APUSH Study Guide: Period 8

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United Nations, 1945
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An international organization created after World War II to promote international cooperation, stop wars between countries, and provide a platform for dialogue and diplomacy
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Cold War, 1945 to 1991
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A war of words and threats between the United States and the Soviet Union that was marked primarily by a political and economic, rather than military, struggle between the two nations.
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Iron Curtain
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Term introduced by Winston Churchill to describe the Soviet domination of Eastern Europe after World War II.
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containment
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The U.S. policy of containing the spread of communism. Containment was the foundation of U.S. foreign policy from the late 1940s until the fall of the Soviet Union in the 1990s. The policy was conceived by George Kennan, a State Department employee and expert on the Soviet Union.
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Truman Doctrine, 1947
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President Harry Truman’s policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism.
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Marshall Plan, 1948
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Program designed to promote the economic recovery of Western Europe with massive amounts of U.S. financial aid.
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Berlin airlift, 1948
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Response of the U.S. and Great Britain to the Soviet Union’s blockade of West Berlin. Supplies were sent to West Berlin with continuous flights of thousands of American and British airplanes.
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North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 1949
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Mutual defense alliance among the nations of Western Europe and North American. Designed to contain the spread of communism.
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development of the hydrogen bomb, 1952
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The first hydrogen bomb, which was one-thousand times more powerful than the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, was test by the U.S. in the South Pacific in 1952. The Soviet Union, after testing their first a-bomb in 1949, tested their first h-bomb in 1953.
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New Look, 1955
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President Eisenhower’s policy of reducing the size of the U.S. army, developing tactile nuclear weapons, and building strategic air power to employ nuclear weapons. Came to be known as a \”bigger bang for the buck.\”
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massive retaliation
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Term used by Secretary of State John Foster Dulles that implied the U.S. was willing to use nuclear force in response to Communist aggression.
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brinkmanship
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Practice under Eisenhower of trying to win international disputes through a willingness to push dangerous situations to the brink of war.
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Sputnik I, 1957
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The first artificial satellite launched into space. Its launch by the Soviet Union marked the beginning of the space race.
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space race
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Cold War competition between the United States and the Soviet Union for supremacy in technology and spaceflight.
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Nikita Khruschev
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Soviet leader who denounced Joseph Stalin in 1956 and improved the Soviet Union’s image abroad. (Lost his power in 1964 after failing to improve the Soviet Union’s economy.)
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peaceful coexistence
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Soviet theory under Khruschev that the Soviet Union could coexist peacefully with the United States. Ended in 1960 when the U.S. was caught sending U-2 spy planes over the Soviet Union.
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flexible response
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President Kennedy’s strategy of considering a variety of military and nonmilitary options when facing foreign policy decisions.
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Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962
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Military crisis between the U.S. and the Soviet Union over a secret Soviet attempt to deploy nuclear missiles in Cuba.
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Limited Test Ban Treaty, 1963
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Treaty signed by the United States, the Soviet Union, and 100 other nations that banned nuclear weapons tests in the atmosphere, in outer space, and underwater.
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Nixon Doctrine
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President Nixon’s policy of requiring countries threatened by communism to assume most of the President Nixon’s policy of requiring countries threatened by communism to assume most of the military burden, with the United States offering political and economic support.
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detente
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Policy of relaxing tensions between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. Introduced by Nixon in the early 1970s.
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Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty I (SALT I), 1972
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Treaty between the U.S. and the Soviet Union to limit offensive nuclear weapons and defensive antiballistic missile systems
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Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty II (SALT II), 1979
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Treated between the U.S. and the Soviet Union to limit the number of strategic nuclear missiles in each country. The U.S. Congress did not approve the treaty due to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.
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Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan, 1979
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After the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in December 1979, President Carter placed an embargo on wheat shipments to Russia, increased spending on defense, and boycotted the 1980 Olympics in Moscow
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fellow traveler
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Someone who sympathized with or supported the beliefs of the Communist Part without being a member. Many American fellow travelers were investigated and blacklisted during the late 1940s and 1950s.
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House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
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Congressional committee, created in 1938, that began investigating suspected Communists and fellow travelers in the late 1940s and 1950s.
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Alger Hiss
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State Department official accused of being a Communist spy who was convicted of perjury and sent to prison.
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McCarran Internal Security Act, 1950
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Law that required Communists to register with the U.S. government and made it a crime to conspire to establish a totalitarian government in the United States. The law also allowed for the detention of dangerous, disloyal, or subversive persons.
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McCarran-Walter Act, 1952
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Immigration law that permitted deportation and denial of entry into the United States for ideological reasons.
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Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
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Husband and wife who were executed in 1953 for passing information about the atomic bomb to the Soviets.
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Joseph McCarthy
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Republican Senator from Wisconsin who in 1950 began a Communist witch hunt that lasted until he was censured by the Senate in 1954.
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McCarthyism
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Term used to describe the tactic of making accusations of corruption or disloyalty without evidence and no regard for civil liberties.
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Army-McCarthy Hearings, 1954
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Televised investigations by Senator McCarthy. The hearings ended McCarthy’s popularity and led to his censure by the U.S. Senate.
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National Security Council, 1947
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Executive agency composed of the president, vice president, and four cabinet members. Established to coordinate the strategic policies and defense of the United States.
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Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), 1947
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Government agency created to gather and evaluate military, political, social, and economic information on foreign nations.
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Chinese Civil War
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War between Chinese government forces led by Chiang Kai-shek and Communist forces led by Mao Zedong. In 1949 Chiang and his supporters fled to Taiwan, where they set up a separate Nationalist country
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Mohammed Mossadegh
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Nationalist leader of Iran who was overthrown with the help of the American CIA. Replaced by Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlevi in 1953
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Gamal Abdel Nasser
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Leader of Egypt who successfully opposed the French and British imperial powers during the 1956 Suez crisis.
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Ho Chi Minh
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Nationalist leader of Vietnam who opposed the United States during the Vietnam War.
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Korean War, 1950-53
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War started by North Korean forces crossing the 38th parallel and invading South Korea. United Nations forces, strengthened primarily by the United States, launched a police action against North Korea to stop aggression.
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Vietnam, 1954-1961 (Eisenhower Administration)
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After French colonists were forced out of Vietnam in 1954, Vietnam was divided into two nations – North and South. When elections to unify the divided nation were canceled in 1956, the U.S. sent aid and advisors to South Vietnam.
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domino theory
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nearby nations would also fall undercommunist control. The domino theory led to the U.S. sending military forces to aid South Vietnam
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Vietnam, 1961-1963 (Kennedy Administration)
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In an effort to help South Vietnam, the U.S. increased the number of advisors in South Vietnam and sent in special forces to fight for South Vietnam
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Tonkin Gulf Resolution, 1964
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After President Johnson claimed North Vietnamese forces attacked U.S. boats in international waters in the Gulf of Tonkin, the U.S. Congress voted to give the president a \”blank check\” to do whatever was necessary to stop communism in South Vietnam
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Vietnam, 1965-1969 (Johnson Administration)
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After increasingly escalating the number of U.S. forces in South Vietnam, President Johnson slowly realized he was fighting a war against Vietnamese nationalism that he could not win. In 1968, President Johnson withdraw from the presidential election and called for peace talks to end the Vietnam War.
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Vietcong
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Vietnamese Communist rebels in South Vietnam.
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Tet Offensive, 1968
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Vietcong and North Vietnamese attack throughout South Vietnam that caused public opinion in the United States to turn against the war the United States to turn against the war
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Eugene McCarthy
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Senator who opposed the Vietnam War and made an unsuccessful attempt to win the Democratic nomination for president in 1968.
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Robert Kennedy
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Senator who opposed the Vietnam War and was assassinated while campaigning for the Senator who opposed the Vietnam War and was assassinated while campaigning for the Democratic nomination for president in 1968.
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My Lai, 1968
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Village in South Vietnam where U.S. troops massacred 350-500 innocent women and children. Increased public opposition to the war when it became public in 1969.
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Vietnam War, 1969-1973 (Nixon Administration)
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Although President Nixon increased the bombing of Vietnam and launched invasions of Laos and Cambodia, he also decided to withdraw U.S. troops from Vietnam.
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Vietnamization, 1969-1973
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President Nixon’s policy of gradually removing U.S. troops from Vietnam.
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Vietnam War, 1969-1973 (Nixon Administration)
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The United States withdrew combat troops from South Vietnam.
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War Powers Act, 1973
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Law that prevents the president from involving the United States in war without congressional authorization.
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Fall of South Vietnam, 1975
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South Vietnam fell to communist control.
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South Vietnam fell to communist control.
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Students for a Democratic Society, 1960
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Left-wing student organization founded to attack American materialism and work for social justice and civil rights. Associated with the anti-war movement of the late 1960s.
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Kent State, 1970
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University in Ohio where students were shot and killed by National Guard Troops during a protest against the Vietnam War
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Pentagon Papers, 1971
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Classified government documents on the Vietnam War leaked to the press by Daniel Ellsberg and leaked to the New York Times. Efforts to block publication was rejected by the U.S. Supreme Court.
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Organization of American States, 1948
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Organization composed of most of the nations of the North America, South America, and the Caribbean. Designed to to fight communism in the western hemisphere and deal with mutual concerns.
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Alliance for Progress, 1961
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President Kennedy’s program through which the United States provided aid for social and economic programs in Latin America.
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Bay of Pigs, 1961
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Invasion of Communist controlled Cuba by Cuban exiles who were supported by the CIA. The failure of the invasion was an embarrassment for President Kennedy and the U.S. government.
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Mann Doctrine, 1964
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U.S. foreign police under Lyndon Johnson that called for stability in Latin America rather than political and economic reform. Outlined by Thomas Mann, and American diplomat and State Department employee.
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U.S. Occupation of the Dominican Republic, 1965
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To stop what President Johnson said would be Republic, the U.S. sent to the Dominican Republic. The U.S. invasion provoked protests in Latin a \”communist dictatorship\” in the Dominican America and criticism within the United States.
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Salvador Allende
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Chilean president who was considered the ïŹrst democratically elected Marxist. He was killed in an U.S.-supported overthrow of his government in 1973
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Panama Canal Treaty, 1977
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Treaty between the United States and Panama that said the U.S. would abandon its rights to the Panama Canal in 1999.
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Sandinista Liberation Front
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Leftist guerrilla movement that established a revolutionary government in Nicaragua in 1979 under Daniel Ortega.
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Palestine, 1948
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Region of the Middle East that was partitioned by the United Nations to allow for the creation of a Jewish state (Israel) and a Palestinian state, which was never established.
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Suez Crisis, 1956
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Confrontation between Egypt on one side and Britain, France, and Israel on the other after Egypt tried to nationalize the Suez canal. The U.S., Soviet Union, and United Nations played a role in forcing Britain, France, and Israel to withdraw.
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Eisenhower Doctrine
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Policy formulated by President Eisenhower of providing military and economic aid to Arab nations in the Middle East to help defeat Communist-nationalistic rebellions.
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Yom Kippur War, 1973
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After Egypt and Syria attacked Israel, the Israeli military defeated the Arab armies. U.S. support of Israel led to an Arab boycott of oil to the United States.
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Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
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Economic alliance of oil-producing countries, mostly Arab, that became powerful enough in the 1970s to control oil prices by controlling oil supplies. In 1973, OPEC placed an embargo on the sale of all countries allied with Israel.!!
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Camp David Accords, 1979
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Treaty between Israel and Egypt that was negotiated by President Carter of the United States. Under the terms of the treaty Israel would return occupied Egyptian territory and Egypt would recognize Israel as a nation.
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mujahedeen
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Afghan resistance group fighting against the Soviet Union, which had invaded Afghanistan in 1979. The United States supported the mujahedeen with weapons to fight the Soviets.
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Carter Doctrine, 1979
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President Carter’s policy that the United States would use force to repel any nation that attempted to take control of the Persian Gulf. The Doctrine was issued in response to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.
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Southern Manifesto, 1954
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Statement issued by 100 southern congressmen – after the Brown v. Board of Education decision – in which they pledged to oppose racial desegregation.
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Rosa Parks
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African American seamstress who refused to give up her seat to a white man on a bus in Montgomery, Alabama, triggering a boycott of the bus system that sparked the Civil Rights Movement.
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Martin Luther King, Jr.
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Baptist minister and civil rights leader who was committed to nonviolence. Beginning with the Montgomery bus boycott in 1955, he led many significant protests in the late 1950s and 1960s.
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Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), 1957
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Organization formed by Martin Luther King, Jr., and others after the Montgomery bus boycott. The SCLC became the backbone of the movement to achieve civil rights through nonviolence.
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Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), 1960
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Organization formed to give young blacks a great voice in the civil rights movement. Organized black voter registration drives, sit-ins, and freedom rides.
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sit-ins
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The act of occupying the seats or an area of a segregated establishment to protest racial segregation. Popularized in Greensboro, North Carolina, in 1960.
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freedom rides, 1961
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Effort to achieve integration of bus terminals by riding integrated bus throughout the South.
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public order laws
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Laws passed by many southern communities to stop civil rights protests by allowing the police to arrest anyone suspected of intending to disrupt public order.
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James Meredith
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African American student admitted to the University of Mississippi under federal court order in 1962.
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March on Washington, 1963
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Gathering of civil rights supporters in Washington, D.C., to pressure the U.S. Congress to pass civil rights legislation. Martin Luther King, Jr., delivered his \”I Have a Dream\” speech at the march.
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Freedom Summer, 1964
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Effort by civil rights groups in Mississippi to register black voters during the summer of 1964.
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March from Selma to Montgomery, 1965
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Civil rights march in Alabama to bring attention to the need for a voting rights act.
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Watts, 1965
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Neighborhood of Los Angeles, California, where a race riot broke out, resulting in millions of dollars of damage and the deaths of 28 African Americans.
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Black Power
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Movement that rejected the nonviolence and coalition-building approach of traditional civil rights groups. Advocated self determination for African Americans (black control of black organizations).
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Nation of Islam (Black Muslims)
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Religious group founded by Elijah Muhammad, which professed Islamic religious beliefs and emphasized black separatism.
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Malcolm X
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Member of the Nation of Islam and activist for black separatism. After leaving the Nation of Islam in 1964, he was assassinated in 1965.
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Black Panthers
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Revolutionary organization founded in 1966 that endorsed violence as a means of social change.
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race riots, 1968
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Nationwide reaction in more than 100 cities to the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr.
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George Wallace
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Alabama governor who represented a \”white backlash\” to the Civil Rights movement. He opposed racial desegregation and ran for president in 1968 as an independent candidate.
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Desegregation of the Armed Services, 1948
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Through an Executive Order, President Truman ended racial discrimination and segregation in the U.S. Armed Forces.
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Brown v. Board of Education, 1954
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Supreme Court case stating that separate educational facilities for different races were inherently unequal and therefore unconstitutional.
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Civil Rights Act of 1957
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First significant civil rights legislation since Reconstruction ended in 1877. Created the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights and the Civil Rights Commission of the Justice Department.
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Civil Rights Act of 1964
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Law that barred segregation in public facilities and forbade employers to discriminate on the basis of race, religion, sex, or national origin.
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Voting Rights Act of 1965
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Law that outlawed unjust restrictions on voting and authorized federal supervision of elections in areas where black voting had been restricted.
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American GI Forum, 1948
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Organization formed in Texas by Mexican American veterans to overcome discrimination and provide support for veterans and all Hispanics. Led the fight to end the segregation of Hispanic children in schools throughout the West and Southwest.
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The Feminine Mystique, 1963!
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Best selling book Betty Friedan that challenged women to move beyond the drudgery of being a suburban housewife.
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Law that forbids gender
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based pay discrimination of people performing substantially equal work for same employer.
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Title VII, 1964
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Provision of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 that guarantees women legal protection against discrimination.
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National Organization for Women (NOW), 1966
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Women’s rights organization founded to fight discrimination against women.
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Stonewall Riot, 1969
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Riot at a gay bar in New York City that was periodically raided by police. The riot helped trigger Riot at a gay bar in New York City that was periodically raided by police. The riot helped trigger the gay rights movement.
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Equal Rights Amendment, 1972
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Amendment to the U.S. Constitution giving women equal rights under the law. Although the amendment was approved by Congress, it failed to achieve ratification by the required 38 states
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Chicano Movement
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Mexican American equivalent of the Civil rights movement for Mexican Americans. The movement included student demonstrations to press for bilingual education, the hiring of more Chicano teachers, and the creation of Chicano studies programs.
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CĂ©sar ChĂĄvez
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One of the leading Mexican American civil rights and social justice activists of the 1960s.
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American Indian Movement (AIM), 1968
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Militant Indian movement that was willing to use confrontation to obtain social justice and Indian treaty rights.
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Russell Means
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Prominent member of the American Indian Movement who helped organized the seizure of Alcatraz in 1969 and Wounded Knee in 1973.
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Alcatraz, 1969
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Island in San Francisco Bay that was occupied by Native American activists who demanded that the island be made available to them as a cultural center.
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Wounded Knee, 1973
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Site of the 1890 massacre of Sioux by federal troops that was occupied by members of the American Indian Movement (AIM) in 1973. AIM insisted that the government honor treaty obligations of the past.
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Indian Self Determination and Education Assistance Act, 1974
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Law that gave Indian tribes control over federal programs carried out on their reservations and increasing their authority in reservation schools.
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Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society, 1964
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Social program introduced by President Johnson for a war on poverty, protection of civil rights, and funding for education.
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War on Poverty, 1964
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President Johnson’s program to help Americans escape poverty through education, job training, and community development.
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Medicaid, 1965
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Health insurance program for the poor, providing states with money to buy health care for people on welfare.
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Medicare, 1965
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Health insurance program for the elderly and disabled, providing government payment for healthcare supplied by private doctors and hospitals.
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Baker v. Carr, 1962
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Supreme Court decision that established the principle of \”one man, one vote,\” requiring election districts to provide equal representat
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Engel v. Vitale, 1962
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Supreme Court decision stating that state laws requiring prayers and Bible readings in the public schools violated the first amendment’s provision of separation of church and state.
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Gideon v. Wainwright, 1963
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Supreme Court decision that required state courts to provide counsel for poor defendants.
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Griswold v. Connecticut, 1965
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Supreme Court decision that recognized a citizen’s right to privacy, stating that a state could not prohibit the use of contraceptives by adults.
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Miranda v. Arizona, 1966
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Supreme Court decision that required law enforcement officers to inform defendants of their rights.
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Students for a Democratic Society
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Nationwide student organization that was pro-civil rights and anti-war, wanting to transform the U.S. into a participatory democracy.
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Berkeley Free Speech Movement, 1964-1965
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Coalition of student groups that insisted on their right to political activity on campus.
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GI Bill of Rights, 1954
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Law that provided veterans pensions, government loans, and money to attend college. Sent million of veterans to college and helped promote economic prosperity in the postwar years.
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National Defense Student Loans, 1958
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Loans established by the U.S. government to encourage the teaching and study of science and modern foreign languages. Passed in response to the launch of Sputnik by Soviet Union.
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✓Sun Belt
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Region stretching from Florida in a westward arc across the South and Southwest that saw substantial population growth and industrialization.
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Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965
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Law that abolished the national origins quota system that had been in place since 1924. Gave preference to skilled workers, setting limits on immigrants from the Western Hemisphere. Provided for the admission of close relatives of US citizens.
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Silent Spring, 1962
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Book written by Rachel Carson, a Marine biologist who warned of the misuse of pesticides and their negative affects on the environment. The book is credited with starting the modern environmental movement.
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Earth Day, 1970
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International day of celebration and awareness of global environmental issues launched by environmentalists on April 22, 1970.
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Environmental Protection Agency, 1970
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Federal agency created to control pollution and protect the environment.
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Clean Air Act, 1970
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Federal law designed to control air pollution
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Three Mile Island, 1979
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Site of a nuclear power accident in Pennsylvania that led to radioactive gases and almost led to a nuclear meltdown.
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baby boom
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Sudden increase in the birth rate that occurred in the United States after World War II and lasted roughly until 1964.
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Beats
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American writers, poets, and artists in the 1950s who rejected traditional middle-class values and championed nonconformity and sexual experimentation.
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rock and roll
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Type of popular music that emerged in the mid 1950s from an early type of music known as rhythm and blues.
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counterculture (hippies)
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Youth \”movement\” of the 1960s that rejected the competitiveness and materialism of American society, searching instead for peace, love, and freedom.
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Woodstock, 1969
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Free rock concert in New York that attracted 400,000, becoming an expression of the counterculture
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New Right
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Conservative movement with the Republican Party that opposed the liberal political and social reforms of the 1960s. The New Right demanded less government intervention in the economy and a return to traditional values.
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southern strategy
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Richard Nixon’s plan to bring southerners into the Republican Party by appointing white southerners to the Supreme Court and resisting the policy of busing to achieve integration.
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Watergate, 1972
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Scandal in the Nixon administration that began with break in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate Office Building in Washington, D.C. President Nixon’s role in the cover up of justice led to his resignation in 1974.
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Roe v. Wade, 1973
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Supreme Court ruling that women have an unrestricted right to choose an abortion during the first three months of pregnancy. The ruling caused a conservative reaction against what was perceived as \”activist\” judges.
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Right to-Life Movement
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Anti-abortion movement that favored a constitutional amendment to prohibit abortion.
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Proposition 13, 1978
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Referendum in California that slashed local property taxes. Marked the beginning of a conservative movement to cut taxes throughout the nation.
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Bakke v. University of California, 1978
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Supreme Court decision that said medical school students could not be admitted by racial quotas, although race could be considered for admission. The decision represented a partial victory for what conservatives thought was reverse discrimination against whites.
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Phyllis Schlafly
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A New Right activist who protested against the women’s rights movement, saying it undermined tradition and the natural gender division of labor. Schlafly was representative of the conservative backlash against the changes of the 1960s.
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Central Treaty Organization (CENTO), 1955: Alliance formed under President
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Alliance formed under President Eisenhower to prevent Soviet expansion into the Middle East and Central Asia; consisted of Britain, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, Turkey, and the U.S.
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Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO), 1955: Alliance formed under
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President Eisenhower to prevent Soviet invasion of Southeast Asia and the Pacific; consisted of Australia, Britain, France, New Zealand, Pakistan, the Philippines, Thailand, and the U.S

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