APUSH Review Period 1

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Maize Cultivation
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The spread of maize cultivation from present-day Mexico northward into the American Southwest and beyond supported economic development and social diversification among societies in these areas.
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Hunting and Gathering Societies
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Provided economic development as well as social diversification in the Northwest and areas of California.
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Nomadic People
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Societies responded to the lack of natural resources in the Great Basin and the western Great Plains by developing largely mobile lifestyles.
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Sedentary Lifestyles/Permanent Settlements
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In the Northeast and along the Atlantic Seaboard, some societies developed a mixed agricultural and hunter-gatherer economy that favored the development of permanent villages.
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Columbian Exchange
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The arrival of Europeans in the Western Hemisphere in the 15th and 16th centuries triggered extensive demographic and social changes on both sides of the Atlantic.
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Early Mixing of Cultures and People
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Spanish and Portuguese exploration and conquest of the Americas led to widespread deadly epidemics, the emergence of racially mixed populations, and a caste system defined by an intermixture among Spanish settlers, Africans, and Native Americans.
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Atlantic Slave Trade Beginnings
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Spanish and Portuguese traders reached West Africa and partnered with some African groups to exploit local resources and recruit slave labor for the Americas.
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Effects of the Columbian Exchange
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The introduction of new crops and livestock by the Spanish had far-reaching effects on native settlement patterns as well as on economic, social, and political development in the Western Hemisphere.
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Early Colonial Societal Systems
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In the economies of the Spanish colonies, Indian labor, used in the encomienda system to support plantation-based agriculture and extract precious metals and other resources, was gradually replaced by African slavery.
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God, Gold, Glory
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European exploration and conquest were fueled by a desire for new sources of wealth, increased power and status, and converts to Christianity.
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Changes in Colonial Systems
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New crops from the Americas stimulated European population growth, while new sources of mineral wealth facilitated the European shift from feudalism to capitalism.
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Technological Improvements
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Improvements in technology and more organized methods for conducting international trade helped drive changes to economies in Europe and the Americas.
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Early Racial Ideology Shifts
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European overseas expansion and sustained contacts with Africans and American Indians dramatically altered European views of social, political, and economic relationships among and between white and nonwhite.
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Racial Strife
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With little experience dealing with people who were different from themselves, Spanish and Portuguese explorers poorly understood the native peoples they encountered in the Americas, leading to debates over how American Indians should be treated and how \”civilized\” these groups were compared to European standards.
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Racial Strife cont.
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Many Europeans developed a belief in white superiority to justify their subjugation of Africans and American Indians, using several different rationales.
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Effects of Colonial Imperalism
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Native peoples and Africans in the Americas strove to maintain their political and cultural autonomy in the face of European challenges to their independence and core beliefs.
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Colonization of \”Native American\” People
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European attempts to change American Indian beliefs and worldviews on basic social issues such as religion, gender roles and the family, and the relationship of people with the natural environment led to American Indian resistance and conflict.
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Mixing of Cultures
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In spite of slavery, Africans’ cultural and linguistic adaptations to the Western Hemisphere resulted in varying degrees of cultural preservation and autonomy.

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