Asian History 160 Exam 1

Flashcard maker : Pedro Huang
1852 Foreign Miners’ Tax
Tax stated that foreign miners were required to pay $3/month for license to work in gold fields. Land could be taken from those who didn’t pay the tax or miners could also be expelled from mining. Specifically targeted the Chinese who were unable to become a citizen of the US.
1852 Foreign Miners’ Tax significance
Tax specifically targeted the Chinese miners and was intended to drive them out of the mining to open it up more for white American miners and was one of the first racist legislation against China. Chinese miners were forced to leave the mining industry, forcing them to search alternative occupations, which led to their place in the service industry of SF.
1852 Foreign Miners’ Tax example
-It became a major revenue source for state and county government
-58 million dollars were taken from the Chinese
Policy or practice of treating or governing people in a fatherly manner, especially by providing their needs without giving them rights or responsibilities
Paternalism significance
By acting in this way the people that are below you and work for you stay in order and remain subordinate to the people above and are much less likely to revolt and might believe they are in a good situation. Served to maintain a racial and class hierarchy, with white managers supervising Asian workers. Was finally opposed by a series of strikes in the early 1900s
Paternalism example
This practice took place in Hawaii on sugar plantations with Japanese laborers and certain things the owners did was pay college tuitions of children, set-up recreational programs, welfare programs and supported religious and cultural activities
Divide and Rule
This is the employment of as many nationalities as possible in order to offset the power of an one nationality of workers. A way for the few to control the majority.
Divide and Rule significance
This practice included a differential pay scale and a division of labor which were racially determined, this kept the lower classes fighting amongst themselves instead of unifying together to unionize and get better working conditions. Eventual realization of the different native groups in Hawaii of the need to band together against plantation owners rather than be separated by their differences in nationality led to a series of successful strikes which bettered their conditions on the plantations. Their solidarity gained them better working conditions and rights.
Divide and Rule example
This happened on the sugar plantations in Hawaii as Japanese and Filipino workers were paid different amounts for the same work and caused them to not get along with each other at all and not focus on the ones who were to blame for discrimination.
Manifest Destiny
An expansionist ideology that it is America’s God given authority to spread its borders across the entire North American continent from ocean to ocean
Manifest Destiny significance
This ideology showed superiority of Anglo-Saxons in relation to Indians + Mexicans as no regard given to their claims to land as they were pushed until l America reached the Pacific Ocean. Justification for violence against natives of the land.
Manifest Destiny example
This led to the desire to connect the nation from east to west coast which was done by building the Intercontinental Railroad build in large part because of the help of the Chinese laborers
Picture Bride
Practice of Japanese workers on plantations in HI of matching with women from Japan through the sending of photos of one another ending in marriage.
Picture Bride significance
Through this practice, the Japanese in HI began to shift from being simply sojourners and became settlers by marrying and setting up a family life in the US
Picture Bride example
Riyo, the main character in the movie, was brought to Hawaii as a picture bride
Asian Pacific Triangle
1917 Immigration Act included an arbitrary line drawn around most of Asia excluding immigration from that area
-Japan and part of China were not included in this because they were already banned
-Included Thailand, Cambodia, Korea, Vietnam, Laos, and Philippines
Asian Pacific Triangle significance
-led to 1924 Immigration Act and total exclusion
-Exclusion based on nationality
Asian Pacific Triangle example
1917 immigration act which banned entry into the US if you were from the Asian Pacific Triangle
Page Act of 1875
Federal legislation that sought to exclude Chinese contract workers and Chinese women who were assumed to be prostitutes
Page Act of 1875 significance
While ineffective in enforcing the exclusion of contract workers, it was effective in stopping the immigration of Chinese women
Page Act of 1975 example
Many Chinese women faced trial and if for any reason they were thought to be prostitutes, they would be deported from the country. The whites thought the Chinese prostitutes would ruin the American Family and spread diseases
Gaimenteki Doka
-practice of Japanese American assimilation to American way of life
-an attempt to prove that the Japanese were not like the Chinese
Gaimenteki Doka significance
Did not work, despite their efforts the Japanese were still barred and excluded. The exclusion was based on race, not appearance.
Gaimenteki Doka example
The Japanese wore American clothes, American furnishings, husbands and wives walked side by side
Paper Sons and Daughter
A form of illegal immigration that started after 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act. Chinese Americans went back to China and reported fictive births that they sold/gave to other Chinese in the US to foster immigration to the United States
Paper Sons and Daughters significance
Because of the Chinese Exclusion Act, permanent separation of Chinese families resulted. This practice was adopted to reunite families, and it began the processes of illegal immigration to the US, led to harder immigration restriction.
Paper Sons and Daughters examples
An estimate showed that if every citizenship claim was valid, then each Chinese woman in San Francisco would have had 800 children
1924 Immigration Act
US established quotas of southern and eastern Europeans in favor of northern and western Europeans.
-Restriction of Asian-Americans through the term \”Aliens Ineligible for Citizenship\”
-Began the era of exclusion in the United States
1924 Immigration Act significance
-Immigration restriction was based on race
-Established certain racial groups and nationalities as more desirable than others for admittance to the United States.
-Started with restriction of one group in 1882 and expanded to cover more as the nation defined itself based on race and nationality.
1924 Immigration Act example
Takao Ozawa was a man who fulfilled every requirement to be an American besides his race, so he was ineligible to become a US citizen because he was not white.
Racial Scapegoat
The nation placing blame of economic trouble of the nation solely on a particular racial or ethnic group and removing the blame from government/corporation
Racial Scapegoat significance
The economic crisis of the 1870s caused massive job shortages. Labor unions targeted the Chinese as the racial group to be blamed, painting the picture that the Chinese were stealing jobs from Anglo-Saxon whites even though the Chinese were taking jobs that no one else wanted, working as cheap labor. By blaming the Chinese for the economic problems of the nation, the Anglo-Saxon whites created a racial hierarchy where they had priority over other races, placing others on the margins of society.
Racial Scapegoat example
The Chinese in the 1870’s
Immigration detention center located in the SF Bay
Angel Island significance
Bleak, prison-like atmosphere greeted immigrants to the US. Contrasted to Ellis Island in NY, Angel Island was a negative, discouraging place and set the tone for immigrants from the very beginning.

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