Astronomy: Ch 6 Test Essay

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Mercury 2
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-Ham the Monkey -first “american” launched into space – no problems
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Mercury 3
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– Alan Shepard – Successfully launched a human and pod into space and retrieved them – no problems
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Mercury 4
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– Gus Grissom – successfully launched a human and pod into space and retrieved them. – Hatch blew upon landing and Gus barely survived. Pod sank to the bottom of the ocean.
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Mercury 6
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– John Glenn – Orbited only 3 times. Ice crystals “floating lights” – supposed to orbit for 1 full day but because heat shield sensor was showing a malfunction, he came back down early.
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Mercury 9
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– Gordon Cooper – last manned mercury mission. 43 hrs. in space. 0g – No problems
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Gemini 4
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-James McDintt and Edward Wrillell – evaluated effects of prolong spaceflight (4 days) and EVA – Rendezvous was only partially successful bc of a lack of fuel they didn’t attempt
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Gemini 6
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-Walter Schirra and Thomas Stafford – first rendezvous with another space craft
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Gemini 7
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– Frank Borman and Jim Loveli – Demonstrate two week flight, act as a rendezvous target – failure of the delayed time and elementary tape smelled
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Gemini 8
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– Neil Armstrong and David Scott – preform rendezvous and 4 docking tests – altitude and maneuver thruster caused the spacecraft to tumble, emergency landing
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Apollo 1
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-Guss Grissam, Edward White, and Roger Chaffee – planned to be a low earth orbit – spark caused a huge fire
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Apollo 8
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-Frank Barman, Dan Elselo, and Walter Cunningham – Made the first trip around the moon and back
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Apollo 10
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– Eugene Cernan, John Young, and Thomas Stratford -circled the moon and hovered 9 miles above lunar surface to test its flight with lunar gravity
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Apollo 11
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-Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins, Buzz Aldrin – landed on moon surface, gathered lunar samples – almost ran out of fuel, landed in the wrong spot
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Apollo 13
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– Fred Haise, John Swigert, James Loveli – they were planning a lunar landing mission – one of the oxygen tanks bursted, caused a fire, not enough electricity so they almost froze, almost burned in reentry due to the LM, too much CO2 and almost suffocated.
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Apollo 15
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– David Scott, James Irwin, and Alfred Worder – 1st of the apollo missions capable of a longer stay time and lunar rover which enabled them to explore 5 miles away
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Apollo 17
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-Eugene Cernan, Harrison Schold, Ronald Evans – last man to ever land on the moon – no problems
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Name 3 rockets used during these missions and how they evolved over time.
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– staged rocket- two stages , one fired until it was done then detached when empty and other fired – serial stage rocket- small 2nd stage rocket that is placed on top of a larger 1st stage rocket -parallel- several small 1st stages are strapped onto a central sustainer rocket
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Explain who Yeager is and what the Bell X-1 and how they contributed to the space race.
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-1st pilot to travel faster than speed of sou; broke sound barrier – bell x-1: the plane Yeager used to accomplish this – this was motivation and an accomplishment for the space race
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What was the “space race” and what political conditions and thoughts led to it?
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-competition between the U.S. and Russia regarding achievement in space exploration -after WWII they wanted to prove superiority
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Explain how nasa was founded
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– space race
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Explain why nasa was founded
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in response to Russians launch of first satellite, sputnik I
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who founded nasa
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Dwight D. Eisenhower
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how are the early Apollo flights different from the later ones after Apollo 11?
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In the early apollo flights the astronauts were test pilots and in the later ones they were scientists. Also, after apollo 11, Russia gave up and there wasn’t as much enthusiasm for space exploration.
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What were the Apollo- Soyuz missions and how could you argue they were the end of the space race conflict?
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– partnership between Russia and US. – they made peace by coming together, no longer making it a race.

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