APUSH Terms Chapter 28

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38th parallel
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The division line between North and South Korea
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Alger Hiss
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Accused by Whittaker Chambers of being a Soviet spy in the ’30s. Convicted of perjury in 1950 and sentenced to a five-year prison term.
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Berlin blockade
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Stalin cut off all rail and highway traffic to Berlin in 1948 where American, British, French and Soviet troops each occupied a sector. The Truman administration adopted a two-phase policy: an airlift of food, fuel, and supplies (Berlin airlift) and the transfer of 60 US B-29s to bases in England (didn’t actually have a-bombs).
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Chiang Kai-shek
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Leader of the Nationalists in China. Rival to Mao Tse-tung and was forced off the mainland to the island of Taiwan by him.
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Containment
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The basic strategy of the US throughout the Cold War first proposed by George Kennan in 1947.
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Dean Acheson
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Appointed undersecretary of state and given free rein by Marshall to conduct American diplomacy. Grouped with Kennan.
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Dixiecrats
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Southern Democrats that ran in election under a States’ Rights Party.
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Election of 1948
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Elections involved Thomas E Dewey running as the GOP candidate, Harry Truman running as the Democratic candidate, and Strom Thurmond running as the Dixiecrat candidate. Truman won despite strong speculation that Dewey would.
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General George Marshall
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Secretary of State under Truman he relied on two men ro handle the day-to-day implementation of his politics: Dean Acheson and George Kennen. The three of them implemented containment, the Marshall Plan. He failed to form a coalition gov’t between Chiang and Mao.
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George Kennan
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One of Marshall’s two right hand men, along with Acheson, he was a Soviet expert which sprouted a distrust for them. He pushed for containment.
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House Un-American Activities Committee
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A congressional committee that played a prominent role in attempting to uncover and punish those suspected of aiding the communist cause in the early years of the Cold War
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iron curtain
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British Prime Minister Winston Churchill coined this term to refer to the boundary in Europe that divided Soviet-demanded eastern and central Europe from western Europe, which was free from Soviet control.
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Joseph McCarthy
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Charged there were communists in the State Dept. in his 1950 Lincoln Birthday speech. Began the second Red Scare and his accusations were termed McCarthyism?.
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Mao Zedong
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Leader of the Communists in China. Rival to Chiang Kai-shek and forced Kai-shek off the mainland to the island of Taiwan.
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Marshall Plan
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A massive economic aid program to rebuild war-torn economies of western European nations proposed by Secretary of State George Marshall in 1947.
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National Security Act
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Passed by Congress in 1947 in response to perceived threats from the Soviet Union after WWII. It est. the Department of Defense and created the CIA and National Security Council.
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North Atlantic Treaty Organization
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A military mutual defense pact consisting of the US, Canada, and ten European nations formed in 1949.
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NSC 68
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National Security Council planning paper No. 68 redefined America’s national defense policy. Adopted in 1950, it committed the United States to a massive military buildup to meet the challenge posed by the Soviet Union.
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Potsdam Conference
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The final wartime meeting of the leaders of the US, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union was held at this location outside of Berlin in 1945 where Churchill, Truman, and Stalin discussed the future of Europe.
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Taft-Hartley Act-
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This 1947 anti-union legislation outlawed the closed shop and secondary boycotts. It also authorized the president to seek injunctions to prevent strikes that posed a threat to national security.
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Truman Doctrine-
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A 1947 doctrine proposed by Truman who asked Congress for money to aid the Greek and Turkish governments that were then threatened by communist rebels. Truman asserted that the US was committed to support free people everywhere who were resisting subjugation by communist attack or rebellion.
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Truman-MacArthur controversy
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Truman and General MacArthur? believed the China would not attack if UN forces crossed the 38th parallel toward the Yalu believing that they were a Soviet puppet. But when UN forces crossed the parallel China counterattacked driving MacArthur? and his forces out of North Korea by the end of the year. MacArthur? was relieved by Truman.
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U2 incident
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Soviets shot down an American plane piloted by Francis Gary Powers who was taking pictures of the Soviet missile program. Eisenhower initially denied knowing anything about it but eventually took full responsibility for Power’s overflight.
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Whittaker Chambers-
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A repentant communist who accused Alger Hiss of having been a Soviet spy in the 1930s. Led investigators to a hollowed out pumpkin on Hiss’s farm that held microfilms of confidential gov’t documents and claimed that Hiss passed him State Dept. materials in the ’30s.

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