Apush Chapter 16 Test Questions

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Plains Indians
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The most widespread Inidan groups in the West. They were made up of many different tribal and language groups. Some lived as farmers, but many lived by hunting buffalo. While riding horses, they would move through the grasslands behind herds of Buffalo. They used the Buffalo for many different things.
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Stephen Kearny
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American General in the Mexican war who tried to establish a territrial govt. out of all the Anglo-Americans in the region, ignoring the majority of hispanics.
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Taos Indian Rebellion
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In 1847, when the Taos Indians were afraid their land would be confinscated, they rebelled killing the new governor and other Anglo-American officials before being subdued by the U.S Army.
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Californios
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The Hispanic residents in Ca. who were afraid they’d lose their land to English-speaking immigrants, which they eventually did, either through corrupt business deals of outright seizure.
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Barrios
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Mexican neighborhoods in Los Angelos or elsewhere where the lower end of the state’s working class Mexicans clustered
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Juan Cortina
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In 1859, he led angry Mexicans in a raid of the jail in Brownsville and freed all the Mexican prisoners inside.
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Coolies
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indentured servants whose condition was close to slavery.
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Transcontinental Railroad
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Employed many Chinese, about 90 percent of their labor force on the Central Pacific was due to the Chinese. They preferred this becuase they worked harder, made fewer demands, and lower wages.
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Tongs
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Chinese organizations they were secret societies, some were viloent criminal organizations. Few people outside of these communites were aware of there existance.
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Workingmen’s Party
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Political Party in California that was created in 1878, led by Denis Kearny, an irish immigrant. This party gained significant political power in the state in large part on the basis of its hostility to the Chinese.
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Chinese Exclusion Act
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Passed in 1882, this banned Chinese immigration into the United States for ten years and barred Chinese already in the country from becoming naturalized citizens. This law was renewed in 1892 for another ten years, and made perminant in 1902. After this act, the Chinese population in American declined more than 40 percent.
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Homestead Act
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1862, permitted settlers to buy plots of 160 acres for a small fee if they occupied the land they purchased for five years and improved it.
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Comstock Lode
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First discovered in in 1858 by Henry Comstock, silver found in this was more valuable.
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Anaconda Copper mine
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Launched by William Clark in 1881, this marked the begining of an industry that would remain important to Montana for many decades.
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Range Wars
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These erupted out of the tensions between competing groups such as sheepman and cattle, and ranchers and farmers.
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Rocky Mountain School
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A place where painters such as Albert Bierstadt and Thomas Moran were best known. There they celebrated the new west in grandiose canvases, some of which were even taken on tours.
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Owen Wister
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A western novelist who wrote The Virginian in 1902. This romanticized the cowboy’s supposed freedim from traditional social constraints, his affinity with nature, even his supposed propensity for violence.
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Buffalo Bill Cody
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A successful show that popularized Wild West shows, it consisted of a former Pony Express rider and Indian fighter, and the hero of popular dime novels for children. This show romanticized the West and the life of the cowboy.
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Annie Oakley
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A famous sharpshooter who participated in the Buffalo Bill Cody show by including her own re-renactments of Indian battles and displays of horsemanship and riflery.
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Mark Twain
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Gave voice to this romantic vision of the frontier in a series of novels and memoirs. He wrote The Adventures of Tom Sawyer in 1876 and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn in 1885. In this he produced characters who repudiated the constraints of oranized society and attempted to escape into a more natural world.
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Frederic Remington
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A painter and sculptor who captured the romance of the west. His paintings and sculptures portrayed the cowboy as a natural aristocrat living in a natural world in which all the normal supporting structures of “civilization” were missing. He became one of the most beloved and successful artists of the ninteenth century.
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Frederic Jackson Turner
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He wrote the clearest and most influential statement of the romantic vision of the frontier. The statement was in his memorable paper he delivered to a meeting of the American Historical Association in Chicago in 1893, entitled “The Significance of the Frontier in American History.” In it he claimed “the frontier has gone and so has the first period in American History.”
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Treaty Chiefs
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A sarcastic term to chosen representatives who illegitamently negotiated treaties. They were chosen by whites.
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Indian Peace Commission
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Established in 1867 by Congress, it composed of both soldiers and civilians, to recommend a new and presumably permanent Indian policy. The commission recommended that the government move all the Plains tribes into two large reservations, one in Indian Territory (Oklahoma), and the other in the Dakotas
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Little Crow
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During the civil war, he led the eastern Sioux in Minnesota. Indians who were cramped on a small reservation and exploited by corrupt white agents. He led them in a rebellion that killed more than 700 whites before being subdued by a force of regulars and militiamen. Thirty-eight of the Indians were hanged, and the tribe was exiled to the Dakotas.
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Black Kettle
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One Arapaho and Cheyenne band under this man camped near Fort Lyon on Sand Creek in November 1864. Some of his members were warriors, but Kettle believed he was under official protection and made no hostile intention. However, Colonel J.M. Chivington led a volunteer militia force, mainly consisting of unemployed drunk minors, to the unsuspectin camp and massacred 133 people, 105 of which were women and children. Kettle was able to escape the Sand Creek Massacre.
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Red Cloud
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One of the great chiefs of the Sioux Indians who led them when they so harried the soldiers and the construction party that the road could not be used.
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Indian Hunting
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Unofficial violence by white vigilantes who engaged in what became known as this. Sometimes the killings were in response to Indian raids on white communities.
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Crazy Horse
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When Sioux indians rose up and left their reservations, white officials ordered them to return, bands of warriors gathered in Montana and united under two great leaders, one being this man and the other is Sitting Bull.
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Sitting Bull
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Was one of the leaders that the Sioux band of warriors gathered under. The armies that were round up to force them back on the reservations were under the control of the famous colonel of the Seventh Calvary, George A. Custer. At the battle of the Little Bighorn in southern Montana in 1876, an unexpected large army, about 2500 tribal warriors, surprised Custer and part of his regiment, surrouned them, and killed every man.
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Nez Perce
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A small and relatively peaceful tribe, some of whose members had managed to live unmolested in Oregon intothe 1870s without ever signing a treaty with the United States. Under presssure from whites, however, they were forced to move onto a reservation. They gave no resistance and made their way to their reservation, but on the way four drunken and angry indians killed four white settlers. The leader of the band, Chief Joseph, persuaded his followers to flee from the expected retribution, but American troops found and attacked them, only to be driven off in a battle at White Bird Canyon. After that, the tribe scattered in several directions and became part of a remarkable chase. Joseph moved with 550 people in an effort to reach Canada. They traveled 1,321 miles in 75 days, repelling and evading the army time and time again. The were finally caught just before the boundary, some escaped, but most along with the Cheif did not.
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Apache wars
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The last indians to remain organized and resist the whites were the Chiricahua Apaches. The two most ablest cheifs of this fierce tribe were Mangas Colorados and Cochise. Mangas was murdered during the Civil War by white soldiers who tricked him into surrendering. In 1872 Cochise agreed to preace in exchange for a reservation that included some of the tribe’s traditional land. He died two years later, but his successor, Geronimo, continued to fight for a decade more, with many raids.
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Geronimo
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Cochise’s successor who continued to fight for a decade after he took his position He established bases in the mountains of Arizona and Mexico and lead warriors in raids against white outposts. With each raid, his numbers dwindled, whether they died of drifted away to the reservation. By 1886 he had only about thirty people, including women and children. They were up against numbers such as 10,000 whites. He recognized the odds and surrendered.
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Wovoka
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A Paiute who inspired a fervent spiritual awakening that began in Nevada and spread quickly to the plains. The new revival emphasized the coming of a new messiah, but its most conspicuous feature was a mass, emotional “Ghost Dance,” which inspired ecstatic, mystical visions among many participants.
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Wounded Knee Massacre
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On December 29, 1890, the Seventh Calvary tried to round up a group of 350 cold and starving Sioux at Wounded Knee, South Dakota. Fighting broke out in which about 40 white soldiers were killed and about 200 Indians. An Indian might have fired the first shot, but the battle soon turned into a one-sided massacre, as white soldiers turned their new machine guns on the Indians and mowed them down in the snow.
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Dawes Severalty Act
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This act of 1887 provided for the gradual elimination of most tribal ownership of land and the allotment of tracts to individual owners:160 acres to the head of a family, 80 acres to a single adult or orphan, 40 acres to each dependent child.
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Promontory Point, Utah
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Where the Transcontinental railroad was completed in 1869. This was a dramatic and monumentory acomplishment.
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Joseph Gliddon/ I.L. Ellwood
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Two Illinois farmers who, in the mid-1870s, solved the problems of fencing by developing and marketin barbed wire, which became standard equiptment on the plains and revolutionized fencing practiced all over the country and world.
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Hamlin Garland
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An author who reflected the growing disillusionment in a series of novels and short stories. For example in the introduction of the novel Jason Edwards, Garland wrote in the past the agrarian fronteir had seemed to be “the Golden West, the land of wealth and freedom and happiness.”

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