Tariff of 1828New Englanders supported the passage of this Tariff to further protect them from foreign competitions, raising Tariffs even further.
John C. CalhounThis man argued against the Tariff of 1828 as apart of the South.
The Southern Carolina ExpositionJohn C. Calhoun of South Carolina secretly penned this, outlining the anger of the South in the face of the Tariff of Abominations.
Tariff of AbominationsNickname of the Tariff of 1828 coined by Calhoun and used by southerners
nullifyJohn C. Calhoun suggested that southerners should do this to the Tariff of 1828 if the federal government refused to lower the duty requirement.
Daniel Webster and Robert Y. HayneThese two Senators engaged one another in debate over the particulars of the Tariff of 1828 on the Senate floor in 1830.
nullification, SC and the WestHayne told Calhoun that to keep Southern interests, he must support this and form an alliance between these two places.
brokenWebster argued that by nullification, South Carolina had done this to the Constitution.
treasonWebster successfully made nullification and secession equal to this.
Tariff of 1832Despite Websters passion, Calhoun would be joined by many other voices of protest as Jackson witnessed the passage of this, where Jackson lowered the tariff to 35 percent.
nullified, secedeSouth Carolina did this to the Tariff of 1832 and threatened to do this from the Union if Jackson attempted to collect the duties by force.
Force BillJackson encouraged Congress to pass this, which gave the president the power to use military force to collect tariffs if the need arose.
Henry ClayAmid the possibility of civil war due to the Nullification crisis, this man proposed a compromise that would save the day.
Compromise of 1833Anew tariff proposed by Henry Clay and John Calhoun that gradually lowered the tariff to the level of the tariff of 1816. This compromise avoided civil war and prolonged the union for another 30 years.
states rightsJackson was a champion of these, as long as the nation was not in peril.
vetoedJackson did this more than the previous six presidents combined.
Maysville Road BillFederal funding for a Kentucky road, vetoed by President Andrew Jackson in 1830.
infrastructureJackson vetoed the Maysville Road Bill because he believed that federal funds for this was not okay.
democracyJackson increased the power of the presidency and expanded this when it served his interests.
middle and lower classesJacksonians, though not necessarily Jackson himself, were successful in expanding democracy to these people.
New DemocracyThis emerged in the 1820s, when many states reduced their voting requirements.
spoils systemJackson was a proponent of this, in which he appointed those who supported his campaign to government positions.
kitchen cabinetJackson also created jobs and appointed many friends to his unofficial cabinet, earning it this name from critics, who lamented that this group of advisers did not have to answer to Congress as they were not “official cabinet officers”.
rotating officialsJackson also believed in this, as he encouraged fresh opinions.
western expansionJackson understood the positive impact continued this could have on the country and wished to open up the frontier to European American settlers who longed to settle here.
Native AmericansThis was the problem in the way of Jacksons dream of western expansion.
west of the MississippiJacksons solution to the “Native American problem” was to move them here.
Indian Removal ActThis, signed into law in 1830, provided for the immediate resettlement of Native Americans living in Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and present-day Illinois.
CherokeeThis Nation refused to leave without a fight and took its case agains the state of Georgia to the Supreme Court.
Cherokee Nation v. GeorgiaThe Court ruled in this that the tribe was not a sovereign foreign nation and, therefore, had no right to sue for jurisdiction over its homelands.
Worcester v. GeorgiaIn this case, John Marshall ruled that the state of Georgia could not infringe on the tribes sovereignty, thus nullifying Georgia state laws within Cherokee territory.
“John Marshall has made his decision; now let him enforce it.”Jacksons famous quote on Worcester v. Georgia
Trail of TearsBy 1838, all the Cherokees had been forcibly removed from the state of Georgia. This trek is known as this, as some 4,000 Cherokee died en route to Oklahoma.
ProtestantThese traditionalists created a fervor in the 1790s in response to the liberal beliefs espoused by leaders such as Thomas Jefferson and other deists.
liberal religious viewsProtestant religious figures felt that these were a direct threat to the moral fiber of American and sought to regain a foothold in the hearts and souls of followers.
free willThe new Calvinist preachers preached this and abandoned predestination.
Charles G. FinneyReligious revivalism did not reach its full fever pitch until the 1820s, with the preaching of this Presbyterian minister.
fire and brimstoneFinneys sermons, entitled this, became commonplace in upstate New York, where listeners were instilled with a fear of Satan and an eternity in Hell.
burned-over districtThe region of New York where Finney preached became known as this, as Finney preached of the dangers of eternal damnation across the countryside.
tent revivalsAside from Finney, other preachers set out across the national, setting up these that resembled country picnics more than church services.
Peter CartwrightMethodist and Baptist ministers, such as this man, traveled across the South and the West, preaching at tent revivals and converting thousands.
Methodists and BaptistsThese two denominations soon became the two largest ones in the US as a result of the Second Great Awakening.
perfectionismMany of the new religious converts believed in this, or thea idea that humankind could reach a new level like that of Jesus.
local levelThe antebellum social reform movement at first operated on a this level, seeking only to affect individual morals.
alcoholThe “evils” of this were one of the first areas of concern for antebellum reformers.
American Temperance SocietyRevival preachers joined forces in the mid-1820s to form this, whose aim was to encourage drinkers to first limit their intake of alcohol and then eventually take a vow of abstinence.
on-the-job accidents, productivityState leaders would soon see that curbing alcohol use among their citizenry could lead to fewer these and more overall this.
Maine LawNeal S. Dow led the way for the temperance movement to shift into the political arena with the sponsorship of this, which completely prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages in that state.
middle-class womenThese members tended to be the most active members of temperance societies.
abolitionistsWhen the temperance movement became overshadowed by this in the 1850s, many middle-class women shifted their attention to it.
healthAside from drinking, Americans overall this became the next target of the reformers.
Dorothea DixThis woman crusaded for the improvement of American institutions to care for the nations mentally ill population.
dietTo cleanse the body and soul, men such as Sylvester Graham of graham-cracker fame and John Harvey Kellogg of the corn flake espoused the importance of this.
Battle Creek Mental InstitutionDr. Kellogg instituted this to put his ideas about diet and health into practice.
AbolitionThe most politicized of all the antebellum reform movements was this one.
sinfulBorn from the teachings of the Second Great Awakening, abolitionists believed that slavery was this, and therefore, must be eliminated.
William Lloyd GarrisonIn 1831, this man began publishing The Liberator, a newspaper dedicated to ending slavery in the United States. He later founded the American Antislavery Society.
The LiberatorAn anti-slavery newspaper written by William Lloyd Garrison. It drew attention to abolition, both positive and negative, causing a war of words between supporters of slavery and those opposed.
American Antislavery SocietyFounded in 1833 by William Lloyd Garrison and other abolitionists. Garrison burned the Constitution as a proslavery document. Argued for “no Union with slaveholders” until they repented for their sins by freeing their slaves.
womenGarrisons insistence on the participation of this in the movement led to a division among his supporters.
Liberty PartyGarrisons insistence on the participation of women in the movement led to a division among his supporters, leading to the creation of 2 new groups. This one accepted the membership of women.
Foreign Antislavery SocietyGarrisons insistence on the participation of women in the movement led to a division among his supporters, leading to the creation of 2 new groups. This one did not accept the membership of women.
Frederick DouglassThis man published The North Star, an antislavery journal that chronicled the ugliness of slavery for readers and argued that the Constitution could be used as a weapon against slavery.
The North StarFrederick Douglass published this, an antislavery journal that chronicled the ugliness of slavery for readers and argued that the Constitution could be used as a weapon against slavery.
Sojourner TruthA former slave who spoke against the evils of slavery and also for womens rights. Her most famous speech was called “Aint I a Woman?”
Harriet TubmanAmerican abolitionist. Born a slave on a Maryland plantation, she escaped to the North in 1849 and became the most renowned conductor on the Underground Railroad, leading more than 300 slaves to freedom.
Underground RailroadA secret, shifting network which aided slaves escaping to the North and Canada, mainly after 1840.
Nat TurnerThis man, an enslaved African American from Virginia, organized a massive slave uprising in 1831.
Nat Turners RebellionRebellion in which a man led a group of slaves through Virginia in an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow and kill planter families.
communal societiesSeveral groups, both religious and nonreligious, formed these, which they hoped would be closer to a world in which everything and everyone was perfect.
joseph SmithAccording to Mormon tradition, the angel Moroni visited this young man in his western New York bedroom one autumn night in 1823. The angel told him of a sacred text that was inscribed on golden plates that had been buried by the fabled “Lost Tribe of Israel” nearby and revealed to him the exact location of the treasure.
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day SaintsBy 1830, Joseph Smith had allegedly translated the sacred text and formally organized this group.
Brigham YoungSmith was murdered by a mob in Illinois, where this new leader collected his flock and moved further west.
UtahThe Mormons moved to this place out west.
polygamyThe Mormons remained outsiders owing to their religious practices and beliefs, notably this practice.
RomanticismMeanwhile, this had swept over Europe, stirring emotion and an emphasis on the connection between man and nature.
transcendentalistsThe Romanticism spirit was embraced in America through the writings of these people.
Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David ThoreauThese two transcendentalist friends spoke throughout the country and wrote scathing essays about the state of man.
WaldenThoreaus best-known book, named this, chronicled a self-initiated experiment in which he removed himself from society by living in seclusion in the woods for two years.
On Civil DisobediencePerhaps most influential was this essay by Thoreau, in which he advocated passive resistance as a form of justifiable protest. This essay would inspire later social movement leaders Mahatma Gandhi and Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
Brook FarmThis communal effort to practice transcendentalism tried to settle in Massachusetts in 1841, but collapsed in 1849 because of massive debts.
ShakersThis utopian community was known for their trembling in the spirit of God through them during church services.
Oneida CommuneThis group, founded by John Humphrey Noyes in 1848 began to be a shining example of equality among all members, which was controversial from the beginning. They shared everything, including spouses. It died out when a struggle over leadership and direction of the commune developed.
Ralph Waldo EmersonThis man began encouraging the forging of a unique American literary identity as he traveled across the US delivering lectures.
Gilbert Stuart and Charles Wilson PealePortraits of American presidents by these men, with their traditional lines and bold images, characterized American art in the early 1800s.
Hudson River SchoolThe Romantic era influenced large-scale landscapes, such as taught in this school, emphasizing the beauty of the American landscape.
KnickerbockersThis group of New Yorkers, including Washington Irving, developed “American” fiction by using domestic settings and character types for their stories and tales.
James Fenimore CooperThe tales of the frontier were glorified by this man, whose The Last of the Mohicans gained worldwide attention.
Nathaniel HawthorneQuestions of religion and morality came front and center through many works, specifically by this man.
ancient formsAmerican architects returned to the glory days of Rome and Greece by imitating these when designing landmarks, including Thomas Jeffersons home, Monticello, and rebuilding the nations capital.