Explain how the past exists in the present
-the past requires interpretation
-interpretation constructs the past
-archaeological knowledge is heavily influenced by contemporary concerns
-knowledge is built form argument striving for census
-is there ever a truth?

Explain how archaeology is like a jigsaw
-it will never be finished
-we don’t know how many pieces there are
-most pieces are lost forever
-can’t cheat and look at the picture
-requires imagination

What are the 4 goals of archaeology?
Form= distribution in variation of time and space
Function= force behind past activities
Process= how and why things vary and change
Meaning= socio-cultural motivations, belief systems, of the past, what it means to be us

Explain how archaeology is the same and different to history
Same – both concerned with historical explanation
Different – evidence, timescale, cross cultural perspective, nomothetic archaeology (pattern or rule seeking) vs idiographic history (focused on particular events)

Explain how archaeology is the same and different to science
Same – gain knowledge by observation
Different – archaeology is much more interpretive

Explain how archaeology is the same and different as science
Same – gaining knowledge by explaining
Different – archaeology is more interpretive

Explain nomothetic and idiographic
Nomothetic (archaeology) is an inquiry that is rule seeking
Idiographic (history) is an inquiry focused on particular events e.g. succession of kings

What is the method of archaeology? What is the purpose of these methods?
Methods: discover, recover, preserve, describe, analyse
Purpose: systematic, repeatable, comparable, refutable

Anything modified by a human, either by physical alteration of movement from its natural context
-usually portable
-either modified or synthetic

Organic or environmental materials
e.g. food remains, transported rocks, culturally modified soils

Activity area within a site
e.g. oven, rubbish pit, concentration of artefacts as result of toolmaufacturing

Archaeological Site
The most fundamental spatial unit in archaeology
-a place where artefacts, ecofacts and features are found together
-usually in a primary context (where something was first deposited) though sometimes in a secondary context (something moved from its primary context)

Explain defining a site
-very flexible as it is hard to define the edges
-can be a whole town, can be a monument
-could have been occupied for years or hours
-important to be consistent in single study
Open site= e.g. midden
Architectural site= e.g. earthworks, walls, pa site
Natural site= e.g. rock shelters, caves, lava tubes
Find spot= not a site in the conventional sense

Archaeological Landscape
A spatial concept incorporating environmental context and relationships (e.g. settlement patterns) between sites
-includes ‘offsite’ work such as field systems

Deflated site
When something becomes more spread out flat and loses its stratified structure

Depositional Process
The deliberate or accidental inclusion of material in the archaeological record. Transforming something from a cultural/behavioral context to an archaeological context
-discard, burial, loss, abandonment, catastrophe
-includes the deposition of both artefacts and soil
-soil helps to evidence and separate artefacts from different time periods
-without soil the artefact may not be preserved at all

Reclamation Process
When people take items out of the archaeological record for contemporary use ( only to go back into the archaeological record)
e.g. excavating moa bone for fish hooks when they have already been extinct

Reuse Process
Objects transformed before entering the archaeological record
e.g. stone tools gradually becoming smaller from resharpening

Disturbance Process
Cultural= where sites are damages by post-depositional human activity e.g. ploughing, digging wells
Natural= naturally occurring events that transform the record e.g. rodents digging, freezing or thawing, erosion

What are the 8 types of turbation
Pertubation= humans effect the distribution of artefacts
Pedoturbation= disturbance of soils around artefacts
Faunalturbation= animals effect the distribution of artefacts
Aeroturbation= wind erosion of artefacts
Cryoturbation= the effect of freezing of artefacts
Floralturbation= trees and plants effect the distribution of artefacts
Graviturbation= artefacts are moved downslope through gravity
Seismiturbation= the effects of an earthquake on artefacts

What are some good preservation environments
-inorganic material
-very dry environment
-deserts (because salty soil inhibits decay)
-certain caves
-very wet environments (waterlogged, anaerobic, where oxygen can’t get it)
-frozen environments

What are some bad preservation environments?
-organic material
-tropical rain forests
-wet, but not constantly (not anaerobic)
-acidic soils

To understand the archaeological record, we must first understand…
-the cultural processes that determine what enters the record
-the natural process that affect what is preserved
-the cultural and natural processes that disturb the record before and after formation

Explain the scientific approach to archaeology
-encounter empirical ‘facts’ or observations of the world (inductive reasoning)
-formulate hypothesis
-use argument to decide on possible consequences
-attempt to verify and falsify hypothesis by testing against it e.g. excavation (deductive reasoning)

Explain the alternative approach to archaeology
-modify the formal hypothesis testing approach to make it flexible and less predetermined
-‘problem orientation’ rather than hypothesis
-questions prior to assumptions with existing classifications or prejudice
-encounter record as if for the first time

Probabilistic Sampling
A means of relating small samples to larger populations in a mathematical way
-random sampling
-systematic sampling
-stratified sampling

Explain bias in archaeological excavation
Depositional Bias= cultural or systematic process
Taphonomic Bias= survival issues
Recover Bias= excavation method, equipment
-recovery bias can be prevented
-depositional bias and taphonomic bias can only be controlled for

Explain bias with the example of trolling lures being more predominant in museums
Depositional Bias= easily replaced so thrown away more often?
Taphonomic Bias= survive better as made from harder materials?
Recover Bias= fossickers were only interested in that type of lure?
-this is why museum collections have limited use for archaeological hypothesis (because they lack context)

Explain how archaeological survey and excavation is not probabilistic
-particularly in recovery and heritage management archaeology
-most sites are found accidentally
-site concentrations often follow patterns of activity e.g. roads
-we can rarely say how representative we are as we never know how much we have

Explain achieving a probabilistic balance in sampling
-combine methods or probabilistic and non probabilistic methods e.g. a site found randomly will be tested in the surrounding units

Aerial Survey
-able to see shadows and depressions
-useful for defining as much as discovery
Oblique Photography= at an angle, better for perspective, easy to understand and interpret
Vertical Photography= straight down, good for making maps

-aerial surveying using a radar
-units are big and expensive (have to put it in a plane)
-getting smaller…cheaper…more popular
-penetrates foliage to see underneath
-creates a photo of a site with no foliage

Unmanned Aerial Vehicle
-getting cheaper…more popular
-can fly at low levels so don’t need such a good camera

Pedestrian Survey
-unsystematic walk over
-systematic transect grid (standard measured area)
-most effective in area of good visibility
-difficult in developed or forested areas
-repeat visits are necessary (natural changes)

Subsurface methods
-test pits
(increasingly destructive)

Remote sensing
-survey by instrument anomaly
Electromagnetism= detects archaeological features as anomalies on the earths magnetic field
Soil Resistivity= moisture differences in soil creates differential electrical resistence
Ground Penetrating Radar= radio waves in short pulses sent into the ground, can produce a 3D image

Law of superposition
Oldest layers are on the bottom and most recent layers are on the top
-this does not necessarily mean that items found deeper are older e.g. if a pit was dug, natural occurrences

Explain site preperation
1) areas are defined (e.g. excavation zone, pathways, eating area)
2) area to be excavated is cleared
3) the grid is laid out (usually aligned according to compass bearing)
4) the datum is established (fixed point in 3D space)
5) maps are made of the site with grid and datum marked on

Building a dam and pumping the water out of it to excavate an underwater site

When does an excavation finish?
-when sterile dirt is reached
-all holes should be filled in

Explain layers vs spits
-spits do not cross natural layers
-spits allow vertical control as artefacts are recorded with reference to the spit they were discovered in
-grid units allow horizontal control

Explain the recording of a site
-all material is bagged and numbered for post excavation analysis
-site plans and section drawings are made
-this all allows the excavation to be reconstructed later

An assessment of what’s happened to an object/animal between its deposition/death and discovery
-discuss post depositional change
-probability of taphonomy increases with time
-taphos= tomb/burial
-nomos= law

Explain human vs non-human deposition in regards to taphonomy
-often assumed that humans are responsible for the collection of animals remains, but scavenging/hunter animals also accumulate bones e.g. hyena
-some human activity has no traces of animal remains e.g. using cattle for milk and blood leave little remains

What are the taphonomic agents for humans, animals and nature?
Humans= butchering, burning, smashing, trampling, removing, re-using
Animals= scavenging, hoarding, burying, trampling, mixing
Natural= exposure, diagenisis fluvial (water) transport, wind transport

What are the taphonomic indicators?
Abrasion, (Dis)Articulation, Bioerosion, Dissolution, Rounding, Encrustation, Fragmentation, Orientation, Size

Abrasion (taphonomic)
Wear due to movement amongst sediments indicates environmental energy. significant abrasion is commonly found on artefacts collected from beach, sand dune, river bank environments

(Dis)Articulation (taphonomic)
Multi-element skeletons are easily disturbed when naturally exposed. Articulated skeletons indicate rapid burial or the protection of a skeleton from the original environment. Dis articulation is common in animal butchering.

Bioerosion (taphonomic)
Bioerosion encompasses many different corrosion processes. the most pervasive causes of bone degradation are boring, grazing and chemical abrasion from digestion. Bioerosion erases information from the fossil record, but it also leaves identifiable traces made by organisms.

Rounding (taphonomic)
Broken edges become rounded owing to dissolution and/or abrasion of exposed surfaces. Processes that control edge rounding often include a combination of dissolution, abrasion and bioerosion.

Encrustation (taphonomic)
e.g. coral, limpets, licken. Besides initiating exposure of the skeleton, encrustation can specify a particular environment.

Fragmentation (taphonomic)
Breakage is sometimes an indication of high energy resulting from wave action or currents, or by other organisms through either predation, scavenging or trampling.

Orientation (taphonomic)
After deposition, artefacts can be transported and orientated relative to weight/shape properties. Objects tend to orient long axis parallel to unidirectional flow in current dominated areas and perpendicular to wave crests.

Size (taphonomic)
Objects are moved and sorted with respect to the carrying capacity of flow or current or wave.

Wet sieving
-increases small species recovery
-increases skeletal element representation
-reduces likelihood that taphonomic factors influence assemblage

Primary refuse
Archaeological remains that have been subject to minimal taphonomic effect
-rare in archaeology
-e.g. Olsen Chubbuck site (190 bison kill site)

Consumption sequence
1) hindquarter flesh
2) forequarter flesh
3) head flesh
4) hindlimb marrow
5) forelimb marrow
6) head contents

Relative dating
The age of a layer, object of feature, in relation to another layer, object or feature

Absolute dating
Independent measurement in specific unit of time (years ago) of the age of a layer, object or feature

Explain how relative chronology is important
-allows us to develop a sequence
-we can get an appropriate age of a site if no material is available for absolute dating
-before radiocarbon dating, it was almost the only method available
-creation of a sequence based on stratigraphic arrangement, temporal arrangement of artefacts and chronological association

Explain typological sequences
-based on assumption that material culture changes over time
-artefacts with similar attributes are of a similar types
-change through time is gradual
-artefact type is interpreted as a ‘time maker’
-evolutionary sequences (e.g. paleolithic, neolithic) or complex sequences (e.g. simple to complex)
-simple is not always earlier, so be careful of which end of the sequence if first

What does evolutionary sequencing rely on?
-artefacts of a single place and time have an identifiable style
-that change is gradual evolutionary

Temporal ordering or artefact assemblages (groups of objects instead of single artefacts) assuming that cultural styles and technologies change over time

Contextual Seriation
Duration of type styles (introduced by Flinder Petrie) sometimes called ‘occurance seriation’ because it relies on presence/absence of types

Frequency Seriation
Changes in proportional abundance or ‘frequence’
Problem: can be effected by patterns which are non temporal e.g. ethnicity, function, social status

Explain relative change
Physical change- degradation over time
Chemical dating-nitrogen reduces with time, flourine and uranium is gradually absorbed over time

Absolute/Chronometric time
-a measure of time according to a global and fixed standard
-allows us to determine how quickly changes occurred
-allows us to determine whether events occurred simultaneously or at different times in different regions of the world

Explain the time scale for absolute dating
-need an agreed measure of time
-absolute dating methods must be converted to calender years
-archaeologists, with the advent of radioactive dating, use BP before present) 1950AD
-tend to convert dates to AD/BC

Annual growth rings in trees (vary in size with life of tree and depending on climate variation each year
-overlapping sequence can be produced going back thousands of years

Applications of dendrochronology
Radiocarbon calibration – dates on wood can be calibrated to their known age
Direct tree ring dating – when people in the past used timber to construct houses etc, this can be matched to a know sequence
By association – e.g. ceramics from a site in Germany were associated with timber walls

Limitations of dendrochronology
-can only be used in temperate regions where marked seasons occur (not in the tropics)
-for direct tree ring dating, the wood must be of the same species used for the master sequence and well preserved
-timber may be older than the structure it was used in

Radio carbon dating
-announced in 1949 by Williard Libby
-based on the fact that radioactive materials decay at a known rate

-heavy carbon isotope is unstable (8 neutrons, 6 protons)
-produced in atmosphere via cosmic rays, absorbed by plants through carbon dioxide and animals by eating plants
-ratio C14:C12 = 1:1,000,000,000,000 in living organisms
-half life= time till have the C14 has decayed (Libby said 5,568 but actually 5,730 years)

How do you avoid contaminating a sample?
-don’t touch
-put in a plastic bag
-keep out of light
-dis-include modern carbon

What are the issues with radio carbon dating?
-restricted use (<400 years or >50,000 years)
-in built age
-reservoir effect (fish look old)
-atom bomb effect (more carbon everywhere)
-calibration curve and other uncertainties

Potassium Argon Dating
-dates volcanic rock (>100,000 years old)
-early hominid sites
-radioactive K40 isotope decays to inert gas Ar40 (clock set when rock solidifies)
-half life of 1.3 billion years
-large error range (60,000 years)
– accuracy of about 10%
-limited to sites of volcanic rock

Uranium Series
-dates non-volcanic, Calcium-Carbonate rich rock
-500,000-50,000 years old
-2 radio active ‘parent’ Uranium isotopes decay to 2 ‘daughter’ elements
-parent= soluble, daughter= not soluble
-can directly date limestone and teeth

Trapped electron methods
-dates crystalline materials (minerals)
-when atoms in crystal exposed to radiation, electrons detach and trap in lattice defects within the crystal
-if radiation is consistent, electrons accumulate at a constant rate

Thermoluminescence dating
-low precision method (but can date pottery and burnt flint tools)
-exposure to heat empties electron trap (reflecting time)
-10% error rate

Optical Dating (OSL)
-similar to thermoluminescence, but dates minerals exposed to the light
-sub-set of electron traps are emptied by a few minutes of exposure to sun

Obsidian Hydration
-when obsidian is flaked, the outside surface begins absorbing water, forming hydration layer that increases over time
-if linear rate of absorption is known, a date can be established
-hydration rate not universal (sunlight, temp, chem-composition)
-must establish hydration rate for each obsidian source and allow for temperature

When was New Zealand settled?
No reliable radiocarbon dates for settlement before 800 years ago

-act of conserving
-prevention of injury, waste, decay, loss
-splits into preservation and restoration

Stabilizing the condition of an artefact
-goal is to prevent further deterioration or damage taking place

Purposefully changing the material and structure of an artefact
-goal is to return an artefact to its original form as closely as possible

What is an archaeologists’ aim?
To preserve entire sites and the artefacts within them. This is where we differ from conservators who usually operate on an artefact level. We need preservation of context.

What threatens the archaeological heritage
1) large infrastructure projects (e.g. roads)
2) agricultural intensification (e.g. plantation development)
3) natural environmental damage (e.g. bushfire)
4) tourism
5) looting of sites
6) warfare
7) archaeology

Lascaux Cave destruction
-17,000 year old rock art in France
-1940= first discovered
-1948= first open to the public
-1955= CO2, caused by visitors, recorded as damaging
-1963= cave closed to the public
-1983= replica cave opened
-1998= original cave invaded by fungi, mold and bacteria
-2008= visitation extremely restricted

Explain the protecting of archaeological sites
-global and national registers
-bias to large/spectacular sites
-bias to recent heritage and history
-portable archaeology often worked with

Explain archaeology as a threat
-destroys parts of sites
-removes items from their contexts
-risk of destroying fragile items
-increase decay rate

Explain archaeological responsibility
-excavate only part of a site
-thorough documentation
-careful recovery of items
-appropriate treatment of ‘at risk’ material

Explain the decay of material
-begins when artefacts are i use (though most material are in equilibrium with environment
-after burial they have to adapt to new microenvironment (chemical)
-recovery changes environement

What are the materials that require specialist treatment?
-human remains
-wooden items
-animal skin
-painted objects

What are the archaeological contexts requiring specialist treatment?
-cemetery or mortuary zones (human remains)
-swamps/water logged areas
-marine sites
-hot/arid environments

Lapita pots destruction
-New Caledonia
-excavation by Christophe Sand
-pots wrapped in plaster bandages
-cracked on trip home
-no NZ conservation facilities or funds

Explain the conservation plan before excavating
1) research site environment
2) research site age and range of materials expected to find
3) anticipate kinds of problems

Explain preservation during excavation
-exposure and cleaning
-consolidation (adding an adhesive solution to things that will fall apart when removed
-lifting (giving proper support)
-transport and storage

Explain the reductive technology of stone tools
-stone is acquired then shaped by removing material
-the more complex the artefact, the more reduction required
-reduction can be achieved by flaking, pecking or grinding

Explain the linear process of a stone tool
-raw material procurement

Explain throwing a stone for manufacturing purposes
A simple tool can be made by smashing a stone, and then using the sharp edge produced
-not very efficient use of stone, not a very sharp end product

Conchoidal Fracture
When homogenous material is struck at a single point, a shock wave shaped like a cone travels through the material, with the peak of the cone at the point of percussion
-controlled flaking

Flake anatomy
-Striking platform (planar surface where the hammer stone struck the core)
-Bulb of Percussion (bulge below striking platform that reflects the way the force of the hammer stone traveled)
-Ripple Marks (wave like undulations radiating from bulb of percussion in progressively larger arcs)
-Concavities (marks where the earlier flakes were removed)
-Cortex (original weathered surface of core)

Core anatomy
-Negative flake scars (each representing the removal of a flake)
-flake scars may preserve a negative bulb matching the bulb of percussion from that flake

2.6-1 mya
-simple core (chopper) and flake technology

1.7-0.25 mya
-hand axes, bifacially flaked (from 2 sides) to produce a symmetrical tool

Movius Line
Separates the areas of Oldowan and Acheulean

150,000 ya
-prepared core technology designed to produce large flakes of predetermined size and shape
-Africa, Europe and parts of Asia
-associated with Neanderthals and Mousterian

-middle stone age Africa (200kya)
-upper palaeolithic Europe (30/40kya)
-produced large number pf blanks that could be further retouched into a wide range of tool types
-effective use of raw material (greater length of working edge)

Pressure Flaking
-pointed bone or antler used to press tiny flakes off the edge of a tool (therefore no percussion used)
-results in very long sharp cutting edge which provides a degree of control
-can be used to create sophisticated arrow head
-no obvious bulb of percussion

-tools are roughed out via flaking
-grinding produces final form
-enables many more stone types to be used
-more control over variables (e.g. edges)

What are the stages in stone tool development?
-Oldowan (2.6-1mya)
-Acheulean (1.7-0.25mya)
-Levallois (150kya)
-Blades (2000kya in Middle stone age, 30/40kya in Upper Paleolithic)
-Pressure flaking (20kya)

-debris accumulates where a person sat making a tool, this can be refitted like a jig saw
-useful in qaurries, or settlements where different activities are conducted in different areas of the site

-microscopic analysis of working edges
-experimental work to reconstruct what material tools were used on

Residue analysis
-microscopic analysis of trace elements of debris from use (e.g. blood, silica, pollen)

What are the 4 main types of wear?
-edge rounding
-edge damage/scarring/chipping

Classification using shared attributes that vary in some way

Ground stone tools
-grind stone to desired shape, polish with sand
-laborious and slow
-make robust tools
-e.g. axe, mortar, pestle

Chipped stone tools
-remove small chips/flakes from core
-e.g. projectile points, flake tools, blades, scrapers, burins

Percussion flaking
Flakes are driven off by striking with another stone

What are the two examples of synthetic material?

Explain the relationship between ceramics and people
-many origin legends say humans made from and transformed by a creator into sentient beings
-pottery also consists of natural material and is transformed by humans into beings
-same terminology between humans and pottery e.g. lips, mouth, body, shoulder, leg

Invention of ceramics
Usually associated as part of the neolithic revolution which includes
-ground stone tools

When/where were the earliest ceramics?
-Xianrendong, near Yangzi river, China

What are the ingredients of pottery

-selected with care from specific sources with different geological characteristics (often traded)
-consistency of clay is critical
-pounded and mixed with water to make it even in texture and plasticity
-kneaded to remove air bubbles which can cause explosions during firing

-the course component in a paste (clay), usually assumed to have been added by potters to modify the properties of the clay
-a substance in clay that modifies properties when wet or dry as well as before and after firing
-some clay has natural temper inclusion (most is added artificially)
-e.g. sand, shell, crushed stone, crushed pottery, straw, rice

Why add temper?
-to combat pot shrinkage and help with the pot withstanding thermal shock (when clay is fired, water is lost and it can crack)
-temper maintains even heat distribution
-alter the strength of the final product (the finer the temper the stronger the pot)

Pinching (to make pottery)
-open clay by inserting thumb or fingers into clay mass and squeeze clay between thumb and fingers
-often used for small vessels that can be held in one hand or to form the bases of larger vessels that are build up by other methods

Slab building (to make pottery)
-vessel constructed from one or more slabs of clay that are rolled or patted flat then joined to create vessel shape
-often flat bases or rectangular, also cylinder with vertical seam

Coiling (to make pottery)
-common manufacturing technique
-coils or ropes of clay build up to establish the vessel circumference
1) ring coiling
2) spiral coiling
3) segmental coiling

Paddle and anvil (to make pottery)
-often secondary forming technique (sometimes primary)
-once a clay mass is open, a flat or concave stick is used on the exterior surface and a small anvil is opposed on the opposite surface

Wheel – throwing (to make pottery)
-lump of clay is placed in the centre of the potter’s wheel
1) clay is opened by inserting fingers into the mass
2) vessel is shaped by lifting the clay, aided by centrifugal force, with one hand inside and the other hand outside

Wheel – rilling (to make pottery)
-characteristic marks on inside and outside made o a wheel
-undulating ridges and striations

Mold (to make pottery)
-section of clay pressed into/onto a prepared mold
-molds may be formed of plaster or clay and require a parting agent to be applied to the mold

Burnishing (pottery)
Unfired pot is rubbed with a stone or other tool to create a shiny finish. this improves ability to hold water and can be decorative.

Slips (pottery)
Often on a wet clay solution, same or different clay type, colour, iron content etc painted onto surface of unfired pot. Decorative, couple with burnishing to improve water tightness

Glazes (pottery)
A form of slip that becomes glass-like when fired at high temperatures

Incising, stamped, impressed (pottery)
Decorations cut or stamped into surface with tools e.g. combs, shells, nails, cords

Applique (pottery)
Pieces of clay added to surface as decoration, or for handling, suspension etc

Drying (pottery)
-typically drying takes days or weeks
-if a vessel is dried to rapidly, or if drying is incomplete, flaws develop
-need to dry until it is ‘leather hard’ (when most of the water has gone)

Firing (pottery)
-early firing was in open hearths (low temperatures/nonwater proof pots)
-kilns provide more control; and higher temperatures
-pots fired at >900C = vitrification, glaze, stoneware, strong pottery, waterproof
-pots fired at <900C = terracotta, porous, coarse, weak pottery

Oxidation/reduction of pottery
-dark core flanked by light surface
-can be caused by the firing temperature being too low to fully oxidize the clay or insufficient time of firing
-oxidizing= if there is a surplus of oxygen present to burn the fuel completely
reducing= if there is less than enough oxygen present to full consume fuel

Made form coarse clays fired at low temperatures (below 900C) so that the grains do not vitrify (melt together)

Made form relatively coarse clays, lightly fired (1050-1150C), not fired to vitrification

Made form finer clays fired at temperatures of 1180-1280C, partially vitrified, opaque

Made from finest clays such as kaolin, fired at temperatures 1200-1400C completely vitrified, often white unless artificially coloured

Explain the classification of pottery
-necessary for analysing any ceramic assemblages
-common attributes include pot portion, rim shape, colour, material, vessel shape
-distinction between functional and stylistic attributes
-sherds are sometimes reconstructed into complete pots

Explain analysing the form and function of pottery
-historically, archaeologists have relied on artefact form to hypothesis function
-can be dangerous
-new advances in functional research (gas chromotography, gas chromotography mass spectrometry

Lipids (pottery)
-organic substances that resist mixing with water (fats, oils)
-looking at C13/C12 ratios
-good for investigating function
1) grind up pieces of shards
2) separate fatty acid in lipid fraction
3) analyse using GCMS to identify lipid molecular structure

Explain analysing pottery using analogy and experiments
Analogy= examination of techniques used by contemporary potters to interpret those used in the past
Experiment= controlled manufacture of pots, to replicate prehistoric technology and test hypothesis e.g. strength, water retention, firing temperature etc

Explain analyzing the sourcing of pottery
-chemical characterisation of temper or other inclusions or the clay itself
-determine possible source characteristics
-compare archaeological assemblages with known sources
-local vs non-local sources
-exchange or population movement?

Explain the vertical dimension
-time in archaeology is change (layers, style)
-interpreted as phases of occupation
-interpretation of change is almost inferring a variety of sites that exhibit parallel changes i.e. at societal level
-change is seldom self explanatory
-dating tells us when, but not why
-the understanding of change is theory dependent

What are the assumptions of culture history?
-based on descriptive research methods (generalizations)
-begins with assumption that abstract rules govern what a given culture considers to be normal behaviour (normative view)
-archaeological culture= a material manifestation of a peoples normative behaviour

What is the method of culture history?
-identify research area with survey and excavation
-establish chronological sequence based on seriation
-excavations test, refine, expand sequences
-artefacts are barometers of change
-definition of phases within defined area
-horizons link phases across areas
-traditions= lasting artefact types that exist for longer than phases

Explain the invention interpretation of culture history
Creating a new idea and transforming it into an artefact or other tangible innovation (was thought to occur in one place and the diffuse, now recognize multiple centres of innovation

Explain the diffusion interpretation of culture history
Spread of traits from a centre of innovation, assumes similar artefacts are historically related and did not result form convergent evolution. Requires chronological control

Explain the migration interpretation of culture history
People take their culture with them when they migrate, change often seen as ‘invasion’ by a new group

What are the problems with the invention, diffusion and migration interpretations of culture history?
-they’re not explanatory (say what but not why)
-how do we separate local innovation from external inputs
-often incorrect
-do cultures represent real entities rather than classifications?
-ethnic groups do not always stand out in the record

What are Gordon Child’s 10 points of urban evolution?
Dense urban populations, full time craft specialisation, organised religion, ruling class, monumental architecture, writing, arithmetic geometry astronomy, conceptual art, long distance trade, state organisation or kinship

Processual archaeology
-new archaeology (1960) by Lewis Binford
-sought to provide explanatory framework
-attempt to isolate different processes
-heavily influenced by science
-aimed for objectivity
-archaeological reasoning should be explicit
-universal laws for humanity (generalising)
-drew heavily on ethnographic analogy

Systems theory
-part of processual archaeology
-based on idea of culture as composed of a series of systems interacting with each other and the environment
-over time, systems compete for energy (maintenance is dependent of equilibrium between systems)
-loss of equilibrium=culture change

What are the types of processual archaeology?
-early functional processualism
-Marxist archaeology
-evolutionary archaeology
-cognitive processual archaeology

Early functional processualism
-stress on environmental, demographic or subsistence factors as motivation for change e.g. population increase puts stress on environment which leads to modification of subsistence behaviour
-very nomothetic in approach i.e. law seeking, universal truth

Explain the origins of the state of Peru
-part of functional processualism
-population growth lead to intensification of production
-when population growth outstrips production, warefare and intergroup competition is the results
-dominance of some villages results in several chiefdoms and eventually dominance of a paramount chiefdom = state

Explain the origins of farming
-part of functional processualism
-climate change allowed hunter gatherers to become sedentary by exploiting new habitats created by rising sea level
-farming origins not though migration or diffusion, but because of environmental change and population pressure

Marxist archaeology
-influenced by work of Karl Marx
-change is the result of contradiction in social structure (class struggle)
-focus on ideology, usually interested in the maintenance of hegemony and development of ranked society from an egalitarian beginning
-similar to systems approach but the systems are social

Evolutionary archaeology
Adaptionist= change occurs via mechanisms of adaptions to environment
Selectionist=material culture subject to natural selection

Cognitive Processual
Applies lessons from post-processual archaeology, but retains notion that data can be tested against facts

Post processual archaology
-developed from frustration with processualism not taking things into account (social and cultural factors, the role of individual agency, lack of emphasis on historical cultural factors, too much emphasis on universal laws, can we be objective?), Ian Hodder
-shouldn’t overlook past society beliefs
-humans are agents guided by tradition
-culture change occurs gradually

Explain Hodder’s domestication of Europe
-why did people accept agriculture and all of its constraints?
-why did they allow themselves to become domesticated?
-Hodder argued that in South-Eastern Europe, village formation and economic intensification through the neolithic coincided with an explosion of symbolism associated with the domos (house) as opposed to the agrios (wild)

-house portrayed as productive unit, safe and secure
-burial of ancestors under floor emphasis continuity
-wild and dangerous were brought into the house (e.g. animals to be tamed)
-collective values were stressed over individualistic behaviour
-house was a metaphor for control of the wild and stood for domestication of society

-intensification of agriculture=intensifying competition of resources=increased conflict/warefare
-increased control of external domain
-evidence by expansion of plough agriculture, the appearance of weapons, social inequality, dead into cemeteries
-tombs take on previous shape of round houses

Why the shift from domos to agrios?
-at the beginning of the neolithic, the house was used in order to create long term structures in relation to the ancestors
-but through time, as agricultural intensification and public work increased, so did the emphasis on community scale structures, therefore emphasis shifted from household to outside

Middle range archaeology
-coined by Robert King Merton in 1949
-criticized low level descriptive data gathering and grand abstract social theories
-argued researchers should first convincingly explain a subset of soical phenomena and test explanations with empirical research
-brought to archaeology by Lewis Binford in the 1970s

Low level theory
Field work data of facts from observations of material

General theory
Overarching framework that structures the way we approach and interpret the archaeological record e.g. processual, post-processual

What are the two theories that middle range research is a combination of?
Low level theory
General theory

What is the problem with low level and general theory
How do we match an archaeological fact with the behaviour that produces it?
e.g. FACT: upper limbs bones of cattle are often missing
1) animal skinned and meat taken off upper limb and put into hide and transported with lower limb to camp
2) upper limb bones disappear because of selective butchery and trade to market
3) upper limb pulverised into bone grease

How does middle range research bridge the argument between low level and general theory?
-generates knowledge necessary to relate world of archaeological fact to general behavioural theory
-observation of contemporary processes provide means of assigning behaviour to the record
-very rigorous form of analogy, though has explanation of ‘why’
-uses uniformitarianism and ethnoarchaeology

Explain Lewis Binford’s case study using middle range research
-Francois Bordes had argued variability in Mousterian tools of Neanderthal cultures
-Binford suspected different assemblages were a product of different activities by the same people
-observed Nunmiut hunters leaving tools behind and animal remains in different locations
-not just a product of culture, but of seasonality, distance to camp, weather, hunting success/failure, transportation etc

Explain Betty Meehan’s study of Aboriginal shellfish use using middle range research
-observed Anbarra people
-different shellfish collected in different seasons
-transported to different places (dinner time camps, home bases, processing areas)
-patterns of processing, dumping, discarding, gender division
-shellfish contributed to diet more in the wet season

Explain the university of Arizona’s Garbage project
-what people in interviews to have bough and consume almost never correspond to their remains
-lean cuisine syndrome= people underreported the quantity if junk food they ate and overreported the fruit and diet soda
-good provider syndrome= heads of households regularly exaggerated the amount of food their families consumed
-underreport alcohol by 40-60%

Experimental archaeology
1) manufacturing tools/objects
2) examining how they function
3) measure time, energy and degree of knowledge

Keeley vs Newcomer
-Newcomer challenged Keely to demonstrate the effectiveness of usewear analysis by making 16 experimental tools which he had used for different acivities
-Keeley correctly identifies area of tools which had been used, type of motion tool was used in and the type of material worked

Why conduct archaeozoology?
-to better understand the relationship between humans and animals
-the emphasis is on anthropological interpretation rather than zoological interpretation

What happens before and after excavation?
-recovery (acquisition of primary data)
-preliminary sorting (fish, bird, small mammal etc)
-identification (what families and/or species are present, collection of secondary data)
-analysis (manipulating secondary data)

Why is context important?
-excavation should establish context
-this is vital for assessing representativeness of assemblages and interpretation
-is it even human related?

What is the difference between primary and secondary data?
Primary data are direct observations while secondary data are derived from primary data e.g. estimating body size or the relative frequencies of taxa

Taxon (taxa)
A general term for a taxonomic group at any level of classification e.g. genus, species

A discrete anatomical component
e.g. shell of gastropd, left femur of dog

The part of a n element collected
e.g. complete shell, hinge of a valve, distal end of left tibia

Number of Identified Specimens
– the raw number of identified bones (specimens) per species
-assumes fragmentation and recovery rate is uniform across taxa
-difficult or impossible to know if elements are from same animal
-animals vary in number of identifiable elements

Minimum Number of Individuals
-the smallest number of animals necessary to account for the specimens identififed to taxon
-product of analysis
-analytical units create variance in MNI (layers, spits? whole site?)
-need to compare fragments to ensure no tfrom same bone

Weight to meat weight
Total weight of bone or shell can be converted to meat weight to estimate contribution to diet

How were animals used by people?
-wild hunting

How can we tell how animals were used by poeple?
-ethnographic analogy (see what we do now and in history)
-experimental archaeology (replicate patterns e.g. butchery)

How do we investigate animal domestication?
-skeletal morphology (reduction in body size, face morphology, tooth placement, horns, juvenilesation)
-population demography (average age at death)
-site assemblages (material culture)
-animal burials (articulated skeletons buried on site)

How do we investigate the seasonality of animals?
-fur seals teeth ridges, growth rings of shells
-are there lots of young animals found (exploited during breeding season)

What are the points to remember about arechaeozoology?
-the object of studying faunal remains is to understand human behaviour
-it is important to develop clear procedures for collection and analysis of faunal remians
-ethnographic analogy is important for modelling past peoples use of animals
-understanding natural animal behaviour and biology also helps in analysis of archaeological populations

Explain the background of plan remains
-role of plants in prehistoric societies was underestimated until late 20th century
-ethnographic studies of hunter gatherers show high reliance on plant food in Kung San (96.4% gatherer, 3.6% hunter)

Why study plant remains?
Important for reconstructing diet, material culture, strategies of use and seasonality, social and cultural uses, medicinal uses, environment, ecological changes, domestication

What types of plant remains can we find?
-macrobotanical (fruits etc, bark etc)
-microbotanical (pollem, phytoliths, diatoms, starch grains, residue)
-plant impressions
-tools and equipment

Explain recovering macrobotanical remains
-preservation: dessicated, waterloggerd, charred, mineralised remains
-recovered by: hand picking, sieving, flotation

Explain recovering microbotanical remains
-more regularly preserved but require targeted techniques and specialist researchers to recover
-CONTEXTS: pollen (buried soils, water logged deposits, faeces), starch/phytoliths (all sediments, pottery, plaster, stone tools, teeth), diatoms (deposits laid down by water), residues (on material culture)
-recovered by: laboratory extraction and microscopy, residues may also require chemical/molecular analysis

Explain the analysis of plant remains
-need a reference collection appropriate for the type of plant remains you are investigating
-how did the plant remains enter the record
-need to understand how people use plants in the past
-context is crucial
-use ethnographic analogy and experimental archaeology

Explain the the effect that domestication had on plants
-higher germination rates
-more predicable and synchronized germination
-increased size of reproductive organs
-a tendency for ripe seeds to stay on the plant
-change in biomass allocation (more fruit, roots and stem)
-reduced physical and chemical defences

Explain the social complexity of plant domestication
-relationship between horticulture, agriculture and social organization
-gradually increasing commitment to domestic plants (esp seed baring) leads to increased labour organization and land use (neolithic revolution?)
-competition restricts cultivation environments

the study of human skeletal remains recovered from archaeological contexts
-focus on cultural treatment of the body or death and inferences about lifeways

hominid evolution behaviour, fossil record, different species of homo

Forensic archaeology
crime scene investigation

What are ethical question of digging burials?
-is it appropriate to dig up burials?
-whose ancestors? who owns the past?
-colonialism and its legacy
-science vs belief

What is the procedure when digging up a burial?
Will differ according to country but in all places you will need to consider consultation and legality
-consultation with indigenous descendants/landowners
-obtain government approval
-police notification (in some circumstances)

What are things that bones can tell us?
-sex, age, ethnic affiliation
-activity patterns (biomechanics)
-genetic relationship

How do we produce a census with human remains?
-identify which elements (bones) of the skeleton and how many individuals are present
-what sex?
-age at death?
-general health pathologies
-ethnic affiliations

What are ways of establishing sex of human remains?
Males: skull larger, more prominent brow, larger jaw, narrow pelvis, more robust long bones
Females: rib cage shorter, pelvis wider, cavity larger
-skull and pelvis are most useful
-population differences affect relative sizes

How do we determine the age at death using long bones?
-epiphyses slowly ossify and fuse to shaft at 15-17 years
-this allows us to pinpoint up to 25, then we focus on bonewear

Establishing health and disease using bioarchaeology
Palaeopathology looks at disease, trauma, dental wear and decay
-can sometimes establish cause of death

Fused thoratic vertebrae
Fusion occurs during healing process after inflammation of ligaments or tendon: new bone forms, hardening one pliable tissue
-ankylosing spondilitis
-rheumatic disease

Explain the link between neanderthals and bull riders
Have a similar pattern of trauma

What are the primary and secondary signs of violence of human remains?
Primary: bullet wounds, embedded projectiles, cut marks, fractures from blows
Secondary: fracture patterns

What does bone healing in human remains suggest?
-good health

How can we tell the diet from human remains?
-presence/absence of dental decay
-tooth wear
-harris lines in bone indicate periods of slower growth (food shortage?)
-isotope analysis of bone collagen (ratios of isotopes can be used to infer marine vs land based diet and relative consumption of meat vs vegetables)

How can we determine the activity patterns of human remains?
-muscle attachment sites are larger on active people
-relative thickness or shape of bone may indicate muscle development
-look for asymmetry (e.g. archery)
-squatting facets= flattened or enlarged areas on ankle and knee bones may indicate habitual positions or practises
-erosion of bones e.g. patella while kneeling

What are the problems with using case studies to make population inferences?
-bias in such small samples
-osteological paradox= most skeletal remains have no evidence of disease because people died quickly before bony changes occurred, in cases that exhibit enough change to make a diagnosis possible the person may have been relatively healthy because they live long enough for the bone to be affected

What is the old and new way of determining ethnic and genetic relationships?
Old: comparing skeletal attributes to map similarities/differences
New: DNA analysis (abandons idea of race or ethnicity to look at common ancestry)

What are the methodological problems with using ancient DNA?
-contamination (modern DNA)
-false mutation (UV lights)

Explain strontium isotopes
-strontium not naturally available in body, must come form geological contexts
-strontium enters the body via the diet
-99% of the strontium is retained in bones and teeth
-measures of strontium reflect the area where they lived
-tooth enamel reflects childhood location
-bone regenerates every 10 years, reflecting adult location

Explain oxygen isotopes
-oxygen isotopes in tooth enamel reflects water source (from drinking)
-low altitudes have higher oxygen isotopes while high altitude have lower levels of oxygen isotopes

What are the 3 ways of reconstructing a lifeway?
Diet= type and proportion of ingested foods
Seasonality= time(s) of the year a site is used/occupied
Subsistence Economy= the socio-cultural and economic rules which govern subsistence activity

What are 6 lifeways?
-hunter gatherer
-subsistence agriculturalist
-industrial agriculturalist
-food consumers

What are way to identify a human’s diet from the archaeological record?
-fauna (bones, shell)
-macrobotanicals (nuts, seeds, charred remains)
-microfossils (phytoliths, starch, pollen)
-residues (blood, collagen, starch, phytoliths, hair etc)
-bioarchaeology (teeth wear, isotope analysis, hair etc)
-material culture (tools used for procuring and processing)
-art/literature (records of food)

What are the problems in identifying a human’s diet from the archaeological record?
Preservation/Taphonomy: biasing overall contribution to diet
Context: is there evidence of human consumption?
Site function: different sites have different purposes
Quantification: how do we measure overall importance?
Archaeological Recovery Bias: not everyone looks for things that are hard to see

Explain nitrogen and carbon isotope ratio analysis to establish diet in humans
Nitrogen ratio: shows of terrestrial plants vs marine foods in diet
Carbon ratio: shows trees/shrubs/temperate grass and tropical or savanna grass/sugar cane/maize
-use small part of bone or enamel
-convert into gas and measure isotope mass

What are ways to identify human diet from context?
Midden: domestic waste / basic subsistence
Occupational Level: living surfaces contain food remains
Activity Area: processing waste from food production
Mortuary: ritual / ceremonial remains of food

What are some archaeological indicators of seasonality?
Animals: present in a given location at a certain time of year
e.g. migratory birds
Skeleton: undergoing identifiable change
e.g. erupting teeth, developing limb bones
Hard Tissues: deposited incrementally or worn down at known rate
e.g. growth of shell fish, deciduous teeth

Optimal foraging theory
-derived from evolutionary biology (natural selection)
-principles that shape behaviour or modern humans are constant and unchanging through time and space
-make predictions about the efficiency of different economic pursuits, especially hunter-gatherer
-resource maximization vs risk minimization (cost/benefit)
-consider type of resources available, resource distribution, cost of procurement, risks

What are reasons not to be optimal in foraging?
-personal, taboos, perceptions of quality, prestige, ritual
-therefore optimality is a useful heuristic devise that predicts how we should behave in a given environment

Explain the horizontal dimension
-spatial analysis is interested in relationships between items of archaeological evidence in the horizontal dimension
-comparing features that were being used / deposited at the same time
-can operate intra-site (within), inter-site (between), or entire landscape

What are questions associated with intra-site, inter-site and landscape spatial archaeology?
Intra= How are activities organised across the site? Can we see functional specialisation occurring?
Inter= How many site types are there? How are sites organised?Hierarchy? Function? What is the nature of trade and scale?
Landscape= What is the relationship between sites and the environment? Meaning of monuments etc

Explain mapping activity areas
-compare things from the same time period, not apples and oranges
-consider taphonomy
-fine scale excavation, 3D plotting of artefacts, refitting of artefacts

Explain mapping the spatial area of a household
-activities are postulated from plotted house contents e.g. needles=sewing, hearths=consumtion
-outside treated the same e.g. human remains=burial, stone flakes=manufacturing area
-the house and surrounding features are called household unit

What are activity sets?
Artefacts associated with activities e.g. needles=sewing
-by analysing spatial patterns of artefacts we can asses activity patterns

What are 3 different types of settlement patterns?
Random distribution= equal probability on a featureless landscape
Clustered distribution= reflects valuable resources, or offshoots for villages, or protection
Spaced distribution= people at regular intervals because they are competing for resources

What are the three methods of spatial analysis?
Central place theory
XTENT modelling
Hunter-gatherer models

Central place theory
-if everything is equal, then all central places providing services for surrounding area will be spaced at an equal distance
-hierarchy of central places: large centres surrounded by lesser centres
-results in hexagonal distribution

XTENT modelling
-attempts to get around problems of central place theory
-different site types have different areas of influence
-site area is proportional to influence

Hunter-gatherer models
-central place and XTENT assume stable settlements with no seasonal mobility
-huntergatherer’s mobility patterns reflect ecological patterns of the resources they rely on

What is the difference between landscape as palimpset and landscape as embodied?
Palimpset -landscapes are historical artefacts containing traces of human past
-every person’s encounter with the landscape is shaped by cultural past experience
Embodied – subjectivity is shaped by experience in a landscape
-can be taken advantage of by ideology, power dynamic etc

Explain gift reciprocity
-Marcel Mauss believes social relations can be constructed through gift exchange
-a person can establish or reinforce a relationship with a gift
-a gift is not a monetary transaction, it is seen as a personal gesture or bond
-Kula Ring= circulation of shell valuables around the islands or Solomon sea

What are the two kinds of gift exchange
Valuables: high prestige
Commodities: common place utilitarian items

What classes a valuable item as valuable?
-being difficult to obtain
-short lived
-being highly visual

Explain the spheres of exchange
Valuables and commodities exchanged in separate contexts have different distributions
-valuables= exchanged for other valuables, ceremonial context, long distance, small volume
-commodities= exchanged for other commodities, barter transaction, short distance, large volume

What are the two kinds of ceremonial exchange
1) Exchange to establish and reinforce alliances and maintain social systems. Mainly external in focus e.g. establish name, status and connections beyond own community.
2) Competitive exchange used to settle rivalry and position within a community. Beat rivals by superior gifts in public ceremony.

What are the modes of exchange?
Market Exchange

Explain reciprocity
-exchanges with equal value
-giving of a gift does not require immediate gift giving
-personal obligation created that a reciprocal gift of comparable value will be given
-positive= within kin group
-negative= with strangers or socially distant individuals
-balanced= within similar society levels

Explain redistribution
-implies central organisation
-goods sent to organising centre
-redistribution by political leader

Explain market exchange
-specific central market for exchange transactions and an agreed procedure for product fixing value
-priced by negotiation
-internal but also external in case of trade ports

How are raw materials used to identify trade?
-simply identify if it is local or non-local
-visual, petrographical (microscope) or chemical

Fall-off analysis
The quantity of a traded material usually declines as the distance from the source increases
-this can tell us about their mechanism of trade

Direct access transaction
B has direct access to source of material without reference to A (no transaction)

Home base (reciprocity) transaction
B visits A at A’s home base where they exchange products that each control

Down the line trade transaction
Successive home base or boundary reciprocity where commodity travels through territories

Central place distribution transaction
A and B take product to central place and receive items in return

Central place market exchange transaction
A takes product to central place and directly exchanges it with B

Freelance (middleman) trading transaction
Middle man exchanges with A and B without control of a or B

What are the 6 types of transactions?
-direct access
-home base (reciprocity)
-down the line trade
-central place distribution
-central place market exchange
-freelance (middleman) trading

What is historical archaeology?
-all definitions mention the use of documents
-this field is interdisciplinary
-history is a study of past through written records
-archaeology is a study of past through material culture
-so, historical archaeology is archaeology that is ‘document aided’

What is the time period of historical archaeology?
-can potentially include everything from ancient Egypt/Mesopotamia to 20th century
-many different types of archaeologists within this time frame e.g. classical, roman, egyptologists, medieval, post medieval, industrial

What is the method of historical archaeology?
-find a site (e.g. old maps, photographs, diaries, written accounts)
-date the site (e.g. factory records, catalogues, seriation, printed dates of coins)
-interpret the finds

Explain balancing data in historical archaeology
-historical archaeology requires us to negotiate data in different forms
-documentary evidence is not equal to excavated material is scale, bias or coverage

What are the 3 approaches to evidence in historical archaeology?
1) Data forms as independent of each other
2) Data forms as complimentary
3) Juxtaposing data: congruence and conflict

What are examples of historical archaeology in New Zealand?
-early European.Maori contact
-gold rush
-urban development
-industrial archaeology
-maritime archaeology

Cognitive archaeology
-the study of past ways of thought from material remains
-assumes that past human thought processes get into the record and can be recovered
-opposed to view that only human actions leave material trace
-human action is guided by thought
-usually focus on non-economic phenomena

Explain the time line of studying human thought
-Earliest- based on speculation and used ‘ritual’ as coverall term
-Processual- rejects undisciplined speculation and interprets relgion as epiphenomena, waste behaviour or solidarity
-Post processual- invention of term “cognitive archaeology” and discovers material culture used for both symbolic and functional behaviour, uses reflection archaeology
-cognitive processual- rejects extreme positivism as the truth is rarely established

Explain interpretation of cognition in past humans
-Cosmology= beliefs about origin, structure and future of universe
-Religion= specified set of beliefs relating to supernatural phenomena
-Ideology= systematic body of concepts and beliefs about life and society
-Iconography= use of art forms to represent religious beliefs

Explain the physiology of developing abstract thought
-language is a key development though widely debated when it developed
-physical capability present in early hominids
-football shape of homo erectus brain caused expansion of frontal and occipital compared to rest of brain
-shift from olfactory to abstract processing

Explain studying cognition through abstract thought
-shift from early oldowan tools to acheulean tools
-specific shape requires visualisation and planning
-no left/right hand bias in oldowan (2.5mya) suggests they lacked strong lateralisation but right hand bias in acheulean suggests they did have strong lateralisation
-this goes with larger brains, longer jouvenile dependence, reduced sexual dimorphism and long term bonding
-shift to modern way of thinking

What does deliberate burial suggest about cognition?
-concept of after life

What are the 3 interpretations of the Lascaux cave interpretations
1) caves are sacred place where hunters gathered to perform rituals to ensure fertility of game and successful hunts
2) art is not random but systematic meaning, horse and bison on central plane while lesser animals are on periphery
3 )evidence of shamanistic ritual (paintings are dreams had by shamans

What is a symbol?
-relationship between signifier and signified
-usually arbitrary and differs from culture to culture
-signs gather meaning by being different o other signs

What is a cognitive map?
-interpretive framework/perspective of the world
-everyone interprets the world different but communities share an understanding
-cognitive archaeology seeks to uncover world views

Explain the use of symbols
-describe world through depictions
-mediate between humans and the other world
-regulate relations between humans (e.g. rank)
-measurement (e.g. time)
-plan future activity
-establishment of place (marking territory)

What type of remains can be used to infer cognition?
-stone tools
-cranial remains