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APUSH: Chapter 16 Vocabulary

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Californios
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Hispanic residents of California who were afraid they would lose their land to English-speaking immigrants, which they eventually did, either through corrupt business deals or outright seizing
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Chief Joseph
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leader of the Nez Perce; fled with his tribe to Canada instead of to reservations, but was brought back to reservations by US troops
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Chinese Exclusion Act
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1882; excluded Chinese immigrant workers from entering the country for ten years and denied US citizenship to Chinese nationals living in the US
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Chisholm Trail
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one of the first, busiest, and most famous cattle trails from the open range of south Texas to the railhead in Abilene, Kansas
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“Concentration” Policy
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1851; Indian reservation policy that had each tribe assigned its own reservation confirmed by separate treaties; divided tribes, making them easier to control and allowed the government to force tribes into scattered locations and take the most desirable lands for white settlement
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coolies
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indentured servants with conditions close to slavery
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Dawes Severalty Act
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1887; attempt to “Americanize” the Indians by giving each tribe 160 acres of land, after 25 years this property would become theirs and they would become American citizens
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Frederick Jackson Turner
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a historian who delivered a paper titled “The Significance of the Frontier in American History” to the American Historical Association; argued that the end of the “frontier” also marked the end of one of the most important democratizing forces in American life
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Frederic Remington
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painter and sculptor who captured the romance of the west and its image as an alternative to the eastern way of life; portrayed cowboys as natural aristocrats; one of the most beloved and successful artist of the 19th century
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Genizaros
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Indians who were without tribes because they had voluntarily left them; were at the bottom level of the Spanish caste system in the Southwest
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George A. Custer
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a United States Army officer and cavalry commander in the American Civil War and the Indian Wars; dispatched to the west to fight in the Indian Wars; disastrous final battle overshadowed his prior achievements; killed in the Battle of Little Bighorn in 1876
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Geronimo
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Apache chieftain who succeeded Cochise; raided the white settlers’ outposts in the Southwest as resistance to being confined to a reservation; numbers dwindled after each raid, by 1886, his band only consisted of 30 people; surrender marked the end of the formal warfare between Indians and whites
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Homestead Act
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1862; encouraged Western migration by providing settlers 160 acres of public land. In exchange, homesteaders paid a small living fee and were required to complete five years of continuous residence before receiving ownership of the land. After six months of residency, homesteaders also had the option of purchasing the land from the government for $1.25 per acre; led to the distribution of 80 million acres of public land by 1900.
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Little Bighorn
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battle during which the Sioux Tribe defeated the US army forces led by Colonel George A. Custer in 1886
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Long Drive
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journeys in the plains states by ranchers who needed a way to easily transport their cattle to eastern cities
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Mark Twain
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American author and platform lecturer; lived from 1835-1910; used “romantic” type literature with comedy to entertain his audiences; 1873, wrote the Gilded Age; greatest contribution was the way he captured the frontier realism and humor through the dialect his characters used
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Mestizos
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a person of mixed European and Native American heritage
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Plains Indians
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widespread Indian groups in the West that were dependent on buffalo and had no permanent settlements
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Rocky Mountain School
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school of art that celebrated the new West is grandiose canvases and emphasized the ruggedness and dramatic variety of the region, reflecting awe toward the land; most famous painters included Albert Bierstadt and Thomas Moran
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Turner Thesis
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argument that the end of the “frontier” also marked the end of one of the most important democratizing forces in American life; expressed that the best land was taken and that it would not be more difficult for individuals to acquire land; was wrong in the sense of calling the West a true “frontier”
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Wounded Knee
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last major armed conflict between the Lakota Sioux and the US, subsequently described as a “massacre” by Gen. Miles in a letter to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs