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Basic Learning Concepts and Classical Conditioning

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People and animals learn about the consequences of behavior through:
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operant conditioning.
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John B. Watson believed that psychology should be the science of _____ behavior.
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observable
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Through direct experience with animals, we anticipate that dogs will bark and that birds will chirp. This best illustrates:
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associative learning.
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_____ said, “Give me a dozen healthy infants, well formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select, doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief, and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors.”
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John B. Watson
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In classical conditioning, a person learns _____, while in operant conditioning, a person learns _____.
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to associate two stimuli and thus to anticipate events; to associate a response (behavior) and its consequence
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John B. Watson believed that psychology should be the science of:
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observable behavior.
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_____ is being able to learn new behaviors that help an organism cope with new or changing circumstances.
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Adaptability
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In classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus, which after association with an unconditioned stimulus comes to trigger a conditioned response, is called a(n):
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conditioned stimulus (CS).
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Conditioning is the process of:
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learning associations.
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Conditioning seldom occurs when a(n) _____ comes after a(n) _____.
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CS; US
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Conditioning is the process of learning _____.
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associations
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Nate had cancer as a child and had to undergo numerous bouts of chemotherapy. The chemotherapy always made him nauseous. As he underwent a year of treatment, just walking into the waiting room made him nauseous. The chemotherapy is the:
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unconditioned stimulus.
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People and animals learn about the consequences of behavior through _____ conditioning.
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operant
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Pavlov’s dog stopped salivating to the bell when the food was no longer paired with the bell. This is called:
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extinction.
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In psychology, _____ refers to learning associations between environmental events and behavioral responses.
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conditioning
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Walter was bitten by a dog when he was 5 years old. Today, he is fearful of all dogs. His reaction best illustrates:
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generalization.
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_____ is the process of learning associations.
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Conditioning
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Conditioning seldom occurs when a(n) _____ repeatedly comes before a(n) _____.
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unconditioned stimulus (US); neutral stimulus (NS)
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_____ is a relatively permanent behavior change due to experience.
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Learning
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Edelia had cancer and had to undergo numerous bouts of chemotherapy. The chemotherapy always made her nauseous. As she underwent a year of treatment, just entering the waiting room made her nauseous. The waiting room became the:
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conditioned stimulus.
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Animals and humans learn about the consequences of behavior through:
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operant conditioning.
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Classical and operant conditioning involves learning through association, whereas observational learning involves learning through _____.
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imitation
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Observational learning involves learning through _____.
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imitation
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Classical and operant conditioning involves learning through _____, whereas observational learning involves learning through imitation.
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association
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Animals and humans learn about the consequences of behavior through _____ conditioning.
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operant
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_____ is the ability to learn new behaviors that help a person to cope with new or changing circumstances.
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Adaptability
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Loretta had cancer and had to undergo numerous bouts of chemotherapy. The chemotherapy always made her nauseous. As she underwent a year of treatment, just entering the waiting room made her nauseous. The _____ is the unconditioned stimulus.
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chemotherapy
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In operant conditioning a person learns to associate a response and its _____.
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consequence
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In classical conditioning a person learns to associate two _____.
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stimuli
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Zach wants to train his dog to sit and lay down on command. Zach should use _____ conditioning to train his dog.
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operant
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In Watson and Rayner’s experiment with Little Albert the _____ was the unconditioned response (UR).
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fear of a loud noise
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People and animals learn the association between two stimuli through _____ conditioning.
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classical
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In Watson and Rayner’s experiment with Little Albert, the _____ , that after conditioning became the conditioned stimulus, was a white rat.
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neutral stimulus
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Your psychology assignment is to observe and list any behaviors of your relatives that indicate learning. Which of these should be included on your list?
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Your little brother whines whenever he wants something.
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People and animals learn the association between two stimuli through _____. People and animals learn the association between a behavior and a consequence through _____.
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classical conditioning; operant conditioning
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Macy gave her dog a treat each time she came to Macy when she called her name. Soon the dog came every time Macy called the dog’s name. This is an example of:
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operant conditioning.
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In Watson and Rayner’s experiment with Little Albert, the fear of a loud noise was the _____.
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unconditioned response
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Every time Maureen opens the cabinet where she stores her dog’s treats, her dog begins to bark in anticipation. This is an example of _____ learning.
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associative
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In Watson and Rayner’s experiment with Little Albert the unconditioned stimulus (US) used to produce fear was a(n) _____.
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loud noise
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In psychology, the term “conditioning” refers to:
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learning associations between events and behavioral responses.
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Both Watson and Pavlov believed that psychology should study only objective and _____ psychological phenomena.
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observable
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Five-year-old Destiny is frightened by the noise thunder makes. Thus, when Destiny sees lightning, she often cries in anticipation of the thunder. This is an example of:
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classical conditioning.
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While 5-year-old Lolita was looking at one of the balloons her mother set out for her birthday, Lolita’s brother Jorgan took a pin and popped the balloon, causing Lolita to flinch and blink. Later during the party, when Lolita’s mother approached her with a balloon, she blinked and flinched. This is an example of _____ conditioning.
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classical
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_____ is the ability to differentiate between the conditioned stimulus (CS) and other stimuli that have not been associated with the unconditioned stimulus (US).
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Discrimination
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Lightning is associated with thunder because it precedes it. Thus, when a person sees lightning, that person anticipates hearing thunder soon afterward. This is an example of:
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classical conditioning.
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Both Watson and Pavlov believed that psychology should study only _____ and observable psychological phenomena.
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objective
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In Pavlov’s classical conditioning experiment with dogs, the tone was the _____ stimulus.
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neutral
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Most learning involves the process of association. With classical conditioning, an organism comes to associate:
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two stimuli.
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In their dismissal of “mentalistic” concepts such as consciousness, Pavlov and Watson underestimated the importance of _____ processes and biological constraints on an organism’s learning capacity.
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cognitive
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Watson and Rayner taught “Little Albert” to fear white rats by:
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repeatedly pairing a loud noise with the presentation of a white rat.
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Watson and Rayner taught “Little Albert” to fear white rats by repeatedly pairing a _____ with the presentation of a white rat.
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loud noise
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What happened after “Little Albert” was classically conditioned to fear a tame white rat?
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Stimulus generalization occurred; Albert responded with fear to other furry animals and fuzzy objects.
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Both Watson and Pavlov believed that psychology should study only _____ and _____ psychological phenomenon.
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objective; observable
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Conditioning seldom occurs when a CS comes after a(n) _____.
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US
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In classical conditioning the _____ elicits no response prior to conditioning. After conditioning, it will become the conditioned stimulus.
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neutral stimulus
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_____ is the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response.
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Spontaneous recovery
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In Watson and Rayner’s experiment with Little Albert, the conditioned stimulus (CS) used to produce fear was:
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a white rat.
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In classical conditioning, the _____ elicits no response prior to conditioning. After conditioning, it will become the conditioned stimulus.
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neutral stimulus (NS)
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In Watson and Rayner’s experiment with Little Albert the unconditioned stimulus (US) used to produce fear was:
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a loud noise.
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In classical conditioning, something that unconditionally, naturally, and automatically triggers a response is called a(n):
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unconditioned stimulus (US).
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In Watson and Rayner’s experiment with Little Albert the neutral stimulus, that after conditioning became the conditioned stimulus, was a(n) _____.
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white rat
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In Watson and Rayner’s experiment with Little Albert, the _____ was the conditioned response (CR).
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fear of the white rat
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Conditioning seldom occurs when a(n) _____ repeatedly comes before a neutral stimulus (NS).
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unconditioned stimulus
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What phenomenon was Pavlov focusing on when he began his studies on what eventually became known as classical conditioning?
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the digestive system
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After Watson classically conditioned “Little Albert” to fear a tame white rat, _____ occurred, which caused Albert to respond fearfully to other furry animals and fuzzy objects.
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generalization
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In Watson and Rayner’s experiment with Little Albert the neutral stimulus, that after conditioning became the conditioned stimulus, was:
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a white rat.
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In classical conditioning, this is the unlearned, naturally occurring reaction to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
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unconditioned response (UR)
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One of Pavlov’s major contributions to the field of psychology was to show how psychology could be based on _____ methods.
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objective
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In his experiments, Pavlov found that _____ often occurred after a conditioned response was extinguished if, after a few hours without the CS or the US, the tone was presented again.
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spontaneous recovery
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In his experiments, Pavlov found that spontaneous recovery often occurred after a conditioned response was extinguished if:
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after a few hours without the CS or the US, the tone was presented again.
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_____ is the view that psychology should be an objective science that studies only observable behavior.
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Behaviorism
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This is the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response.
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spontaneous recovery
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_____ is the ability to differentiate between the conditioned stimulus (CS) and similar stimuli that have not been associated with the unconditioned stimulus (US).
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Discrimination
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“Give me a dozen healthy infants, well formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select, doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief, and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors.” Which psychologist made this statement?
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John B. Watson
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Researchers conditioned a flatworm to contract when exposed to light by repeatedly pairing the light with an electric shock. The electric shock is a(n) _____.
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unconditioned stimulus
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In Watson and Rayner’s experiment with Little Albert, the _____ was a white rat, which after conditioning, became the conditioned stimulus.
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neutral stimulus