APUSH Review (Part 5b)

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Works Projects (Progress) Administration
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directed spending of federal funds for work relief projects, highway construction, flood control, reforestation, housing and slum clearance, rural electrification, educational, health, sanitation
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National Labor Relations Act (Wagner Act)
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board authorized to investigate unfair labor practices and to issue cease and desist orders, the board supervised elections to determine the bargaining agent for all the employees in the business
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Social Security Administration
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provided for old age, survivors’, and disability insurance, system of unemployment compensation, employers and employees contributed to the pension system
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Critics of the New Deal
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American Liberty League opposed New Deal’s attacks on free enterprise and its \”dictatorial\” policies
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Father Charles Coughlin
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organized National Union for Social Justice, supported remonetization of silver, issuing greenbacks, nationalization of banking system, \”radio priest\”
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Dr. Francis Townsend
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proposed paying $200 a month to all unemployed persons over 60, funds provided by 2 percent tax on business transactions
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Huey Long
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proposed share-our-wealth plan, all incomes over $1 mill and inheritances over $5 mill would be taxed, money dispensed to all Americans, gov acquire assets to guarantee minimum homestead of $5,000 and income of $2,500
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\”Court Packing\” Proposal
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proposed to appoint an additional member to the Supreme Court for each one over 70, response to court not being on FDR’s side
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John L. Lewis
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liberal, member of coal industry, helped FDR win major landslide but later broke off on foreign policy
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Sit-Down Strikes
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strikes where the workers sit at their stations to prevent strike-breakers
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Depression Mentality
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personal responsibility for a person’s station
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Dust Bowl
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the Midwest had a drought at the same time as the depression and clouds of dust blew across the plains
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John Steinbeck
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The Grapes of Wrath, portrayed the trials of a migrant family in California
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Fair Labor Standards Act
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established minimum wage, maximum work week, official rate of time and a half overtime, abolished child labor in industries producing goods for interstate commerce
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Recession of 1937
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temporary reversal of economic recovery, Federal Reserve board tightened credit by raising interest rates, budgets cut for relief programs
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Keynesian Economics
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advocates a mixed economy, predominately private sector, but significant role of gov and public sector
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African Americans and the Depression
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intimidation and violence to drive them from jobs, relief to whites first, NAACP gained a place for blacks in the labor movement
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Marion Anderson
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black singer who broke barriers for black artists with help of FDR and first lady
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Fair Employment Practices Committee
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no discrimination on the grounds of race or religion
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1920s Foreign Policy
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isolation, support political and economic stability abroad while keeping free of commitments that would limit freedom of action
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Stimson Doctrine
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US would refuse to recognize any treaty that impaired the sovereignty of China or infringed on open door policy
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Good Neighbor Policy
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intervening in Latin America to protect our interests stopped, less intervention in general
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Nye Committee
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got the people’s support for neutrality at the beginning of WWII because of causes of WWI (profiteers sent US to war to benefit)
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Neutrality Acts (’35, ’36, ’37)
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gradually involved the US more and more, neutral, then supplying arms, cash and carry, etc
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Appeasement
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giving in to Hitler’s demands so as not to start a war, hoping that he would stop
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Munich Agreement
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allowed Germany to get Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia, followed policy of appeasement
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America First Committee
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against American intervention in WWII, shut down after Pearl Harbor
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\”Cash and Carry\”
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belligerents could purchase only nonmilitary goods from the US and must pay cash and ship their purchases themselves
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Selective Service Act (Burke-Wadsworth Act)
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established first peacetime military draft
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Destroyers for Bases Deal
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50 US destroyers to Britain for air and naval base leases in West Indies and Atlantic
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\”Arsenal of Democracy\”
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US would assist Britain in the war against the Nazis by supplying arms
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Lend Lease Act
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president could lend or lease arms to nations whose defense was deemed vital to US, Britain and later the Soviets benefitted
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Atlantic Charter
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FDR and Churchill proclaimed war aims and common principles
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Pearl Harbor
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December 7, 1941 Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor and killed over 2,000 Americans, US stunned, total public support for war effort
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War Boards
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obtain natural resources, allot them to industries, make contracts, regulate production and eliminate nonessential civilian production…mediated labor disputes
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Japanese Internment
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west coast residents demanded protection against alleged Japanese spies, Japanese-Americans put in internment camps, then relocated to east a lot of times
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Korematsu vs US
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Supreme Court upheld constitutionality, but Japanese-Americans were being released anyway
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\”Beat Germany First\”
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beat Germany while Britain and Soviets could still help to win that war, then turn to finish off Japanese
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D Day
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allied invasion of the beaches of Normandy, readied allies to push into France and meet Soviets in Berlin
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Island Hopping
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the process of only attacking certain islands in the Pacific to save time and resources, soldiers left would have no way to come after US
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Manhattan Project
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secret project to create the atomic bomb, Einstein and others in on it, Rosenburgs spied for Russia
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Tehran
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Roosevelt, Stalin, Churchill agreed on second front within 6 months, Russia would fight Japan once Germany was defeated, international organization planned
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Yalta
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divided Germany into occupational zones, Soviets got Poland and other territory in Far East, UN plan ratified
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Potsdam
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Truman, Attlee, Stalin drew up plans for reconstruction of Europe and dealing with defeated Germany, Potsdam Declaration demanded Japan’s unconditional surrender
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GI Bill
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education, medical care, job training, unemployment pensions, compensation, and mortgage loans to vets
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Baby Boom
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soldiers coming home, ready to start families, plus new prosperity
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Suburbia (Levittown)
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people moving out of cities, mostly middle-upper class whites
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Employment Act of 1946
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stability of inflation and unemployment on federal government
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Inflation/Strikes
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outpouring of consumer demand produced inflation, automobile, electrical, railroad, mining, and steel industries had strikes…gov seized mines that were out for 40 days
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Civil Rights under Truman
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expanding Social Security benefits, increasing minimum wage, full employment program, slum clearance, public housing, government sponsorship of scientific research
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22nd Amendment
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term limit for president set at 2
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Taft Hartley Act
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prohibited closed shop, required union leaders to take a non-communist oath, forbade union contributors to political campaigns, required unions to have public financial statements, 60 day cooling-off period before striking, allowed suits against unions, end of New Deal reform
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Election of 1948
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Truman won narrow victory over Dem. Thomas Dewey, civil rights, increased price supports for farmers, repeal of Taft-Hartley Act
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State’s Rights Party
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Strom Thurmond, opposed civil rights plank in Dem platform
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The Fair Deal
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civil rights legislation, health insurance, aid to education attempted… increasing minimum wage, expanding Social Security, National Housing Act
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Origins of the Cold War
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tensions at the end of WWII with 2 superpowers, communism, atomic weapons
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Satellite States
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eastern Europe as a buffer for Soviets against possible German regrowth
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Occupation of Germany
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West Germany under US, British, French control, West Berlin in East Germany
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Iron Curtain
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separated Eastern Europe and Asia out from the west on the divider of communism
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Policy of Containment
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US did not want communism to spread to anywhere new
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George Kennan
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influential diplomat who thought up the policy of containment
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Truman Doctrine
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urged US economic and military help to any nation threatened by communism, $400 mill for Greece and Turkey
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Marshall Plan
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granted over $12 billion of economic assistance to European countries, both humanitarian and political, prosperous Europe would aid US and impede advance of communism
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Berlin Airlift
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west berlin blockaded because of mass exodus from east, soviets mad, US, British, French airlifted all supplies and food to west berlin for almost a year, Stalin removed blockade
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NATO
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North Atlantic Treaty Organization, declared an armed attack against one member attack against all, defense against possible Soviet invasion
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Arms Race
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Soviets have atomic bomb in 1949 and US goes for H bomb, see who gets it first
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Two Chinas
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communist China and the China that we supported
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Korean War
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Soviets and US took troops out, North attacked South, UN and US troops fought limited war
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Truman-MacArthur Controversy
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MacArthur wanted to expand military operations vs China, removed

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