APUSH: Last West and New South

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Great American Desert
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The vast arid territory that included the Great Plains, the Rocky Mountains, and the Western Plateau. Known as this before 1860, they were the lands between the Mississippi River and the Pacific Coast.
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Great Plains
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A mostly flat and grassy region of western North America
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Mining Frontiers
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gold rushes began in 1848 and led to the development of cities and many immigrants coming to the West
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Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882
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(1882) Denied any additional Chinese laborers to enter the country while allowing students and merchants to immigrate. American workers felt threatened by the job competition.
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Barbed Wire
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Used to fence in land on the Great Plains, eventually leading to the end of the open frontier.
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Joseph Glidden
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He marketed the first barbed wire, solving the problem of how to fence cattle in the vast open spaces of the Great Plains where lumber was scarce, thus changing the American West.
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Homestead Act of 1862
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Act that allowed a settler to acquire as much as 160 acres of land by living on it for 5 years. It was now being given away to encourage a rapid filling of empty spaces and to provide a stimulus to the family farm. However, the land given to the settlers usually had terrible soil and the weather included no precipitation, many farms were repo’d or failed until “dry farming” took root on the plains , then wheat, then massive irrigation projects
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Causes of the Indian Wars
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native americans lived on land that had good soil or gold on it, white settlers generally just wanted more land
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Little Big Horn
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General Custer and his men were wiped out by a coalition of Sioux and Cheyenne Indians led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse
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Assimilationists
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Wanted to eradicate tribal life and assimilate Native Americans into white culture through education, land policy, and federal law.
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Helen Hunt Jackson
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A Century of Dishonor, United States writer of romantic novels about the unjust treatment of Native Americans (1830-1885)
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Dawes Act of 1887
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dissolved many tribes as legal entities, wiped out tribal ownership of land, and set up individual Indian family heads with 160 free acres. If the Indians behaved like “good white settlers” then they would get full title to their holdings as well as citizenship. The Dawes Act attempted to assimilate the Indians with the white men. The Dawes Act remained the basis of the government’s official Indian policy until the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934.
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Ghost Dance Movement
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The last effort of Native Americans to resist US domination and drive whites from their ancestral lands, came through as a religious movement.
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Indian Reorganization Act of 1934
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“Indian New Deal” partially reversed the Dawes Act and restored the tribal status and Indian reservation system. Restored tribal ownership of lands, recognized tribal constitutions and government, and provided loans for economic development.
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Department of Interior
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Responsible for handling national parks and Indian territories and protecting natural resources.
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Forest Reserve Act of 1891
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Authorized the President to set aside public forests as National Parks and other reserves
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John Muir, Sierra Club
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Muir was a naturalist who believed the wilderness should be preserved in its natural state. He was largely responsible for the creation of Yosemite National Park in California. The sierra club was an american environmental organization that helped promote the protection of the environment and nature.
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New South
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After the Civil War, southerners promoted a new vision for a self-sufficient southern economy built on modern capitalist values, industrial growth, and improved transportation. Henry Grady played an important role.
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Henry W. Grady
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Editor of the Atlanta Constitution, preached about economically diversified South with industries and small farms, laissez-faire
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Birmingham, Richmond, Memphis
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Birmingham became one of the leading steel producers Memphis was a center for the lumber industry Richmond became a capital of the tobacco industry
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Integrated rail network
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standard gauge rails were used to integrate all railroads, provided mass transportation
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Sharecropping
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A system used on southern farms after the Civil War in which farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for a small portion of the crops.
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Tenant Farming
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system of farming in which a person rents land to farm
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George Washington Carver
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African American botanist, agricultural chemist, and educator who developed hundreds of uses for the peanut, soybean, and sweet potato, prompting Southern farmers to produce these soil-enriching cash crops
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Tuskegee Institute
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Black educational institution founded by Booker T. Washington to provide training in agriculture and crafts
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Civil Rights Cases of 1883
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Court ruled that Congress could not legislate against racial discrimination by private citizens, included railroads, hotels
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Plessy v. Ferguson
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a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
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Jim Crow Laws
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laws that gave limited rights to blacks. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights. enforced segregation
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Ida B. Wells
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African American journalist. published statistics about lynching, urged African Americans to protest by refusing to ride streetcards or shop in white owned stores
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Booker T. Washington
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African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
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Railroads and middlemen
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middlemen took their cut from wholesalers before selling to farmers, railroads charged high discriminatory prices
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National Grange Movement
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Organized by Oliver H. Kelley primarily as a social and educational organization for farmers and their families. By the 1870s, the Grange organized economic ventures and took political action to defend members against the middlemen, trusts, and railroads.
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Granger Laws
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A set of laws designed to address railroad discrimination against small farmers, covering issues like freight rates and railroad rebates.
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Interstate Commerce Commission
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established in 1887; it was charged with regulating the economics and services of specified carriers engaged in transportation between states. Surface transportation under the it’s jurisdiction included railroads, trucking companies, bus lines, freight forwarders, water carriers, oil pipelines, transportation brokers, and express agencies.
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Ocala Platform of 1890
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national organization of farmers met to address problems of rural america, attacked Wall Street and big business. supported direct election of senators, lower tariff rates, graduated income tax and a new banking system regulated by federal gov. wanted to free farmers dependence on middlemen

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