Astronomy 1040 UVU Dr Powell Exam 2

Order the colors of visible light from shortest frequency to highest frequency.
Red, orange, yellow, green, blue. violet.
Order the parts of the EM spectrum from shortest wavelength to longest wavelength.
Gamma, x-ray, ultraviolet, infrared, microwave.
Which kinds of EM radiation are not typically harmful?
Longer wavelength (radiowave, microwave)
What would a low amplitude, long wavelength visible light look like?
Red and dim.
What color would a true-color x-ray image be?
An apple looks red because it absorbs ____ and scatters ____.
Blues and greens, red.
Who came up with 4 equations on EM?
Who discovered IR light?
Who discovered radio waves?
Who discovered xrays?
Who was the first to measure c?
Who modeled blackbody curve as due to particles?
Who showed that light was a wave?
Who showed that white light was made of colors?
Are electrons composed of quarks?
How many protons and neutrons does He-3 have?
2 protons, 1 neutron.
Give two examples of isotopes of carbon. Give two examples of ions of carbon.
Carbon 12 and Carbon 13. C-1 and C+2.
Compared with red light, blue light has a ____ energy per photon, a ____ frequency, and a ____ wavelength.
Higher; higher; shorter.
Order the four phases of matter by increasing temperature.
Solid, liquid, gas, plasma.
If an electron drops from level ____ to level ____, then it will emit a photon of 2.6 eV. (Hint: first 3 energy levels above the ground state are 2: 10.2 eV, 3: 12.1 eV, and 4: 12.8 eV.)
4; 2.
Describe two ways in which the thermal radiation spectrum of an 8000 K star would differ from that of a 4000 K star.
It’s hotter, it’s brighter, it’s bluer.
Which radiation law indicates that the hotter the bluer? Which radiation law indicates that the hotter the brighter?
Wien’s law; Stefan’s law
If unloving hydrogen emits a UV line if 121.6 nm but from a particular star it’s 120.5 nm then the line is ____.
Blue shifted.
The principle optical piece of a reflecting telescope is a ____. From a refractor it’s a ____.
Mirror; lens.
The biggest telescopes are ____.
Galileo’s telescope was a ____. Newton’s was a ____.
Refractor; reflector.
Which kind of aberration do refractors/reflectors suffer?
Where’s the best location on Earth for optical telescopes?
In order to get the best resolution, where in the Solar System should a radio telescope be put?
Wiring telescopes together improves ____ the most.
List the 4 Terrestrial planets and 4 Jovian planets.
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars;

Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune.

The Jovian planets are ____ massive and ____ dense than the Terrestrial planets.
More; less.
Which planets in the solar system has rings?
All 4 giant planets.
What are the two largest planets in the solar system?
Jupiter and Saturn.
Which planets would you expect to have the largest moon and the most moons?
Jupiter because it is close to the asteroid belt.
Before Mars was observed to have two small moons, but it was known that Jupiter had four moons, a fictional writer Swift gave Mars two small moons. Is that remarkable or no? Why?
No. Just intelligent guessing.
What’s the only moon with a thick atmosphere?
Which giant planet is not represented in the list of having a moon bigger than Pluto?
Where are most of the rocky asteroids located?
Asteroid belt.
Where are most the icy comets located?
The Oort cloud.
What caused the solar nebula to collapse?
What caused the solar nebula to spin faster as it collapsed?
Conservation of angular momentum.
What caused the solar nebula to get hotter as it collapsed?
Conservation of energy.
What common state is “Fe” in?
What common state is “H” in?
What common state is “NH_3” in?
What common state is “Silicate” in?
Order the following chemicals from most refractory to least or equivalently from least volatile to most: H, NH_3, silicate, Fe.
Fe, silicate, NH_3, H.
What explains odd features of the solar system such as Venus’ retrograde spin, Uranus tipped on its side, Earth’s extra large Moon, and so on?
Got hit by something.
Why is earth thought to be over 4.5 billion years old when the oldest rocks are only 4 billion years old?
Why is the sun thought to be the same age as Earth?
Because nebular model.
How much of the radioactive sample remains after 3 half lives?
Why don’t geologists use carbon-14 to date dinosaur bones?
Half life is too short.
What was wrong with the Time Cop’s explanation of carbon-14 dating of gold bullion being Civil War Era?
You cannot carbon date gold because there is no carbon in gold.
Which got hit more – the earth or the moon?
The Earth.
In terms of cratering density, Mercury is most, then Mars, Venus, and Earth. Order these from youngest to oldest surface. Which Terrestrial planet got hit the most?
Earth, Venus, Mars, Mercury.


The northern hemisphere of Mars has less cratering than the southern hemisphere, so which half of Mars has the older surface? Which half got hit more?
Southern; got hit the same.
What are 3 energy sources driving the dynamic Earth?
Solar radiation, lunar haal effect, internal energy.
Heat transfer of: bucket line from river to Granny’s house
Heat transfer of: each helper carries their own bucket
Heat transfer of: hose pumped at the river
How does most of the heat from a campfire reach you?
What are 4 geologic processes shaping the surface?
Volcanism, impact crating, tectonic plates, erosion.
About how many times wider and deeper is the crater than the impactor?
10 times wider, 2 times deeper.
Why is there so little erosion on other terrestrial planets?
Lack of water
What are the 3 kinds of rocks?
Metamorphic, sedimentary, igneous.
Who first proposed continental drift?
Why wasn’t continental first accepted more quickly by geologists?
Because Wegener wasn’t a geologist.
What is a geographical example of a zone of convergence on Earth?
What is a geographical example of a zone of divergence on Earth?
Mid Atlantics.
What is a geographical example of a transform fault on Earth?
San Andres.
What is a geographical example of a hot spot on Earth?
The Earth’s continental crust is mostly made of what kind or rock?
Metamorphic (remidic)
The Earth’s oceanic crust is mostly made of what kind of rock?
Igneous (basalt)
What was the original atmosphere of Earth?
Water, ammonia, methane.
Was is the secondary atmosphere (from outgassing) of Earth?
Water, carbon dioxide, nitrogen.
Where did the oxygen in Earth’s atmosphere come from?
Noting that Venus has 100X Earth’s atmosphere, which has more atmospheric nitrogen – Earth or Venus?
Noting that Venus has 100X Earth’s atmosphere, which has more atmospheric water – Earth or Venus?
Firing a long range artillery shells south towards the equator which way should you point? (Hint: your target is moving faster eastward than you are)
Which kind of interior seismic wave (S or P) DOES propagate through fluids and is faster?
P waves
Why do surface seismic waves cause the most property damage?
We live on the surface.
Why does Earth’s air temp gradient have an extra zig zag?
What’s the expected consequence of the loss of the ozone layer?
More rays
What’s the expected consequence of increased greenhouse effect gases?
Warmer temps
How many large convention cells does Venus have in each hemisphere?
How many large convention cells does Earth have in each hemisphere?
Since Jupiter spins faster than Earth, would you expect more or less convention cells than Earth?
The Moon is unique in that _____.
it orbits near its planet’s orbital plane.
Would you expect there to be about as much maria on the farside of the Moon as the nearside? Why isn’t there?
Yes; more craters
Just prior to the Apollo missions, which was thought to be older: lunar maria or terrae? Based on what?
Terrae; based on more craters.
Which is probably older: a young maria basalt or an old oceanic basalt?
A young maria basalt
Which would you expect to have taller mountains? Earth or the Moon?
Which has the larger range (deepest to highest) Earth or the Moon? For the Moon, it’s 18 km. Mt. Everest is almost 9 km above sea level and Marianas Trench is 11 km deep.
How do planetary geologists explain the gradual drop off in cratering rates from 4.5 billion years ago to the present?
Run out of stuff. Less stuff to hit.
How do they explain the intermediate peak at about 3.9 billion years ago?
Jupiter or Saturn changing orbit.
How was the concern about landing on the regolith resolved?
Sent robots.
How much more should tidal effects have been on the Moon when it was twice as close? (Hint: tidal effects fall off with d^3).
8 (2^3)
What’s the magnetic evidence that the Moon had a liquid interior billions of years ago but doesn’t now?
Moon rocks show it had a magnetic field before.
Order the four terrestrial planets from most to least by surface age.
Mercury, Mars, Venus, Earth
Order the four terrestrial planets from most to least by atmospheric density.
Venus, Earth, Mars, Mercury.
Order the four terrestrial planets from most to least by length of their day.
Mercury, Venus, Mars, Earth
Why does Mercury have such a large iron core and a correspondingly small mantle?
Got hit by something
How many Mercurian days in 1 Mercurian year?
How many Venusian days in 1 Venusian year?
Which planet has Caloris basin?
Which planet has Olympus Mons?
Which planet has Valles Mariners?
Which planet has Aine Corona?
Which planet has Hellas Planitia?
Which planet has Canals?
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