design and page layout.
answer

TRUE
question

To make your message more interesting and accessible, you should use as many design elements and decorative touches as possible.
answer

FALSE
question

One advantage of justified type is that it makes a message look more personalized and less like a form letter.
answer

FALSE
question

To draw attention to important points or terms italic type is more effective than boldface.
answer

FALSE
question

If you find graphics, photos, videos, and other elements online, you can use them in your own documents without worrying about copyright violations.
answer

FALSE
question

Using a ________ formula will give you a rough idea of how educated your audience must be to read and comprehend your message.
answer

readability
question

An effective alternative to using conventional sentences is to set off important ideas in a(n) ________, which is a series of words, names, or other items.
answer

list
question

________ headings identify a topic but do little more; ________ headings guide readers to think in certain ways about a topic.
answer

Descriptive, informative
question

A(n) ________ sentence uses words such as may and seems to avoid stating a judgment or fact directly.
answer

hedging
question

With ________ construction, two or more similar ideas are expressed with the same grammatical pattern.
answer

parallel
question

A modifier is said to be ________ when it has no real connection to the subject of the sentence.
answer

dangling
question

________ verbs are those that have been changed into nouns or adjectives.
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Camouflaged
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Word combinations that are needlessly repetitive are called ________.
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redundancies
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A(n) ________ ________ compares your document with an electronic dictionary, highlights unrecognized words, and suggests correct spelling.
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spell checker
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An electronic ________ gives you alternative words and helps you find synonyms.
answer

thesaurus
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________ ________ provides visual contrast for your readers and gives them a resting point.
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White space
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Typeface or ________ refers to the physical design of letters, numbers, and other text characters.
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font
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________ typefaces have small crosslines at the ends of each letter stroke and are best for text.
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Serif
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A(n) ________ document can contain any combination of text, graphics, photographs, audio, animation, video, and interactivity.
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multimedia
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Every document requires ________ to ensure that it contains no errors in grammar, usage, and punctuation.
answer

proofreading
question

Briefly explain what the opening of a document should accomplish.
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The opening of any document should be relevant, interesting, and geared to the reader’s probable reaction. For longer messages, the first few paragraphs should also establish the subject, purpose, and organization of the material.
question

Conclusions should accomplish what two tasks?
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Conclusions should (1) summarize the main idea and (2) leave the audience with a positive impression.
question

Briefly describe at least three advantages of using lists in business documents.
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Lists can show the sequence of your ideas, heighten their impact visually, and help readers find your key points. They also provide readers with clues, simplify complex subjects, highlight the main point, break up the page visually, ease the skimming process, and give readers a breather.
question

What three functions do effective headings serve in business documents? Explain each one.
answer

Headings contribute to the document’s organization by showing the reader at a glance how the document is organized. They act as labels to group related paragraphs and organize material into short sections. Headings also control the reader’s attention, making the text easier to read and helping the audience find the parts they need to read—or skip. Finally, headings help readers make connections between subordinate ideas and main ones.
question

Briefly explain the difference between descriptive headings and informative headings.
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Whereas descriptive headings do little more than identify a topic, informative headings guide readers to think in certain ways about the topic of your message. Well-written informative headings are self-contained, which means a reader can read just the headings and subheadings and understand them without reading the rest of the document.
question

Rewrite the following sentence to improve clarity and avoid the long noun sequence: “The financial estimates and accounting consulting firm will be closed next week.”
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The consulting firm that provides financial estimates and accounting services will be closed next week.
question

Rewrite the following sentence to avoid camouflaged verbs: “The customer will ultimately make a determination about whether or not a purchase will occur.”
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The customer will ultimately decide whether or not to purchase.
question

Briefly describe two strategies for clarifying sentence structure.
answer

Keep the subject and predicate of a sentence as close together as possible, and keep adjectives, adverbs, and prepositional phrases as close as possible to the words they modify.
question

Rewrite the following sentence to eliminate the unnecessary phrases: “In view of the fact that the customer service department is closed, we do not have the capability of offering refunds until such a time as they reopen.”
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We can offer refunds as soon as the customer service department opens.
question

Rewrite the following sentence to eliminate redundancies: “The engineers collaborated together in order to produce the uniquely original final outcomes of their research.”
answer

The engineers collaborated to produce original research.
question

Explain at least three of the steps involved in editing documents for clarity.
answer

Editing for clarity involves breaking up overly long sentences and rewriting sentences that contain hedging (words such as may and seems). It also requires imposing parallelism, or using the same grammatical pattern to express two or more similar ideas. Correcting dangling modifiers is another necessary step, along with rewording long noun sequences. Improving the clarity of a document also involves eliminating camouflaged verbs, clarifying sentence structure and awkward sentences, and moderating your enthusiasm.
question

Explain why editing for conciseness is important, then list the four steps it involves.
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Editing business documents for conciseness is important because readers appreciate it and are more likely to read your documents if you have a reputation for efficient writing. Improving the conciseness of a message involves removing unnecessary words and phrases, shortening long words and phrases, and eliminating redundancies. It also requires shortening sentences that begin with indefinite pronouns such as it and there.
question

Describe at least three software tools that can help you revise and polish a document.
answer

Software tools such as revision marks and commenting keep track of proposed editing changes electronically and provide a history of a document’s revisions. A spell checker compares your document with an electronic dictionary, highlights unrecognized words, and suggests correct spellings. A computer thesaurus gives you alternative words much more quickly than a printed thesaurus does. A grammar checker provides limited help with issues such as noun-verb agreement problems and items you should consider changing (such as passive voice, long sentences, or words that tend to be misused or overused). Finally, a style checker monitors your word choice and sentence structure and suggests alternatives that might produce more effective meaning.
question

Explain the importance and process of proofreading. Why does it matter and what should you look for?
answer

Proofreading is important because it is your last chance to make sure that your document is ready to carry your message—and your reputation—to the intended audience. When proofreading, you should check the document for errors from the writing, design, and layout stages, and mistakes that crept in during production. More specifically, you should be on the lookout for writing errors (such as typographical mistakes and misspelled words), missing elements (text sections and visual aids), and design and formatting errors (such as incorrect font selections and page numbers).
question

Describe four important issues to consider when distributing business messages.
answer

-cost – convenience – Time – security and privacy

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