APUSH Unit 2 Study guide

Salutary Neglect
An English policy of not strictly enforcing laws in its colonies

Triangular Trade
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Africa sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa

Mercantilism
an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation’s wealth by government regulation of all of the nation’s commercial interests

Navigation Laws
Promoted English shipping and control colonial trade; made Americans ship all non-British items to England before going to America

Jonathan Edwards
American theologian whose sermons and writings stimulated a period of renewed interest in religion in America (1703-1758)

George Whitefield
Credited with starting the Great Awakening, also a leader of the “New Lights.”

Old Lights and New Lights
The “Old Lights” were those who defended the existed order while the “New Lights” were those who embraced the new piety. Due to the great awakening New England became divided into these two fiercely hostile camps.

Pontiac’s Uprising
1763 – An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottowa chief named Pontiac. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when Pontiac was killed.

Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.

Stamp Act of 1765
Was issued in order to raise revenues to support the new British military force. Mandated the use of stamped paper certifying the payment of taxes. Colonist were angrily aroused and felt that this act was jeopardizing the basic right of the colonists as Englishmen.

Internal and External Taxes
Internal taxes were those on cunsumer goods bought in Am such as stamps; external taxes were taxes on all goods imported from England

Virtual Representation
British governmental theory that Parliament spoke for all British subjects, including Americans, even if they did not vote for its members

george grenville
Became prime minister of Britain in 1763 he persuaded the Parliament to pass a law allowing smugglers to be sent to vice-admiralty courts which were run by British officers and had no jury. He did this to end smuggling.

quartering act
an act passed by the British that allowed British troops to live in the homes of the colonists

writs of assistance
legal document that enabled officers to search homes and warehouses for goods that might be smuggled

declaratory act
Act passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act. Stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases.

committees of correspondence
Organization founded by Samuel Adams consisting of a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies

samuel adams
American Revolutionary leader and patriot

john adams
A Massachusetts attorney and politician who was a strong believer in colonial independence. He argued against the Stamp Act and was involved in various patriot groups. As a delegate from Massachusetts, he urged the Second Continental Congress to declare independence. He helped draft and pass the Declaration of Independence. Adams later served as the second President of the United States.

continental congress
the legislative assembly composed of delegates from the rebel colonies who met during and after the American Revolution

lexington and concord
the two first battles of American revolution, The first battle of the Revolution in which British general Thomas Gage went after the stockpiled weapons of the colonists in Concord, Massachusetts.

john hancock
Patriot leader and president of the Second Continental Congress; first person to sign the Declaration of Independence.

Marquis de Lafayette
French soldier who joined General Washington’s staff and became a general in the Continental Army.

benedict arnold
Successful American general during the Revolution who turned traitor in 1780 and joined the British cause.

patrick henry
Outspoken member of House of Burgesses; inspired colonial patriotism with “Give me liberty or give me death” speech

john locke and natural rights
natural rights: life, liberty, property

thomas hobbes
English materialist and political philosopher who advocated absolute sovereignty as the only kind of government that could resolve problems caused by the selfishness of human beings (1588-1679)

jean jacques rousseau
A French man who believed that Human beings are naturally good & free & can rely on their instincts. Government should exist to protect common good, and be a democracy

thomas paine
American Revolutionary leader and pamphleteer (born in England) who supported the American colonist’s fight for independence and supported the French Revolution (1737-1809)

Olive Branch petition
On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.

articles of confederation
This document, the nation’s first constitution, was adopted by the Second Continental Congress in 1781 during the Revolution. The document was limited because states held most of the power, and Congress lacked the power to tax, regulate trade, or control coinage.

patriot
A person who supported the colonists during the American Revolution

loyalist
a person who supported the British during the American Revolution

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