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APUSH Chapter 25 Terms

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Manchuria (Manchukuo)
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Manchuria was a region in China that was occupied by Japan in 1931. This move was made to get raw materials to make Japan an industrial power. This eventually led to a Japanese invasion of China in 1937. DIPLOMATIC.
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Cordell Hull
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Cordell Hull was the Secretary of State who believed that trade was a two-way street and that a nation can sell abroad only if it buys abroad. Hull suggested the reciprocal trade policy of the New Dealers. This policy allowed the President to reduce the U.S. tariffs if other countries would reduce the restrictions they had on U.S. imports. DIPLOMATIC & ECONOMIC.
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Neutrality Acts
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Neutrality acts were a series of acts passed in 1935 that created an embargo on trading arms with countries involved in the war. These acts also said that any Americans who traveled on ships of other nations would do so at their own risk. DIPLOMATIC.
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Stimson Doctrine
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The Stimson Doctrine was a policy, adopted by the government in 1932, that said the U.S. would not recognize any territorial changes that happened throughout Greece. DIPLOMATIC.
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Good-Neighbor Policy
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The Good-Neighbor Policy was implemented by Secretary of State Cordell Hull. This policy renounced U.S. armed intervention and the use of military force in Latin America. DIPLOMATIC.
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Pan-American Conferences
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The Pan-American conference was held between the confederation of Pan-American states in 1933 and 1938. These conferences were held in Montevideo and Lima. They resulted in the Convention of Rights and Duties of States. DIPLOMATIC.
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America First Committee
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The America First Committee was an isolationist group who feared the U.S. would go to war again and was formed to insist that the U.S.A. stay out of European affairs. DIPLOMATIC.
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London Economic Conference (1933)
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The London Economic Conference was an international economic conference called by League of Nations in 1933. Proposals were made to stabilize currencies and, as a result, Roosevelt withdrew his support. This conference ended without any agreement. DIPLOMATIC.
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Axis Powers
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The Axis Powers was the alliance between Germany, Italy, Hungary, and Japan during WWII. Japan and Germany joined forces in 1936, Italy joined in 1939, and Hungary joined in 1940. DIPLOMATIC.
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Soviet Union, recognized
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The presidents of the 1920s were anti-Soviet and refused to acknowledge the USSR. However, Roosevelt decided to acknowledge it in 1933 to boost trade and the U.S. economy. DIPLOMATIC.
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Isolationism
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Isolationism is a policy that encouraged the U.S. to avoid political or militaristic involvement with other countries and foreign affairs. DIPLOMATIC.
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Tydings-McDuffie Act
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The Tydings-McDuffie Act granted independence to the Philippines in 1946. The U.S. slowly removed military presence from the area because of monetary problems. DIPLOMATIC.
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Nye Committee
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The Nye Committee investigated the profits of munitions makers during WWI and their influence on America’s decision to declare war. The committee concluded that war profiteers had maneuvered the nation into WWI for financial gain. POLITICAL.
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“Truman Committee”
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Truman gained national visibility by fighting waste and mismanagement in the war effort through his committee. He advocated common sense and saving funds. POLITICAL.
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Quarantine Speech
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Franklin D. Roosevelt’s Quarantine Speech compared Fascist agression to a contagious disease. FDR said that democracies must unite to quarantine agressor nations. POLITICAL.
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Cash and Carry
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The “Cash and Carry” policy stated that if a country at war wanted to purchase non-militaristic goods from the U.S., it had to pick them up in its own ships and pay for them in cash. It was adopted in 1937. DIPLOMATIC.
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Selective Training and Service Act (1940)
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The Selective Training and Service Act was imposed in 1940 to change the American opinion on neutrality. This act forced men between 21 and 35 to register for the army. It also caused the training of 1.2 million troops. POLITICAL.
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Destroyers-For-Bases Deal
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The Destroyers-For-Bases Deal was an agreement between the U.S. and the UK on September 2nd, 1940. This deal transferred fifty mothballed destroyers from the United States Navy in exchange for land rights on British possessions. DIPLOMATIC.
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Wendell Willkie
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Wendell Willkie was the Republican nominee for the 1940 presidential election. Willkie was a former Democrat who supported many New Deal policies. The election was much closer than those of 1932 or 1936, but Roosevelt still won. POLITICAL.
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Four Freedoms Speech
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The Four Freedoms Speech in January 1941 was an address to Congress in which Roosevelet outlined the four essential freedoms: Freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom from want, and freedom from fear. POLITICAL.
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Lend-Lease Act (1941)
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Roosevelt convinced Congress to pass the Lend-Lease Act which authorized the president to “lend, lease, or otherwise dispose of” arms and other equipment to any country whose defense was considered vital to the security of the U.S. DIPLOMATIC.
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Atlantic Charter
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The Atlantic Charter was Roosevelt’s and Churchill’s joint press release that provided the ideological foundation of the Western cause. DIPLOMATIC.
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Pearl Harbor
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Pearl Harbor was a Naval base in Hawaii that was attacked by the Japanese in 1941. More than 2,000 Americans were killed in the attack on Pearl Harbor. This event pushed the U.S. into the war. DIPLOMATIC.
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Office of Price Administration
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The Office of Price Administration that came into effect in 1942 was an agency in charge of stabilizing prices. This agency froze wages and initiated a rationing program to support the war effort and stop inflation. POLITICAL.
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Smith vs. Allwright
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The Smith vs. Allwright case took place in 1943. It declared that it was unconstitutional to prohibit a black man from resting in the Texas primary. POLITICAL.
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Korematsu vs. U.S.
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The Korematsu vs. U.S. case took place in 1944. The Court allowed the removal of Japanese Americans from the West Coast on the basis on “military necessity,” but avoided ruling on the constitutionality of internment. POLITICAL.
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Battle of the Atlantic
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The Battle of the Atlantic was an ongoing battle between German submarines and American convoys. German U-boats relentlessly and successfully damaged American convoys carrying oil and other vital supplies to Britain and the Soviet Union. DIPLOMATIC.
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Dwight Eisenhower
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Dwight Eisenhower was the leader of the Allied forces in Europe during WW2. Eisenhower lead troops in Africa and was the commander in the D-Day invasion. Eventually, Eisenhower was elected president of the U.S. POLITICAL & DIPLOMATIC.
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D-Day
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D-Day occurred on June 6th, 1944, when the Allied troops invaded France at the beaches of Normandy under the command of General Dwight Eisenhower. The troops consisted of French, American and Canadian soldiers. This attack was the start of the end for the German troops. DIPLOMATIC.
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Battle of the Bulge
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The Battle of the Bulge in December 1944 was between Germany and Allied troops. This battle marked the last German offensive in the West during WW2. DIPLOMATIC.
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Battle of Midway
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In the Battle of Midway in June 1942 the American Navy inflicted serious damage on the Japanese fleet. Dive bombers and fighters launched from American aircraft carriers provided the margin of victory. DIPLOMATIC.
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Douglas MacArthur
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Douglas MacArthur was in charge of the offensive in the Pacific during the Second World War. MacAurthur was extremely successful, but “retired” when an accusing letter he sent to the president was published. LOL SUCKS. DIPLOMATIC.
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J. Robert Oppenheimer and Manhattan Project
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The Manhattan Project employed 120,000 people and was directed by General Leslie Graves and scientist Robert Oppenheimer. The first nuclear bomb was assembled in Los Alamos, New Mexico, and was tested on July 16, 1945. Oh shiiiit. DIPLOMATIC.
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Hiroshima & Nagasaki
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Two weeks after the first test, Truman ordered the dropping of two bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki; one on August 6th and the other on August 9th. 100,000 people were killed at Hiroshima and 60,000 were killed at Nagasaki. Japan offered a surrender on August 10th. DIPLOMATIC.
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Big Three
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The Big Three were the leaders of Great Britain, the U.S., and the USSR; the three major post-war powers. The leaders were Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin. DIPLOMATIC.
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Yalta
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Franklin D.Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met in February 1945 to discuss the post-war world. The Big Three agreed to wage war on Japan, to divide Germany into 4 equal parts, and to hold free elections for the liberated countries. DIPLOMATIC.
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United Nations
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To continue and expand their alliance, the Big Three agreed to establish an international body to replace the discredited League of Nations. The United Nations first convened on April 25th, 1945. DIPLOMATIC.
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Role of Women in the War (Rosie the Riveter)
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Women were urged to take jobs in defense industries. Rosie the Riveter beckoned women from the cover of the Saturday Evening Post. Women took over positions as factory workers that were open as a result of the war. CULTURAL.