Atomic Structure & Chemistry

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periodic table
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A table that shows the elements, their atomic number, symbol, and average atomic mass; elements with similar chemical properties are grouped together.
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Dmitri Mendeleev
Dmitri Mendeleev
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created 1st periodic table
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element
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A pure substance made of only one kind of atom; every element on the chart has a neutral charge. cannot be broken down chemically
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family/group
family/group
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elements in the same vertical column of the periodic table
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metals
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good conductors of heat and electricity; shiny; ductile; malleable
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alkali metals
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Group 1, 1 electron in outer level, most reactive, soft, silver, shiny, low density; Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, Rubidium, Cesium, Francium
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alkaline earth
alkaline earth
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Group 2 of the periodic table: metallic elements which are harder than the alkali metals and are also less reactive
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transition metals
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Groups 3-12, 1-2 electrons in the outer energy level, less reactive than alsali-earth metals, shiny, good conductor of thermal energy and electrical current, high density
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metalloid
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have properties of both metals and nonmetals; solids; dull; ductile; malleable
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nonmetal
nonmetal
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Group of elements that may be solids, liquids, or gases at room temp and tend to be poor conductors of heat and electricity, and NOT malleable, ductile, or lustrous
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boron family
boron family
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3 valence electrons, hard and brittle, never found free in nature; Group 13
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carbon family
carbon family
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Group 14. 4 valence electrons. Includes non-matels, metalloids, and metals.
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nitrogen family
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Group 15. 5 valence electrons. Also includes non-matels, metalloids, and metals.
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oxygen family
oxygen family
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Group 16. The oxygen family is split between nonmetals and metalloids. Each has 6 valence electrons. Very reactive; can combine with most all elements.
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noble gases
noble gases
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Elements in group 18 of the periodic table. Have no charge and are gases under normal conditions. (Helium, Neon, Argon, Krypton, Xenon, Radon). colorless; inert; extremely non-reactive – have full electron shells.
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halogens
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Group 17. Contain nonmetals, 7 valence electrons in it’s outermost energy level. Very reactive. ”salt formers”
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lanthanides
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14 elements with atomic number 58-71 (shiny metals similar in reactivity to to alkaline earth metals); synthetic (man-made)
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actinides
actinides
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14 elements with the atomic numbers from 90-103. Most of these are man made and some are radioactive. (f-block)
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period
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A horizontal row of elements in the periodic table; the period number equals the number of energy levels.
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how to read a periodic table square
how to read a periodic table square
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symbol
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always uppercase for first letter; second letter is always lowercase
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atom
atom
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Smallest particle of an element; made up of subatomic particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons.
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neutron
neutron
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A neutral subatomic particle that is found in the nucleus of an atom
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proton
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A subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
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electron
electron
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A negatively charged particle that is found outside the nucleus of an atom.
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atomic number
atomic number
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Number of protons in the nucleus (atomic number = protons).
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atomic mass
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equals protons + neutrons
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molecule
molecule
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(physics and chemistry) the simplest structural unit of an element or compound
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bohr model
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A diagram of an atom: neutrons and protons in the nucleus and electrons orbiting around the nucleus.
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valence electrons
valence electrons
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in the outer energy level of an atom; transferred/shared when atoms bond together
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Lewis Dot Structure
Lewis Dot Structure
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The symbol of an element surrounded by an number of dots equal to the number of electrons in the valence shell of the atom.
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compound
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A substance made up of atoms of two or more different elements joined by chemical bonds
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ion
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An atom or group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge.
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isotope
isotope
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Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons
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solids
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A state of matter in which the object has a definite shape and volume.
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chemical reaction
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A process during which chemical bonds between atoms are broken and new ones are formed. Producing one or more different substances.
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product
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A chemical substance formed as a result of a chemical reaction
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reactants
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Elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction.
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chemically stable
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describes an atom whose outer energy level is completely filled with all the electrons allowed in that level
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chemical formula
chemical formula
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A combination of chemical symbols and numbers to represent a substance.

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