APUSH Chapter 26 The Great West and the Agricultural Revolution, 1865-1890

Cultural conflicts and population loss to disease weakened the Plains Indians’ ability to resist white encroachment onto their lands.

The Plains Indians were rather quickly and easily defeated by the U. S. Army.
False. The Plains Indians were rather slowly defeated by the U. S. Army.

A crucial factor in defeating the Indians was the destruction of the buffalo, a vital source of food and other supplies.

Humanitarian reformers respected the Native Americans’ traditional culture and tried to preserve their tribal way of life.
False. Humanitarian reformers tried to Westernize Native Americans.

Individual gold and silver miners proved unable to compete with large mining corporations and trained engineers.

During the peak years of the Long Drive, the cattlemen’s prosperity depended on driving large beef herds great distances to railroad terminal points.

More families acquired land under the Homestead Act than from the states and private owners.
False. Less families acquired land under the Homestead Act than from the states and private owners.

In 1890, the Census Bureau declared that there was no longer a clear line of frontier settlement.

Although very few city dwellers ever migrated west to take up farming, the frontier “safety valve” did have some positive effects on eastern workers.

The farmers who settled the Great Plains were usually single-crop producers dependent on unstable distant markets for their livelihoods.

The greatest problem facing the farmers was their inability to produce enough grain on western prairies lands that were more difficult to cultivate.
False. The greatest problem facing the farmers was overproduction and low grain prices.

The fundamental problem of the Farmers’ Alliance was their inability to overcome the racial division between white and black farmers in the South.

The Populist Party grew out of the earlier rural protests of the grange and the Farmers’ Alliances.

The economic crisis of the 1890s strengthened the Populists’ belief that farmers and industrial workers should form an alliance against economic and political oppression.

Republican political manager Mark Hanna struggled to raise enough funds to combat William Jennings Bryan’s pro-silver campaign.
False. Republican political manager Mark Hanna easily raised enough funds to combat William Jennings Bryan’s pro-silver campaign.

Bryan’s populist campaign failed partly because he was unable to persuade enough urban workers to join his essentially rural-based cause.

McKinley’s victory in 1896 ushered in an era marked by Republican domination,
weakened party organization, and the fading of the money issue in American politics.

Western Indians offered strong resistance to white expansion through their effective use of
d. repeating rifles and horses.

Intertribal warfare among Native Americans increased in the late nineteenth century because
c. growing competition for the rapidly dwindling hunting grounds.

The federal government’s attempt to confine Native Americans to certain areas through formal treaties was largely ineffective because
a. the nomadic Plains Indians largely rejected the idea of formal authority and defined territory.

The warfare that led up to the Battle of the Little Big Horn was set off by
a. white intrusion into the previously reserved Indian territory of Oklahoma.

Indian resistance was finally subdued because
b. the coming of the railroad led to the destruction of the buffalo and the Indians’ way of life.

The federal government attempted to force Indians away from their traditional values and customs by
b. creating a network of children’s boarding schools and white “field matrons.”

Both the mining and cattle frontiers saw
d. a movement from individual operations to large-scale corporate business.

The problem of developing agriculture in the arid West was solved most successfully through
c. the use of irrigation from damned western rivers.

The “safety valve” theory of the frontier holds that
c. unemployed city dwellers could move west and thus relieve labor conflict in the East.

Which of these factors did not make the Trans-Mississippi West a unique part of the American frontier experience?
b. The problem of applying new technologies in a hostile wilderness

By the 1880’s, most western farmers faced hard times because
d. they were forced to sell their grain at low prices in a depressed world market.

The first organization to work on behalf of the farmers was the
a. Grange.

One of the political goals of the Grangers was
b. to regulate railway rates and gain-storage fees through state laws.

Despite substantial gains in the election of 1892, the Populists in 1892 were unable to win a majority because
c. white southern farmers were too attached to the Democratic party and racial segregation.

Which of the following was NOT among the political goals advocated by the Populist Party in the 1890s?
b. Creation of a national system of unemployment insurance and old-age pensions

The U.S. government’s response to the Pullman strike aroused great anger from organized labor because
a. it seemed to represent “government by injunction” designed to destroy labor unions.

William Jennings Bryan gained the Democratic nomination in 1896 with his strong support of
a. unlimited coinage of silver in order to inflate the currency.

McKinley defeated Bryan primarily because he was able to win the support of
b. eastern wage earners and city dwellers.

Major Northern Plains tribe that fought and eventually lost a bitter war against
the U.S. Army, 1876-1877

Southwestern tribe led by Geronimo that carried out some of the last fighting
against white conquest

Generally poor areas where vanquished Native Americans were eventually
confined under federal control

Indian cult, originating out of the sacred Sun Dance, that the federal government
attempted to stamp out in 1890
Ghost Dance

Federal law that attempted to dissolve tribal land holding and establish Native
Americans as individual farmers.
Dawe’s Act

Huge silver and gold deposits that brought wealth and statehood to Nevada
Comstock Lode

General term for the herding of cattle from the grassy plains to the railroad
terminals of Kansas, Nebraska, Wyoming
Long Drive

Federal law that offered generous land to poorer farmers but also provided the
unscrupulous with opportunities for hoaxes and fraud
Homestead Act

Improved type of fencing that enabled farmers to enclose land on the treeless
Barbed Wire

Former “Indian Territory” where “sooners” tried to get the jump on “boomers” when it was open for settlement in 1889

The theory that the availability of the frontier lessened social conflict in
America by providing economic opportunities for eastern workers

Farmers’ organization that began as a secret social group and expanded into
such activities as pro-farmer politics and lawmaking

Short-lived pro-farmer third party that gained over a million votes and elected
fourteen congressmen in1878

Broad-based organizations of the 1880’s that drew both black and white
agriculturalists into social, economic, and political activity
Farmer’s Alliance

Third political party that emerged in the 1890’s to express rural grievances and
mount major attacks on the democrats and republicans

Sand Creek, Colorado
H. Site of the Indian massacre by militia forces in 1864

Little Big Horn
J. Site of major U.S. Army defeat in the Sioux War of 1876-1877

Sitting Bull
E. Leader of the Sioux during wars of 1876-1877

Chief Joseph
B. Leader of the Nez Percé tribe who conducted a brilliant but unsuccessful military campaign in1877

G. Leader of the Apaches of Arizona in their warfare with the whites

Helen Hunt Jackson
I. Massachusetts writer whose books aroused white sympathy for the plight of the Native Americans

John Wesley Powell
F. Explorer and geologist who warned that traditional agriculture could not succeed west of the 100th meridian

William Hope Harvey
C. Author of the popular pro-silver pamphlet “Coin’s Financial School”

Eugene Debs
K. Railway union leader who converted to socialism while serving jail time during the Pullman strike

James B. Weaver
D. Former Civil War general and Granger who ran as the Greenback Labor party candidate for president in 1880

Mary E. Lease
L. Eloquent Kansas Populist who urged farmers to “raise less corn and more hell”

Mark Hanna
A. Ohio industrialist and organizer of McKinley’s victory over Bryan in the election of 1896

The encroachment of white settlement and the violation of treaties with the Indians
J. Led to nearly constant warfare with the Plains
Indians from 1868 to about 1890

Railroad building, disease, and the
destruction of the buffalo
E. Decimated Indian populations and hastened
their defeat at the hands of the advancing whites

Reformers’ attempts to make Native
Americans conform to white ways
I. Further undermined Native Americans’
traditional tribal culture and morale

The coming of big-business mining and
stock-raising to the West
D. Ended the romantic, colorful era of the miners’ and cattlemen’s frontier

“Dry farming”, barbed wire, and
H. Made it possible to farm dry, treeless areas of
the Great Plains and the West

The passing of the frontier in 1890
C. Created new psychological and economic problems for a nation accustomed to a boundlessly open West

The growing economic specialization of
western agriculturalists
G. Made the farmers vulnerable to vast industrial and market forces beyond their control

The rise of the Populist Party in the early
F. Led grain and cotton growers to turn from economics to politics as a solution for their grievances

The economic depression that began in
A. Laid the groundwork for the more aggressively political populists

The return of prosperity after 1897 and
new gold discoveries in Alaska, South
Africa, and elsewhere
B. Created severe deflation and forced farmers deeper into debt