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Astronomy Ch 4 – Ch7

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t/f The largest planets also have the largest densities
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False
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t/f the total mass of all the planets is much less than the mass of the sun
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True
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t/f asteroids were recently formed by the collision and breakup of an object orbiting in the asteroid belt
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False
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t/f most comets have short periods and orbit close to the ecliptic plane
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False
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t/f Astronomers have no theoretical explanation for the “hot Jupiters” observed orbiting some other stars
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False
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t/f the solar system is of largely uniform composition
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False
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t/f asteroids, meteoroids, and comets are remnants of the early solar system
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True
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if we were to construct an accurate scale model of the solar system on a football field with the sun at one end, and pluto on the other, the planet closest to the center of the field would be a)earth b) jupiter c) saturn d)uranus
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d) uranus
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In the leading theory of solar system formation, the planets a) were ejected from the sun following a close encounter with another star b) formed from the same flattened, swirling gas cloud that formed the sun c) are much younger than the sun d) are much older than the sun
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B formed from the same flattened, swirling gas cloud that formed the sun
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The solar system is differentiated because a) the heavy elements in the outer solar system sank to the center b) the light elements in the inner solar system fell into the sun c) the light elements in the inner solar system were carried off as comets d) only rocky and metallic particles could form close to the sun
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D only rocky and metallic particles could form close to the sun
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Water on Earth was a) transported here by comets b) accreted from the solar nebula c) produced by volcanoes in the form of steam d) created by chemical reactions involving hydrogen and oxygen shortly after Earth formed
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a) transported here by comets
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The number of confirmed exoplanets is a) less than 10 b) roughly 50 c) more than 500 d) more than 5000
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C more than 500
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Astronomers have not yet reported any Earth like planets orbiting other stars because a) there are none b) they are not detectable with current technology c) no nearby stars are of the type expected to have Earth like planets d) the government is preventing us from reporting their discovery
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b) they are not detectable with current technology
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t/f because of tidal forces, the moon is in a synchronous orbit around earth
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True
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t/f lunar maria are extensive lava flowing regions
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True
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t/f except for the layer of air closest to earths surface, the ozone layer is the warmest part of the atomosphere
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True
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t/f Earths magnetic field is the result of our planets large, permanently magnetized iron core
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False
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t/f Motion of the crustal plates is driven by convection in earths upper mantle
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True
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t/f Volcanic activity continues today on the surface of the moon
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False
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t/f Like earth, the moon has a molten metal core
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False
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If you were making a scale model of earth, representing or planet by a 12 inch basketball, the inner core would be about the size of a) a half inch ball bearing b) a 2 inch golf ball c) a 4 inch tangerine d) a 7 inch grapefruit
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b) a 2 inch golf ball
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Earths average density is about the same as that of a) a glass of water b) a heavy meteorite c) an ice cube d) a chunk of black volcanic rock
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d) a chunk of black volcanic rock
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Sunlight absorbed by earths surface is reemitted in the form of a) microwave b) infrared c) visible d) ultraviolet radiation
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b) infrared
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The deepest that geologists have drilled into earth is about the same as a) the height of the statue of liberty b) the altitude most commercial jet airplanes fly c) the distance between new york and los angeles d) the distance between the united states and china
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b) the altitude most commercial jet airplanes fly
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If earth had no moon, then tides would a) not occur b)occur more often and with more intensity c) still occur but not really be measurable d) occur with the same frequency but would not be as strong
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d) occur with the same frequency but would not be as strong
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The most likely theory of the formation of the moon is that it a) was formed by the gravitational capture of a large asteroid b) formed simultaneously with earths formation c) was created from a collision scooping out the pacific ocean d) formed from a collision of earth with a mars sized object
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d) formed from a collision of earth with a mars sized object
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t/f Mercurys solar day is longer than its solar year
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True
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t/f Numerous surface features on Venus can be seen in earth based images made in the ultraviolet part of the spectrum
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False
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t/f Evidence of lava flows is common on the surface of venus
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True
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t/f There is strong circumstantial evidence that active volcanism continues on venus
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True
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t/f Mars has the largest volcanoes in the solar system
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True
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t/f There are many indications of past plate tectonics on Mars
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False
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t/f Valles Marineris is comparable in size to Earths Grand Canyon
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False
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Mercurys large overall density suggests that the planet a) has an interior structure similar to that of Earths moon b) has a dense metal core c) has a weaker magnetic field than the moon d) is younger than the moon
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b) has a dense metal core
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Venus’s surface is permanently obscured by clouds. As a result, the surface has been studied primarily by a) robotic landers b) orbiting satellites using radar c) spectroscopy d) radar signals from earth
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b) orbiting satellites using radar
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Compared with earth, venus has a level of plate tectonic activity that is a) much more rapid b) somewhat less rapid c) about the same d) virtually nonexistent
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d) virtually nonexistent
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Venus’s atmospheric temperature is a) about the same as Earth’s b) cooler than temperatures on Mercury c) hotter than temperatures on Mercury d) high due to the presence of sulfuric acid
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c) hotter than temperatures on Mercury
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In terms of area, the extinct Martian volcano Olympus Mons is about the size of a) Mt Everest b) Colorado c) North america d) Earths Moon
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b) Colorado
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In comparison to the atmosphere of Venus, the vastly different atmospheric character of mars is likely due to a(n) a) ineffective greenhouse effect b) a reverse greenhouse effect c) absence of greenhouse gases in the Martian atmosphere d) greater distance from the sun
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b) a reverse greenhouse effect
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t/f The solid surface of Jupiter lies just below the cloud layers that are visible from earth
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False
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t/f Storms in the jovian planets atmospheres are generally much longer lived than storms on earth
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True
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t/f The element helium plays an important role in producing saturns atmospheric colors
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False
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t/f Jupiter emits more energy than it receives from the Sun
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True
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t/f Although often referred to as a gaseous planet, jupiter is mostly liquid in its interior
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True
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t/f Neptune probably does not have a rocky core
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False
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t/f Around northern midsummer on Uranus, an observer near the north pole would observe the sun high and almost stationary in the sky
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True
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t/f The magnetic fields of Uranus and Neptune are highly tilted relative to their rotation axes and offset from the planets centers
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True
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The main constituent of Jupiters atmosphere is a) hydrogen b) helium c) ammonia d) carbon dioxide
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a) hydrogen
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Saturns cloud layers are much thicker than those of Jupiter because Saturn has a) more mass b) lower density c) a weaker magnetic field d) weaker gravity
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d) weaker gravity
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Compared to Earth, Saturns core is roughly a) half the mass b) the same mass c) twice as massive d) 10 times more massive
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d) 10 times more massive
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Uranus was discovered about the same time as a) Columbus reached North america b) the US declaration of Independence c) The american civil war d) the depression
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b) the US declaration of Independence
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Compared with uranus, the planet Neptune is a) much smaller b) much larger c) roughly the same size d) closer to the sun
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c) roughly the same size
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Which of the following are terrestrial planets a) only Earth b) Earth, Moon, and Venus c) Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars d) Mercury, Venus, Earth, Moon, Mars, and Pluto e) Mercury, Venus, Earth, Moon, Mars, and Ceres
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c) Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars
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The terrestrial (inner) planets are characterized by a) low density b) rapid rotation c) large size d) rocky composition
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D) rocky composition
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What causes a meteor shower? a) A comet and an asteroid collide. b) Earth runs into a stray swarm of asteroids. c) Earth runs into the debris of an old comet littering its orbit. d) Meteorites are ejected from the Moon. e) Debris from a supernova enters Earth’s atmosphere
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c) Earth runs into the debris of an old comet littering its orbit.
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Most asteroids are found a) beyond the orbit of Neptune. b) between Earth and the Sun. c) between Mars and Jupiter. d) in the orbit of Jupiter, but 60 degrees ahead or behind it. e) orbiting the Jovian planets in captured,retrograde orbits.
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c) between mars and jupiter
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The condensation sequence theory explains why a) our planet Earth has water and rain. b) stars are more likely to form large planets orbiting very near. c) terrestrial planets are different from jovian planets. d) the Moon formed near to Earth. e) Pluto has such a circular orbit.
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c) terrestrial planets are different from jovian planets.
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The Moon’s internal structure is similar to Earth’s, but the Moon lacks a) an atmosphere. b) a hydrosphere. c) a magnetosphere. d) It lacks all of the above.
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d) it lacks all of the above
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What is the most abundant gas in Earth’s atmosphere? a) oxygen b) hydrogen c) nitrogen d) carbon dioxide e) argon
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c) nitrogen
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A planetary atmosphere with ozone could protect surface dwellers from a) ultraviolet radiation. b) charged particles in the solar wind. c) meteor impacts. d) optical radiation. e) radar waves.
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a) ultraviolet radiation
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As seen from the Moon, how often does the Sun rise? a) never b) about every 24 hours c) about once per week d) about once per month e) about once per year
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d) once per month
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The principal greenhouse gasses in our present atmosphere are a) hydrogen and helium. b) oxygen and nitrogen. c) water vapor and carbon dioxide. d) methane and ammonia. e) sulfuric acid vapor and CO2.
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c) water vapor and carbon dioxide.
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The region around Earth where the magnetic field traps charged particles is the a) ozone layer. b) exosphere. c) Van Allen radiation belts. d) corona. e) aurora borealis and australis.
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c) Van Allen radiation belts.
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Without the greenhouse effect in our atmosphere a) we would not have to worry about ecological problems. b) the Earth’s oceans would be frozen. c) the amount of nitrogen & oxygen would be much less. d) the icecaps would have melted. e) global warming would still occur.
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b) the Earth’s oceans would be frozen.
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Lunar maria are found a) uniformly all over the Moon. b) mostly on the side facing Earth. c) mostly on the far side of the Moon. d) only in the dark areas, out of sunlight. e) in the highlands, among mountains.
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b) mostly on the side facing Earth.
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Place the statements concerning lunar formation below in chronological order from the time of formation. I. coalesced from orbiting debris II. cooling of interior III. mare formed IV. surface melting by heavy bombardment a) I, IV, III, II b) III, II, IV, I c) IV, III, II, I d) II, III, IV, I
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a) I, IV, III, II
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Which statement about the rotations of Mercury and the Moon is FALSE? a) Our Moon keeps the same side toward us. b) The rotation period of Mercury is 59 EARTH days. c) Like our Moon, Mercury keeps the same side facing the Sun. d) On Mercury, three rotations (“sidereal days”) equals two Mercurial “years” e) On the Moon, sunlight lasts for about 15 EARTH days in a row.
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c) Like our Moon, Mercury keeps the same side facing the Sun.
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Mercury is very hard to observe from Earth because a) it always appears only half lit. b) it is never more than 28° from the Sun. c) its elliptical orbit causes it to change speed unpredictably. d) its surface reflects too little sunlight. e) its surface does not allow radar to bounce back to Earth.
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b) it is never more than 28° from the Sun.
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Mercury has extreme high and low temperatures between night and day because a) it is so close to the Sun. b) its surface rocks don’t retain heat. c) it spins too fast to cool down. d) Mercury’s axis has no tilt; its equator receives direct sunlight. e) it has no atmosphere to moderate temperatures over the globe.
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e) it has no atmosphere to moderate temperatures over the globe.
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Which of the following inner solar system bodies has the densest atmosphere? a) Mercury b) Venus c) Earth d) Moon e) Mars
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b) Venus
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Venus and Mars probably evolved differently from Earth because a) they are slightly bigger than Earth. b) they are more massive than Earth. c) they have thicker atmospheres than Earth. d) they formed sooner than Earth. e) they orbit at different distances from the Sun.
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e) they orbit at different distances from the Sun.
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Which of the following are correct? a) Mars is essentially in the same orbit as Earth. b) There are canals filled with liquid water on Mars. c) If there is water, that means there is oxygen and therefore we can breath on Mars. d) Both (b) and (c) are true. e) None of the above.
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e) None of the above are true
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Which of the following inner solar system bodies has the largest volcanoes? a) Mercury b) Venus c) Earth d) Mars e) Moon
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d) Mars
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Venus’ surface shows all of the following EXCEPT a) many impact craters of all sizes. b) shield volcanoes. c) a continent-sized plateau. d) huge circular volcanic coronae. e) lava domes.
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a) many impact craters of all sizes.
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The Jovian planets have retained most of their atmospheres because a) they are further from the Sun’s gravitational pull than the terrestrial planets b) they are very warm and massive c) they are very cold and massive d) the planet’s rings “fence in” the planetary atmosphere
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c) they are very cold and massive
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The Jovian planets are characterized by their a) high density. b) slow rotation. c) small size. d) composition – mainly hydrogen and helium.
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d) composition – mainly hydrogen and helium.
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What is the source of Jupiter’s large magnetic field? a) charged particles moving in the atmosphere b) thermonuclear fusion in Jupiter’s core c) the gravitational attraction of Jupiter’s many large moons d) the Great Red Spot e) metallic hydrogen swirling in its interior
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e) metallic hydrogen swirling in its interior
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Saturn radiates even more excess energy than Jupiter because a) Saturn is still radiating heat left over from its formation. b) Saturn’s thick cloud layer contributes to a larger greenhouse effect. c) helium rain gives off heat as it falls toward Saturn’s center. d) Saturn’s atmosphere contains methane. e) Saturn can fuse hydrogen into helium in its core, like the Sun.
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c) helium rain gives off heat as it falls toward Saturn’s center.