Art 1 Vocabulary Flashcards with Answers

Flashcard maker : Roman Peck
Abstract art
A trend in painting and sculpture in the twentieth century. Abstract art seeks to break away from traditional representation of physical objects. It explores the relationships of forms and colors, whereas more traditional art represents the world in recognizable images
Abstract Expressionism
1940-1955. A style of painting originating in the U.S. during the 1940’s and 1950’s. It is characterized by spontaneity, emotion, bold colors, and/or strong value contrast on very large canvases. These are usually non-objective like the work of Jackson Pollock. William De Kooning often included figures in his work but the act of applying the paint and the color were the primary subjects in his paintings. World War II (1939-1945) interrupted any new movements in art, but art came back with a vengeance in 1945.
Acrylic paint
A paint which uses acrylic plastic to hold the color or pigments together. Similar to oil point but can be clean up with water before it dries.
Aesthetics
concerning pleasing appearances; artistic beauty
Analogous colors
colors that are next to each other on the color wheel
Analysis
the careful examination of something in order to better understand it
Art
human creations intended to express beauty and convey messages
Art criticism
A systematic discussion of characteristics of an artwork, usually involving four stages: description, analysis, interpretation, and evaluation.
Assemblage
sculpting technique in which the artist gathers and joins together a variety of different materials to make a sculpture. Also called constructing.
Asymmetry
not identical on either side of a central line; not symmetrical
Atmospheric perspective
a technique used by painters for representing three-dimensional space on a flat two-dimensional surface by creating the illusion of depth, or recession within a painting or drawing. Atmospheric perspective suggests that objects closer to the viewer are sharper in detail, color intensity, and value contrast than those farther away. As objects move closer to the horizon they gradually fade to a bluish gray and details blur, imitating the way distant objects appear to the human eye. Also called aerial perspective.
Background
the part of a work depicted furthest from the viewer’s space, often behind the main subject matter
Balance
The principle of design that refers to the visual equalization of the elements in a work of art so that one side of the artwork does not appear heavier than the other side. Balance may also be radial, symmetrical, or asymmetrical.
Baroque
Style in art and architecture developed in Europe from about 1550 to 1700, emphasizing dramatic, curving forms, elaborate ornamentation, and overall balance of disparate parts. Associated with Catholicism
Batik
a hand dying technique in which parts of a fabric are initially covered with wax. The fabric is then immersed in dye, and only the unwaxed areas of the fabric absorb the color
Byzantine art
styles of painting, design, and architecture developed from the fifth century C.E. in the Byzantine Empire of ancient Eastern Europe. Characterized in architecture by round arches, large domes, and extensive use of mosaic; characterized in painting by formal design, frontal and stylized figures, and rich use of color, especially gold, in generally religious subject matter
Calligraphy
Greek, “beautiful writing.” Handwriting or penmanship, especially elegant writing as a decorative art.
Casting
the act of creating something by casting it in a mold
Ceramics
objects made from clay or other combinations of minerals baked at high temperature
Chiaroscuro
a monochrome picture made by using several different shades of the same color, The treatment of light and shade in a work of art, especially to give an illusion of depth.
Classical
Describing the artistic style of ancient Greece and Rome, characterized by balance, elegance, and simplicity
Collage
a technique of composing a work of art by pasting on a single surface various materials not normally associated with one another, as newspaper clippings, parts of photographs, theater tickets, and fragments of an envelope.
Color Spectrum
band of colors produced when white light passes through a wedged shaped piece of glass called a prism. the light is broken into separate wavelengths. colors always appear in the same order, goes from low frequency to high frequency : red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet
Color triad
Any three colors that form an equal triangle will establish a color triad relationship. This color organization allows the artist to use a range of striking color contrasts with a harmonious outcome. Primary colors would be an example of a color triad set.
Complementary colors
Colors that are opposite each other on the color wheel. The most common are yellow and violet, blue and orange, red and green
Composition
the way in which an artist organizes forms in an artwork, either by placing shapes on a flat surface or arranging forms in space.
Conceptual
Artwork based on an idea. An art movement in which the idea is more important than the two or three-dimensional artwork.
Content
something (a person or object or scene) selected by an artist or photographer for graphic representation
Contour drawing
Drawing in which contour lines are used to represent subject matter. A contour drawing has a three-dimensional quality , indicating the thickness as well as height and width of the forms it describes . Making a contour drawing with a continuous line is a classic drawing exercise (sometimes modified as a “blind continuous-line contour”): with eyes fixed on the contours of the model or object , drawing the contour very slowly with a steady, continuous line, without lifting the drawing tool or looking at the paper.
Contour line
lines that define the outer edges of forms and surfaces within a form such as shapes or wrinkles and folds
Contrast
1. The state of being noticeably different from something else when put or considered together. 2. Enhancement of appearance provided by juxtaposing different colors or textures., the relationship between the light and dark areas of an image
Cool colors
Colors that suggest coolness and are dominated by blues, greens, violets. and blue-reds.
Credit line
important facts about a work of art: artist, title, year, medium, size, location, donars and date donated
Crosshatching
marks created by two series of parallel lines that intersect and create the effect of shading and thus three-dimensionality
Cubism
Pioneered by Picasso and Braque, in cubist artworks, objects are broken into geometric parts and then reassembled to make abstract works of the original object; the objects are typically portrayed from multiple viewpoints, revolutionized European painting and sculpture
Design
the plan the artist uses to organize the art elements in a work of art to achieve a unified composition
Distortion
Condition of being twisted or bent out of shape. In art, this is often used as an expressive technique.
Easel
a frame used to support an artist’s canvas., an upright tripod for displaying something (usually an artist’s canvas)
Elements of Art
Line, Shape, form, color, value, space, and texture. The building blocks the artist works with to create an artwork.
Emotionalism
A theory of art that places emphasis on expressive qualities. According to this
theory, the most important thing about a work of art is the vivid communication of moods, feelings, and ideas.
Emphasis
The principle of design that uses a concentration of interest or area of focus in a particular part or area of a design., focal point, area of importance, what your eyes see first
Etching
a printmaking process in which a metal plate is covered with a ground made of wax. the artist uses a tool to cut into the wax to leave the plate exposed. the plate is then submerged into an acid bath, which eats away at the exposed portions of the plate. the plate is removed from the acid, cleaned, and ink is filled into the crevices caused by the acid. paper is applied and an impression is made. etching produces the finest detail of the three types of early prints
Exaggeration
To enlarge, increase, or represent something beyond normal bounds so that it becomes ridiculous and its faults can be seen
Expressive qualities
The feelings, moods, and ideas communicated to the viewer through a work of art
Fauves
French for “wild beasts,” the term was coined in 1905 by art critic Louis Vauxcelles to describe paintings by artists like Henri Matisse and André Derain, which were characterized by a tendency toward vibrant color and bold brushstrokes over realistic or representational qualities.
Figure
The part of a pattern that commands attention. The figure stands out against the ground.
Fine art
Art seen in art galleries, art museums, art magazines, and art books, no practical function and is valued in terms of the visual pleasure it provides or its success in communicating ideas or feelings
Focal point
the center of interest or activity in a work of art, often drawing the viewer’s attention to the most important element
Folk art
handmade items, such as pottery, woodcarving, and traditional costumes, produced by rural people with traditional lifestyles, instead of by professional artists.
Foreground
Part of a two-dimensional artwork that appears to be nearer the viewer or in the front. Middle ground and background are the parts of the picture that appear to be farther and farthest away.
Foreshortening
is a device for suggesting depth by representing a figure or an object at an angle, rather than frontally or profile
Form
1. Having the three dimensions of length, width, and depth. Also referred to as a solid. 2. The organization, placement, or relationship of basic elements, as volumes or voids in a sculpture, so as to produce a coherent image.
Formal balance
Equilibrium created in a design with symmetrical parts, such as design details being the same on each side of a center line.
Formalism
strict observance of the established rules traditions and methods employed in the arts. _____ can also refer to the theory of art that relies heavily on the organization of forms in a work rather than on the content.
Free form
shapes-irregular and uneven shapes. Their outlines are curved, or angular, or both. These shapes are often referred to as organic. Opposite of geometric shapes.
Free form shapes
shapes found in nature (example, the shape of a leaf or animal); irregular and uneven shapes
Fresco
A technique of painting on walls covered with moist plaster. It was used to decorate Minoan and Mycenaean palaces and Roman villas, and became an important medium during the Italian Renaissance.
Futurists
artistic movement beginning in 1909 with a “manifesto” that stressed energy, movement, even violence in visual and literary art.
Genre painting
depicts scenes from everyday life. These may include such settings as markets, parties, or street scenes. Noted painters from this group include Pieter Brueghel the Elder and Diego Velazquez.
Geometric shapes
Shapes (2-dimensional) that we study about in math, such as circles, squares, rectangles, pentagons, hexagons.
Gesture
facial expressions and body postures and motions that convey intended as well as subconscious messages, A line that does not stay at the edges but moves freely within forms. These lines record movement of the eye as well as implying motion in the form
Gesture drawing
a vigorous drawing that captures the action, structure, and overall orientation of an object, rather than describing specific details. Often used as a basis for figure drawing.
Glaze
A vitreous coating applied to pottery to seal and decorate the surface; it may be colored, transparent, or opaque, and glossy or matte. In oil painting, a thin, transparent, or semitransparent layer put over a color to alter it slightly.
Ground
the first or preliminary coat of paint or size applied to a surface, the surface or background onto which an artist paints or draws
Harmony
the creation of unity in a design; the most important of the art principles. holds all the elements of the design together.
Hatching
Creating tonal or shading effects with closely spaced parallel lines.
Horizon line
the line formed by the apparent intersection of the earth and the sky as seen by an observer; all parallel lines or lines of projection seem to converge on one, two, or three points located with reference to the horizon line
Hue
that quality which makes one color differ from other colors; a particular shade or tint of a given color, the dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as the color names blue, green, and so forth.
Illusionism
the representation of the three-dimensional world on a two-dimensional surface in a manner that creates the illusion that the person, object, or place represented is three-dimensional. the principle or technique by which artistic representations are made to resemble real objects or to give an appearance of space by the use of perspective.
Imitationalism
A theory of art which the realistic representation of objects is considered the most important means of measuring the success of a work of art.
Implied lines
a series of dots or shapes are spaced closely enough that our mind connect them/ created when someone or something is looking or pointing in a direction and you eye follows
Impressionism
theory and practice of painting among French painters (Monet, Renoir, Degas, Pissarro, Cassatt, Morisot) who used short strokes of unmixed colors to depict the light and form of objects. They focused on the single moment.
Informal balance
occurs when objects are positioned in an asymmetrical arrangement where a single larger object is counterbalanced by two or more smaller objects on the other side of the center point
Intensity
the brightness or dullness of a color
Intermediate color
1. A color that results from and equal mixture of a primary color and it’s adjacent secondary color.
2. PRIMARY COLOR ALWAYS NAMED FIRST
Interpretation
an explanation of the meaning of an artwork
Judgement
deciding if a work is successful, Is the art work successful? Reasons why
Kinetic
Artwork that contains parts that can be moved either by hand, air or motor
Line
1. A long thin mark on a surface. 2. A continuous extent of length, straight or curved, without breadth or thickness; the trace of a moving point. 3. Long, narrow mark or band.
Linear perspective
An artistic principle developed in the Renaissance that allowed a painter to create a greater illusion that before. The principle is based on all horizontal lines going towards one or two points on the horizon or at eye level, while vertical lines remain vertical. This was based on the new idea of having a certain perspective with which one should view a painting.
Mannerism
Artistic movement against the Renaissance ideals of symmetry, balance, and simplicity; went against the perfection the High Renaissance created in art. Used elongated proportions, twisted poses and compression of space.
Media
The plural of “medium”; the materials used to create something
Medium
any material used to create art
Middle Ages
The historical period from around 500 A.D. up to around 1450 A.D. between the fall of Rome and the birth of the Renaissance
Middle ground
The part of an artwork that lies between the foreground (nearest to the viewer) and the background., The area of a painting between the foreground and the background. In a landscape this usually where your focal point would be.
Minimalism
The name coined to describe a school of abstract painting and sculpture that emphasizes extreme simplification of form, often employing geometry or repetition. Much Minimalist art is reduced to basic shapes (for example, cubes and spheres) or raw, inelegant materials (such as steel, neon tubing, and bricks).
Mixed Media
Descriptive of any work of art employing more than one medium‐for example, a work that
combines painting, collage, and screenprinting.
Mobile
suspended moving sculptures, usually impelled by natural air currents, an artistic structure with parts that move easily
Modeling
constructing a form with a pliable material such as wax or clay., a sculpting technique that is an additive method: building up material
Mold
container into which liquid is poured to create a given shape when it hardens, sculpture produced by molding
Monochromatic
A color scheme using values of only one color. Sepia (reddish-brown) is a common choice in illustration., Variations of one color (hue); tints, tones, and shades of one hue
Mosaics
a picture or pattern produced by arranging together small colored pieces of hard material, such as stone, tile, or glass
Motif
a principal idea, feature, theme, or element; a repeated or dominant figure in a design
Movement
The motion created in a work of art, often uses the principle of rhythm to achieve this.
Mural
a large painting applied directly to a wall or ceiling surface
Negative spaces
An *element* of art referring to the emptiness or area between, around, above, or within objects / things / figures.
Nonobjective art
A style of art that employs color, line, texture, and unrecognizable shapes and forms. These works contain no apparent reference to reality, Art that has no recognizable subject matter such as trees, flowers or people. The actual subject matter might be color or the composition of the work itself.
Oil paint
slow drying paint made when pigments are mixed with oil, linseed oil being the most traditional. The oil dries with a hard film, and the brightness of the colors is protected. Oil paints are usually opaque and traditionally used on canvas. They can have a matter, semi-gloss, or glossy finish.
Op art
A twentieth century art movement and style in which artists sought to create an impression of movement on the picture surface by means of optical illusion.
Opaque
impossible to see through; preventing the passage of light
Painterly
A style of painting marked by openness of form, with shapes distinguished by variations of color rather than by outline or contour. In other words, the artist doesn’t use lines to define the forms they are drawing, they used color.
Palette
a board which an artist can hold while painting and on which colors can be mixed; the range of colors used in a particular painting or by a particular artist
Palette knife
A blunt knife with a very flexible steel blade and no sharpened cutting edge. It is primarily used for mixing paint colors, mediums, additives, paste, pigments, and so forth directly on the palette before applying them to a surface.
Papier mache
The art modeling material made of newspaper and liquid paste molded over a supporting structure. It is French for “chewed paper.” Paper soaked with water, to which glue and sometimes sand is added to make a pulp capable of being molded and fired, is usually painted or lacquered to make decorative items.
Pattern
Repeating motifs form this element to achieve rhythm in an artwork
Perceptual
The first art analysis level that addresses the question: What does the picture look like?
Photo “realism”
genre of painting based on using the camera and photographs to gather information and then from this information, creating a painting that appears to be very realistic like a photograph. The term is primarily applied to paintings from the United States art movement that began in the late 1960s and early 1970s.
Picture plane
refers to the imaginary plane through which artists view their subject. This plane also corresponds to the two-dimensional surface upon which a drawing is created.
Pigment
dry coloring matter (especially an insoluble powder to be mixed with a liquid to produce paint etc)
Pointillism
artistic style characterized by use of tiny dots of paint that when seen together make up a whole image (Seurat)
Pop art
an art movement that used popular everyday images and objects from popular culture and transforms them into artworks
Portrait
a drawing, painting, or photograph of a person, especially the face
Positive space
Space in an artwork that is positive. Filled with something, such as lines, designs, color, or shapes.
Post-Impressionism
1885-1920.This is a handy title for what wasn’t a movement, but a group of artists (Cézanne, Van Gogh, Seurat and Gauguin, primarily) who moved past Impressionism and on to other, separate endeavors. They kept the light and color Impressionism bought, but tried to put some of the other elements of art – form and line, for example – back in art.
Post-Modernism
art style which embraces an eclectic combination of all styles and periods in works of art and does not differentiate between high art and popular (or low) art, often mixing informal and formal elements, (1970’s) An art movement reacting modernism, that uses hystorical styles, playful illusion and decoration in the design
Primary colors
Three colors from which all other colors originate. They are red, blue and yellow.
Principles of Art
rules that govern how artists organize the elements of art. RYTHM, MOVEMENT, PATTERN, BALANCE, PROPRTION, VARIETY, EMPHASIS, and HARMONY
Printmaking
artist repeatedly transfers an original image from one prepared surface to another. There are three basic steps in printmaking. (1) The artist creates the printing plate, a mirror image of the final print (2) He or she applies ink to the plate, and (3) presses paper against the plate to transfer the ink to it. Together, all the prints made from the same plate, or set of plates, form an edition.
Proportion
A principle of design that refers to the size relationship of an artwork to each other and to the whole.
Radial balance
a type of balance of different figures around a common central axis to achieve a radiating effect. A circular composition in which elements project outward from a central core like the spokes of a wheel.
Realism
an artistic style that focused on accurately depicting the details of everyday life
Regionalists
Painters of the 1930s, typically in the Midwest, who found their subject matter in the towns and farms of their own locale.
Relief sculpture
3-D image whose flat back ground surface is carved away to a certain depth, setting off the figure. High/ Low relief depends on the projection of the figure from the background.
Renaissance
The period from 1400 to 1600 that witnessed a transformation of cultural and intellectual values from primarily Christian to classical or secular ones.
Repetition
the use of the same visual effects a number of times in the same project; the consistent repetition of graphic elements works to create visual unity
Representation
a creation that is a visual or tangible rendering of someone or something
Rhythm
the repetition of lines, shapes, or colors to create a feeling of movement.
Rococo
late Baroque artistic style that was lighter and more playful and used ornate decoration, pastel colors, and asymmetrical arrangement of shell-like curves
Rubbing
process of placing a piece of paper on an actual texture, then coloring over it with pencil or crayon
Scale
increasing or decreasing the original pictures height and width by percentage
Sculpture
A work of art made by shaping wood, stone, or other material into a certain form.
Secondary colors
When two primary colors are combined, the result is a secondary color. They are green, orange and violet.
Shade
Using a mixture of black mixed with a color to make it darker. The opposite of shade is tint.
Shape
An element of design that that is an enclosed space, having only two dimensions. Shapes can be geometric (squares, triangle etc…) or organic (free form).
Sighting
taking measurements of objects you wish to draw by using a ruler, pencil, etc. This technique will help with placement, proportion, checking angles, and determining relationships
Space
An element of design that indicates areas around, above, below, between, or inside objects: positive space is the area occupied by an object, and negative space is the area surrounding an object.
Split complements
The split-complementary color scheme is a variation of the complementary color scheme. In addition to the base color, it uses the two colors adjacent to its complement. Ex. violet with yellow-orange and yellow-green.
Still life
painting or sculpture representing inanimate subjects such as flowers, fruit, or objects
Stippling
a pattern of closely spaced dots or small marks used to create a sense of three-dimension on a flat surface, especially in drawing and printmaking. A shading technique using dots placed in a greater or lesser proximity to indicate value changes
Style
a way of expressing something that is characteristic of a particular person or group of people or period, Artwork distinguished by the particular characteristics that make it unique.
Stylization
a manner of representation in which the artist deliberately alters reality often to communicate a message, intent, or emotional state. A stylized work conforms to an idea or convention rather than nature, This is the name given to a scenic style that distorts and exaggerates reality. We normally associate the word “cartoon” with this style
Subject
something (a person or object or scene) selected by an artist or photographer for graphic representation
Super-Realism
genre of painting based on using the camera and photographs to gather information and then from this information, creating a painting that appears to be very realistic like a photograph. The term is primarily applied to paintings from the United States art movement that began in the late 1960s and early 1970s.
Surrealism
…an art style developed in Europe in the 1920’s, characterized by using the subconscious as a source of creativity to liberate pictorial subjects and ideas. Surrealist paintings often depict unexpected or irrational objects in an atmosphere of fantasy, creating a dreamlike scenario; An art movement in which one’s dreams, nightmares, sub consciousness and fantasy inspired the final works.
Symbolism
an artistic movement in the late 19th century that tried to express abstract or mystical ideas through the symbolic use of images., When an image, object or person is used to represent a deeper emotion or feeling.
Ex: The eagle is a bird and a symbol of American freedom and justice.
Symmetry
The correspondence in size, shape, and relative position of parts on opposite sides of a median line or about a central axis. Also referred to as formal balance.
Tempera
1. A type of paint made by mixing pigment with a sticky substance, such as egg yolk or glue, that is soluble in water.2. Painting done with this type of paint.
Tertiary colors
These are colors created by combining a primary color and a secondary color. They are yellow-green, blue-green, blue-violet, red-violet, red-orange and yellow-orange.
Texture
the element of art that refers to how things feel, or look as if they might feel if touched.
Three-dimensional
A term describing a drawing that has length, width, and depth., An image in which there is a sense of depth and perspective.
Tint
a lighter value of a color, created by adding white to the color
Tone
the general effect of color or of light and shade in a picture.
Transparent
Allowing light to pass through so that objects on the other side can be seen
Two-dimensional
Having length and width. Having area, but not volume. Also called a plane figure., representing only the dimensions of width and height without showing depth or thickness
Unity
the combination of all elements and principles of art working together to achieve a sense of harmony in your design; grouping related items close together, what makes the art feel complete because everything seems to be in harmony and works together
Value
the element of art that describes the darkness or lightness of an object., The lightness or darkness of a color in relation to a scale ranging from white to black.
Vanishing Point
The point(s) in a picture where all parallel lines that run from the viewer to the horizon line appear to come together. It is generally placed at the viewer’s eye level., In linear perspective, lines converge towards this point on the horizon.
Variety
A principle of art concerned with combining one or more elements of art in different ways to create interest. The use of different lines, shapes and colors in a piece of work.
Viewing frame
A piece of paper with an area cut from the middle. By holding the frame at arm’s legnth and looking through it at the subject, the artist can focus on the area of the subject he or she wants to draw or paint
Visual arts
types of art in which you make something for people to look at, for example painting, drawing, and photography
Visual weight
Visual weight often refers to the weight an object appears to have in a drawing, painting, or design has. In a drawing, the visual weight is strongly related to areas with light values (which appear visually light in weight) and dark values (appearing visually heavy. 2. This refers to the inclination of shapes to float or sink on their solidity and composition location. 3. The potential of any element or area of a drawing to attract the eye.
Warm colors
reds, oranges, and yellows
these colors tend to come forward or advance in a picture/painting
Watercolor paint
Paint that consists of pigment in a vehicle of water and gum arabic, a sticky plant substance that acts as the binder. Outscoped by oil paints, most common water-based paint
-transparent
-more water added to the paint to make tints
-lighter colors applied first, then darker colors
Color
An element of art that is derived from reflected light. A visual response to different wave lengths of light. (red,yellow,blue,green)

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