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APUSH Chapter 4

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Forntier of Empire
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Population grew at unpredicted rates in the colonies. No one was escaping British influence. Colonists were becoming more American, which attracted the colonist to declare independence.
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Diversity
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Population of colonies doubled about every 25 years. Population becoming disperse and heterogeneous, and it was mainly young because poeple lived longer.
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Migration
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British courts compelled many pepole to come to America. Passed Transportation Acts to send convisted felons to America. People were scared of them and Brits moved the convicts to Australia.
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Germans and Scot-Irish
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These groups were the 2 largest body of non-english settlers to migrate to America. They lived mainly in the Middle colonies/Backcountry. Scots came for Freedom of religion and Germans came for land of their own.
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Germans and Scot-Irish cont.
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They were subjected to prejudice, making them through the country. They liked to live with own kind.
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Middle Ground
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This place was a goal to maintain a strong indeendent voice in commercial exchanges. Natives wanted strangers to show them respect. Independent commercial dealings started which weakened their ability to resist white people’s ways
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Spainsh
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They left lasting impression-cultural landscape- in southwest. Dispersed settlements and mixed with people of other races.
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Spainsh and how they conquered
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They had to drive many people out of their homeland to set up colonies. Established St. Augistine(1565) in Florida, but no one came because of horror pictured with it. California recieved little attenion. Spanish outposts grew slowly. Empire never had enough resources to secure north fully.
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Provincial Cities
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The five larhest cities only contained 5% of the colonial population. Cities were made for commercial reasons, not living reasons. Had best influence on colonial culture from England.
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American Enligntenment
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\”Age of Reason\”;radical ideas swept through nation making people think about God, nature, and society. Recieved mixed reception when it entered colonies. Appeal to Enlightenment was focus on ways to improve quality of human life.
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Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)
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Seen as person of reason and science. Franklin never denied exsistence of God but spent most of his time exercising human reason. He was a symbol of material prgress through human ingenuity. Found Library Company
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Economy
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Economy kept pace with the growing population. Agriculture played important role in Per capita. Acts could have created tension if rigorously enforced. Main profits came from West Indies, where Americans relied on to preserve credit with England.
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Consumer Society
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Americans began buying more goods from England. Small factories efficiently and cheaply made certain goods. Brits. offered credit for colonist-put many americans in debt. A lot more intercoastal trade. The Great Wagon Road. All of this trade \”Anglicized\” American culture. People met others of different origin.
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Great Awakening
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A relgious movement occuring in sparatic places and times. Most important effects were in – Mass., Conn., RI, Penn., NJ, and Virginia. Unexpected and no one religious group monopolized the awakening. Encouraged people to stanup for themselves. This was \”national event\” and people were optimistic about America’s future.
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Jonathon Edwards
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Thought eternal fate determined by God. Thought fellow ministers have grown soft. His speeches made many poeple think.
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George Whitefield
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Responsibility to sustain the Great Awakening. He let everybody come in to ear his words; they had to be Christian. He used many things to help him spread the word.
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New and Old Lights
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New Lights- People who defended the Great Awakening Old Lights- People who saw the Great Awakening as dangerous nonsense
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English Constitution
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This was not a formal written document; it was a cumlative body of laws, statutes, and court decisions. contained 3 parts. 1. Monarch 2. House of Lords 3. House of Commons
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Real British Politics
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The 3 groups did not define distinct socioeconomic groups. Bribery was common to get a position in small districts.
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Commonwealthmen
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These men criticized the corruption and lack of balance in the English Constitutional System. They won little support because people were scared of tampering the government.
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Royal Govenors
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These men possesed enormous power in the colonies. Did certain things that King could not do. Advised by a council.
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Colonial Assemblies
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Special obligation to preserve colonial liberties against any attack or intrusion and to generate hostility. Colonist believed in purity of balanced constitution. They shaped American culture.
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Weekly Journals
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New institution about American Life. This is where many Americans got their news from.
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King William’s and Queen Anne’s War
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William declared war on Louis to get land that France took. Right After that war was Queen Anne’s war for fighting over a large area of land.
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Suspections
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Colonists suspected France was encircling them to confine English a strip of land. France suspected that England was trying to sieze all of North Amer.
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King George’s War
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England Captured Louisbourg, but then they gave it back to the French after signing the treaty.
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Albany Plan
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Benjamin Franklin’s Idea for colonial union. Fromation of a Grand Council made up of delegates form colonies to oversee matters of defense, western expansion, Indian Affairs, and council could collect taxes. Needed support but never got it.
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Seven Years’ War
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Mainly fought in America to try and get rid of French form the continent. England took over Louisbourg, a second time, which cut off Canada’s supply line with French.
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Treaty of Paris (1763)
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Ended seven years’ war. Gave Canada, Florida, and all the land east of Missi. River to Britain.
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In The End…
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Americans thought themselves as joint partners with Britain for winning the 7 years’ war. However, Americans would not pay bills Britain put on them, which made Britain see \”Americans\” as \”not quite English\”