Apush Chapter 22 Questions And Answers

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Bull Market
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A period of increased stock trading and rising stock prices; by 1929 4 million Americans (3%) owned stock
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Federal Reserve Board
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Established by the Federal Reserve Act of 1913, it regulated a nation wide system of twelve districts, each with a federal reserve bank. Regulates in/out flow of money; prints & sends money to federal reserve; determines interest rates
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Herbert Hoover
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1929: Republican president (ran against Alfred Smith), promising prosperity; attempted 1st deal with the Depression by trying to restore public faith in the community.
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WPA
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Work Progress Administration: New Deal program estb in 1935; goal: provide jobs –> build roads, public buildings, write guidebooks, paint murals, musicians, etc.
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National Industrial Recovery Act
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NIRA: passed in 1933, New Deal legislation that created the WPA (put people back to work quickly) and NRA (created long term jobs)
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New Deal
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Series of policies created under FDR from 1933-1941 to offset Depression; many policies were clearly experimental; WWII, not New Deal that pulled US out of Depression
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Social Security Act
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1935; established a system of giving payments to Americans after they reached retirement age; also had provisions for unemployment and disability insurance
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Organized Labor under the New Deal (Unions)
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Wagner Act (protected rights of most workers to organize unions, engage in collective bargaining, strike etc.) permanently legitimized labor unions.
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Minorities under the New Deal
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African Americans: “last hired, first fired’; often excluded from relief programs such as social security; unemployment so high for Mexican Americans, many returned to Mexico
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Roosevelt Coalition
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Created by FDR, included Democratic state party organizations, city machines, labor unions, blue collar workers, minorities (including African Americans), farmers, etc. supported New Deal and voted Democratic in presidential elections from 1932 to 1960s
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National Recovery Administation
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NRA established in 1933; goal was to eliminate competition by bringing industry labor and government to establish codes that set standards for outputs, prices, and working conditions. recognized right to establish unions
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Great Depression
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Economic crisis, beginning with the stock market crash in 1929, and continuing through most of the 30s where unemployment rates skyrocketed. Causes: installment plans, credit, overproduction, housing starts, dust bowl
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Court-packing plan (Judiciary Reorganization Bill)
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FDR’s proposal in 1937 to “reform” the Supreme Court; appointed a justice for every justice over 70;His way for gaining approval of New Deal legislation. Congress refused.
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FDIC
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Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation; passed during the first Hundred Days, insured individual bank deposits up to $2500 to help restore confidence in America’s banks
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TVA
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Tennessee Valley Authority; New Deal program that (for the 1st time) provided residents of Tennessee Valley with electricity; Also promoted agricultural and industrial growth in region; (residents of 7 states benefited)
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Fair Labor Standards Act
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FLSA, passed in 1938; established minimum requirements for employee’s hours, wages, premium overtime, and payroll records.
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fireside chats
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Broadcasts by FDR over the radio, where he directly addressed the people, making them feel like he personally cared for them
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National Labor Relations Act
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(NLRB) Part of Wagner Act, 1935 defined unfair labor practices and set up National Labor Relations Board (NLRB); ensured factory owners did not harass union organizers, collective bargaining, & supervised union elections
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Wagner Act
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also known as NLRB, 1935, defined unfair labor practices and set up National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) which ensured factory owners did not harass union organizers, collective bargaining and supervised union elections
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Nazi Germany
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Germany under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi police
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Munich Conference
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European diplomatic conference in 1938 when Britain and France gave in to Hitler’s demands for Czechoslocakia
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Roosevelt’s “purge”
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1938; After the Roosevelt Recession in , FDR was forced to cut back on some of the New Deal programs, such as WPA, which was drastically scaled back. Strengthened opposition to programs
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Second New Deal
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Beginning in 1935, helped poor more while attacking the wealth; FDR wanted to turn people away from those who said New Deal was not going far enough to help average person; Social Security Act of 1935, Wagner Act of 1935, and Wealth Tax Act key bills
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Wealth Tax Act
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Also known as Revenue Act of 1935, it doubled the gift tax, raised inheritance tax and estate tax. Highest surtax went form 59% to 75%; supposed to balance budget and redistribute wealth
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Rural Electrification Act
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1935, provided cheap electricity for isolated rural ares; went from 2/10 farms having electricity to 8/10.
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AAA
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(Agricultural Adjustment Administration) Established by Agricultural Act of 1932; New Deal; designed to help farmers economically; paid them not to farm overproduced goods
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“Roosevelt Recession”
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1937-1938;Due to criticism, FDR cut back on government spending during Roosevelt’s “Purge”; lead him to increase spending on public works and other programs.
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Socialist Party of 1932
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Insisted that capitalism had collapsed, pulling only one million votes
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Federal Emergency Relief Agency
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New Deal; established my the Federal Emergency Relief Act of 1933 gave $500 million to relieve cities and states to help with unemployment problem; First direct-relief program; headed by Harry L. Hopkins.
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Michigan Farm Labor Party
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Active in the 1936 election

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