Atom Study Guide

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Nucleus
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The brain center of the atom that holds protons and neutrons
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Proton
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Positively charged, found in the nucleus, (p+)
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Neutron
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No charge, found in the nuclues, (n*)
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Electron
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Negatively charged, moves around the nucleus on orbits/shells, (e-)
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Atomic Number
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Number or protons in the nucleus
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Mass Number/Atomic Mass
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p+ + n* = Mass #
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Isotopes
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Same # of protons, diff. # of neutrons
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model
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a diagram or picture used to explain ideas
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Periodic
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repeating pattern
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Periodic Law
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when the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their physical and chemical properties
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Periodic Table
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A chart of the elements showing the repeating pattern of their properties in a specific order.
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Chemical Symbol
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1 or 2 letter abbreviation of an element
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Chemical Name
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given scientific name
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Period
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horizontal row of elements
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Group/family
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vertical row of elements
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Metal
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Elements that r shiny, malleable, ductility and conductivity
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Malleable
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used to describe material that can be formed into shapes
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Ductile
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used to describe a material that can be pulled out into a long wire
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Conductivity
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the ability of an object to transfer heat or electricity to another object
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Reactivity
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The ease and speed with which an element combines or reacts with other elements or compounds
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Corrosion
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The gradual wearing away of a metal element due to a chemical reaction.
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Nonmetal
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An element that lacks most of the properties of a metal.
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Metalloid
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An element that has some characteristics of both metals and nonmetals.
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Alkali Metals
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Found in group 1, most reactive in the Periodic Table
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Alkali Earth Metals
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Found in group 2, reactive but not as reactive as those in group 1
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Transition Metals
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found in groups 3-12 (form a big box), silver, gold, copper, iron
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Metals in Mixed Groups
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Found in groups 13-15 (form a diagonal downwards), some metals some not
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Lanthanides
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Top row on the \”floating elements\”
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Actinides
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Bottom row on the \”floating elements\”
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Rare Earth Metals
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Lanthanides and Actinides
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Halogens
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Found in group 17
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Noble Gasses
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Found in group 18
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Indirect observations
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observations you know are true, but can’t actually have direct contact with the objects
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Ions
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Gain or lose electrons (uneven amount of p+ and e-), p+ + e- = (chemical name)# (+/-)
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Mendeleev
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Organized the first Periodic Table by arranging them into similar properties by their atomic mass
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Democritus
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realized things are composed of atoms that you cant see
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Dalton/Billiard Ball
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Discovered atoms and produced the atomic theory
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Thomson/ Plum Pudding Model
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Discovered that an atom was positive with negaitve charges
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Rutherford
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Discovered the nucleus
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Bohr/ Planetary Model
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Discovered orbits/shells that hold a certain amount of electrons
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Schroedinger/ Wave Model
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Discovers that the atom gives off an electric cloud
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Chadwick
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Discovered the neutron

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