APUSH Chapters 21-23 Note Cards

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John Hay
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secretary of state in the McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt administrations; he was the author of the Open Door Notes, which attempted to protect American interests in China in the early 20th century by asking European countries to pledge equal trading rights in China and the protection of its territory from foreign annexation.
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Queen Liliuokalani
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The Queen of Hawaii who gave the U.S. naval rights to Pearl Harbor in 1887. She was deposed by American settlers in 1893, leading to Hawaii’s annexation by the US in 1898.
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White Man’s Burden
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A poem by British poet Rudyard Kipling commenting on American imperialism. It created a phrase used by imperialists to justify the imperialistic actions the U.S. took.
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De Lome Letter
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A letter from the Spanish ambassador to the U.S., Dupuy (name the last part) to the President that was stolen and published in numerous U.S. newspapers. As it described McKinley as “weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd,” it only served to increase anti-Spanish beliefs because of the insults to McKinley and the sensationalism around the entire event.
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Yellow Journalism
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Term given to sensationalist newspaper writing, exemplified by that of Hearst and Pulitzer when they were attempting to garner support for war with Spain
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San Juan Hill
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Site of the most famous battle of the Spanish-American war, where Theodore Roosevelt successfully leads the Rough Riders in a charge against the Spanish trenches
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Platt Amendment
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This amendment to the new Cuban constitution authorized U.S. intervention in Cuba to protect its interests. Cuba pledged not to make treates with other countries that might compromise its independence, and it granted naval bases to the United States, most notable being Guantanamo Bay.
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Rough Riders
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Volunteer regiment of US Cavalry led by Teddy Roosevelt during the Spanish American War.
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Teller Amendment
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April 1896 – U.S. declared Cuba free from Spain, but the Teller Amendment disclaimed any American intention to annex Cuba.
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Open Door Policy
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Statement of U.S. foreign policy toward China. Issued by U.S. secretary of state John Hay (1899), the statement reaffirmed the principle that all countries should have equal access to any Chinese port open to trade.
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Boxer Rebellion
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1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the “foreign devils”. The rebellion was ended by British troops
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Gentlemen’s Agreement
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(TR) , 1907 Agreement when Japan agreed to curb the number of workers coming to the US and in exchange Roosevelt agreed to allow the wives of the Japenese men already living in the US to join them
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Dollar Diplomacy
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Foriegn Policy idea by Taft to make countries dependant on the U.S. by heavily investing in their economies
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Pancho Villa
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A popular leader during the Mexican Revolution of 1910. An outlaw in his youth, when the revolution started, he formed a cavalry army in the north of Mexico and fought for the rights of the landless in collaboration with Emiliano Zapata.
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John J Pershing
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an American general who led troops against “Pancho” Villa in 1916. He took on the Meuse-Argonne offensive in 1918 which was one of the longest lasting battles- 47 days in World War I. He was the commander of the American Expeditionary Forces in Europe during World War I.
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Roosevelt Corollary
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Roosevelt’s 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force

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