Barron’s AP World History Ch.7
Flashcard maker : Judith Simpson
Monarchs awarded land to loyal followers, or vassals. In exchange, these vassals guaranteed that their parcels of land (fiefs) would be governance.
Ensured that knights acted as virtuous, Christian warriors, dealing fairly with lower classes and treating women with delicacy and respect.
Peasants who weren’t slaves but were tied to a feudal lords’ land and had no right to change profession or residence without permission. Serfs spent a number of days per month working directly for their lords and also owed them a portion of their crops and livestock.
Charlemagne (r. 768-814)
He defeated Vikings, Muslims, and barbarians; sponsored education and culture, created a network of administrators and local officials to supervise territories and formed the Holy Roman Empire. His empire was split by his grandsons; however his example was followed by later monarchs.
Who were the most stable states at this time?
England and France. The Norman Conquest of 1066 brought French-style feudalism to England and fused Latin-based culture with the Celtic and Anglo-Saxon traditions present in the British Isles.
1215; guaranteed the nobility certain rights and privileges. Later, the English nobility won the right to form a Parliament.
Hundred Years’ War (1337-1453)
England vs France. French win, with the help of Joan of Arc.
Byzantium granted land to soldiers serving in frontier zones; proved a clever way to protect the empire’s borders.
Ideal of Christendom
The concept of Europe joined by common allegiance to the Christian church.
Popes had the right to ___________________.
Determine heresy and excommunicate worshippers.
Set of special courts with wide-ranging powers, to seek out and punish non-conformity. Holy wars = crusades.
\”House of peace\” where Sharia law was dominant and Muslims were guaranteed to worship freely.
\”House of war\” where Islam was NOT established.
Muslim world governed by ___________
A caliph \”successor\” who combined political and religious power.
Sunni-Shiite split (656-661)
Power passed to the Umayyad caliphate (661-750) which governed from the Syrian city of Damascus.
Islam’s Holy Language
Arabic is the religion’s holy language and they started imposing taxes (jizya) on those who did not convert.
Abbasid caliphate (750-1258)
Established Baghdad as capital, built libraries and madrasas (centers of learning).
Trade in Middle East
Relationship of cultural & economic exchange with the Tang emperors in China.
Political unity began to disintegrate; what happened as a result?
This weakness made it easier for the European Crusades to wreak havoc on the Middle East.
The Mongols captured Baghdad in 1258 and killed the last caliph. True or false?
Middle East suffered from the Black Death. But later on, the Ottoman Turks settled in Asia Minor and founded their own state under Osman I (1280-1326).
Nomadic herders and hardened warriors who embraced the new faith with enthusiasm.
Ghana and Mali (W. Africa)
Ghana and Mali (mid 1200s to 1600s) became Islamic. Ghana played a prominent role in trans-Saharan trade, and so did Mali.
Mali’s chieftain was Sundiata and the chief commercial and cultural hub was Timbuktu. The most powerful ruler was Mansa Musa (1312-1337) a devout Muslim who centralized the government and expanded trade. His hajj or pilgrimage to Mecca was an international sensation.
Due to foreign attacks, Mali weakened in the 1400s and 1500s.
Due to foreign attacks, Mali weakened in the 1400s and 1500s.
Swahili city states flourished in the 1000-1500 years. Key ports were Mogadishu, Mombasa, Sofala, and Zanzibar.
Decline in population growth due to ___________
Fluctuating climate and human susceptibility to insect-borne diseases.
Sui Dynasty (589-618)
Reunified China and expanded its borders.
Tang Dynasty (618-906)
Forced many of its neighbors into a tributary system. Emperor Xuanzong (712-755) extended China’s rule. Tang rulers expanded the Grand Canal, and they stimulated the Chinese economy by taking advantage of Silk Road and Indian Ocean trade. The An Shi Rebellion started in the 700s and in 907, the dynasty collapses.
Song Empire (960-1279)
Ruled east-central China. Enjoyed steady population growth, increased urbanization, thriving trade, and great cultural and technological advancement. They relied heavily on doctrines of Neo-Confucianism and followed the mandate of heaven concept.
Genghis Khan rose up in the early 1200s and Mongols began moving into Chinese territory. The Song fell in the 1270s to Kublai Khan, and he proclaimed the Yuan Empire (1271-1368). He reigned until 1294 and made Yuan China rich and powerful. Marco Polo visited China.
China early 1300s
China faces Black Death.
Made seven voyages and expanded trade, learned about the world, and forced 50 states and cities to pay tribute.
Heian Period (794-1185)
Japan’s classical era.
Taira-Minamoto War (1156-1185)
Each side supported a rival claimant to the emperor’s throne. Minamoto victory marked Japan’s transition to medieval feudalism.
Shogun = \”great general\”. Two shogun regimes, the Kamakura and Ashikaga ruled between the late 1100s and late 1500s.
Daimyo received control over parcels of land called shoen. Both the shogun and daimyo belonged to the warrior elite known as the samurai.
Bushido = strict code of honor, loyalty, and bravery \”way of the warrior\”
India remained in disunity. Small states and independent cities governed through the subcontinent.
Delhi Sultanate (1206-1526)
Tension between Hindus & Muslims.1398, Timur attacked Delhi from the north, capturing it and plundering it for a year.
Khmer empire (500s-1400s) in Cambodia and Srivijayan Empire (500s-1100s)
Governed Indonesian lands and parts of the Malay Peninsula.
The First Crusade (1096-1099)
Sparked by Byzantine requests for military aid against the Seljuk Turks.
Fourth Crusade (1202-1204)
Venetian-backed trade war against Christian Constantinople.
Long term effects of the Crusades
Worsening of relationship between European Christians and Muslim Middle East, and technology transfer.
Genghis Khan’s death
The Mongols imposed a single political authority, revived Silk Road trade, and enforced law & order; they were cultural borrowers.
Lived in pueblos in the Southwest.
Mississippian civilization (700-1500)
Ohio & Mississippi River.
Native Americans began to form hunter-forager groups that evolved into major tribes that remain today.
An aggressive warrior society that ruled between 800s-1100s.
Chief city was Tenochtitlan; they adopted practices of pyramid building and human sacrifice. Tributary system provided them with foodstuffs and gold. Defeated by the Spanish in the early 1500s.
Many people used the knot-tying method of quipu to keep records.
Built a massive empire, stretching 3,000 miles. They had a road network, elaborate bureaucracy, extreme social stratification. Their ruler, known as the Great Inca, was considered the descendant of the sun god. Defeated by Spanish conquest in the early 1500s.