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Apush Chapter 40 Test Questions

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Double-Digit Inflation
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An increase in prices at a rate of between 10% and 99%; appeared during Carter’s presidency
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Edward (Ted) Kennedy
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Senator of Massachusetts and the last of the Kennedy brothers; Challenged Carter for candidacy in the 1980 election, but backed out when a fatal car crash from 1969 was brought back into the light
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Ronald Reagan
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Republican President (1981-1989) who ended the Cold War and brought many reforms; “neoconservative”
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Conservatives
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Hold to traditional attitudes and values; cautious about change and innovation
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“New Right”
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Outspoken conservative movement that emphasizes opposition to abortion, homosexuality, equal rights, pornography, and affirmative action
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Moral Majority
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Evangelical Christian group that supported Reagan and the Republican party in the 1980s
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Big Government
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Government perceived as excessively interventionist and intruding into all aspects of the lives of its citizens
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Neoconservatives
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A group that championed free-market capitalism, limited government, anti-Soviet positions in foreign policy, questioned liberal welfare programs, and called for the reassertion of traditional values of individualism and centrality of the family
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Irving Kristol
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“The Godfather of Neoconservatism”; American columnist, journalist, and writer
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Free-Market Capitalism
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Minimizes Government intervention in economic affairs and maximizes the role of the market
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Screen Actors Guild
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An American labor union representing over 105,000 film and television principal and background performers worldwide
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Reagan Revolution
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Policies of the Reagan administration that increased defense spending, reduced social programs, and cut taxes; based on the supply side theory of limiting government interference and taxes
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James Watt
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leader of the Sagebrush rebellion; Secretary of the Interior under Reagan; sought to return federal land to the states and believed that the natural resources and wilderness should not be preserved
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Southern Democrats
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After the so called “calamity” that was President Carter, these individuals set up an “ABC” campaign and helped vote Reagan into office
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John Hinckley
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Attempted to assassinate President Reagan
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Tax Cuts
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A reduction in taxes that results in a decrease in government income and an increase in taxpayer income
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Federal Deficit/Debt
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When the government spends more money than it takes in; “expenditures exceed revenue”
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“Boll Weevils”
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Conservative southern Democrats who supported Reagan’s policies in congress
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“Supply Side Economics”
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The economic theory of “Reaganomics” that emphasized cutting taxes and government spending in order to stimulate investment, productivity, and economic growth by private enterprise
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“Reaganomics”
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Policies combined a monetarist fiscal policy, supply-side tax cuts, and domestic budget cutting; goal was to reduce the size of the federal government and stimulate economic growth
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“Trickle-Down Economics”
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Theory that money lent to banks and businesses will “trickle down” to the consumers
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Young Urban Professionals
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“Yuppies”; flaunted wealth through conspicuous consumer spending
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Afghanistan
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Attacked by Soviet Union in 1979
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Arms Race
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Revival of Cold War policies between Soviets and US where each country attempted to “out weapon” the other
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Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)
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AKA “Star Wars”; Reagan’s plan for a land-or-space-based shield against nuclear attack; was seen unfeasible, and was in violation of the Antiballistic Missile Treaty
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“Star Wars”
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Nickname for the Strategic Defense Initiative
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Israel
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Attacked Lebanon; sought to destroy guerrilla based that had attacked them
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Lebanon
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Went to war with Israel
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U.S. Marine Barracks
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241 killed in bombing after Reagan tried to intervene with Israel- Lebanon war
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“Teflon President”
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Nickname for President Reagan
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“Sandinistas”
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Nicaraguan revolutionaries that overthrew the dictatorship
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“Contra” Rebels
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Rebel group of Nicaraguans supported by the Reagan administration
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Niceragua
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Previously a dictatorship, a Latin American country that successfully revolted with help from the US
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Grenada
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Reagan dispatched a heavily-armed invasion force to this island, where a military coup had killed the prime minister and implemented Marxist ideals; US captured island, thereby asserting dominance over Carribean
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Walter Mondale
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VP to Carter; Won the democratic nomination in 1980 election, but was defeated by a landslide to Reagan; Would have had 1st female VP, Geraldine Ferraro
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Geraldine Ferraro
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1st woman nominated by a major political party to be VP
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Mikhail Gorbachev
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Head of Soviet Union 1985-1991; His liberalization effort improved relations with the West, but he lost power after his reforms led to the collapse of communist government in eastern Europe
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“Glasnost”
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Policy of openness initiated by Gorbachev in the 1980s that provided increased opportunities for freedom of speech, association, and the press in Soviet Union
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“Perestroika”
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Policy initiated by Gorbachev that involved restructuring the social economic status quo in communist Russia towards a market-based society
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Geneva Summit
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Meeting between Reagan and Gorbachev to talk about international diplomatic relations and the arms race
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Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces
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Required the US and Soviet Union to eliminate and permanently forswear all nuclear and other conventional missiles with ranges between 500 and 5,500 KM
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Reykjavik Summit, Iceland
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Gorbachev and Reagan came close to an agreement, but Reagan refused to drop SDI plan
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Moscow Summit
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Ended Cold War
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State-Sponsored Terrorists
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Government support of violent non-state actors engaged in terrorism
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Persian Gulf
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War fought between US and Iraq to free Kuwait from Iraqi invadors
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Iran-Iraq War
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Iraq invaded Iran because of rising popularity if Shia Islam in Iran
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The Iran-Contra
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Foreign policy problem in which the Reagan administration was accused of selling arms to terrorists and using the money to illegally aid a rebel group
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Col. Oliver North
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National Security Council aid convicted of obstructing Congress in the terrorist-money-for-rebel-aid scandal
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Welfare State
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A government that undertakes responsibility for the welfare of its citizens through programs in public health, public housing, pensions, unemployment compensation, etc.
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Rich and Poor Gap
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Rich get rich and the poor get poor
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The Religious Right
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Right to one’s individual religion
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Religious Conservatives
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Believe in the integration of religion into life and “Family values”
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Cultural War
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War between two different cultures (ie Iran-Iraq war due to Shia Muslims in Iran)
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Rev. Jerry Falwell
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Leader of the Religious Right Fundamentalist Christians, a group that supported Reagan; anti-abortion, favored prayer in schools, “Family values’
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Evangelical Christians
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“Born-again”; lead high-energy, high-religion lifestyle
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Sandra Day o’Connor
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1st woman Supreme Court Justice; appointed by Reagan
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Roe VS Wade
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1973 Supreme Court case that prohibited states from interfering with a woman’s abortion rights
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Webster VS Reproductive Health Services
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Court upheld law from MO that prohibited public employees from performing abortions, unless life of mother threatened
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Planned Parenthood VS Casey
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Informed consent, 24 hour waiting period, parental consent for a minor, and the imposition of certain reporting info from abortion facilities. Spousal notification was overturned
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Robert Bork
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nominated for Supreme Court by Reagan but Senate rejected nomination; Yale law graduate; advocated the judicial philosophy of originalism
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S&L Institutions Scandal
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Loaning companies had to be bailed out by government thanks to flaws in Reaganomics
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Gary Hart
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Fore-runner for the Democratic Party nomination in 1988; forced to drop out due to charges of sexual misconduct
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Jesse Jackson
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Candidate for president in 1988 who led the “Rainbow coalition”
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“Rainbow Coalition”
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Jesse Jackson’s idea of forming an alliance between groups of minorities and the disadvantaged
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Michael Dukakis
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Democratic candidate for president in 1988
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George Herbert Walker Bush
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Republican candidate for president 1988; won
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Tiananmen Square
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A series of demonstrations in and near Tiananmen Square in Beijing; Many college students died
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Boris Yeltsin
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President of the Russian Republic in 1991; helped end USSR and forced Gorbachev to resigne
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Commonwealth of Independent States
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post-USSR Russia
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Chechnya
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Tried to declare independence from Russia
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South Africa
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White-run dictatorship that was racist against black population; revolution
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Nelson Mandela
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South African activist who was the country’s first democratically-elected president
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Saddam Hussein
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Former Iraq Dictator who waged war against Iran
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Operation Desert Shield/Storm
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The code name for the liberation of Kuwait during the Persian Gulf War in 1991; US and allies defeated Iraq in a ground war that lasted 100 hours
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U.N. Coalition
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US allies in Operation Desert Storm
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“Scud” Missiles
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A series of tactical ballistic missiles developed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
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General Norman Schwarzkopf
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Leader of Operation Desert Storm; commander of allied powers in Iraq
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Americans With Disabilities Act
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Law signed in 1990 that prevents discrimination against the disabled
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Clarence Thomas
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2nd African American Supreme Court Justice
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Anita Hill
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Former associate to Clarence Thomas who accused him of sexual harassment
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27th Ammendment
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Congressional Pay raises; Congress may not vote themselves a pay raise until after the next election