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APUSH CHAPER 40

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What was the presidential election of 1952 like?
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Dem nominated Adlai Stevenson, the Rep nominated Dwight Eisenhower, a concession to the anticommunist Taft supporters they selected Nixon as VP who was a relentless red hunter. Eisenhower was very popular who had a captivating grin and great personality he was perfect for the new age of tv politics and had authentic hero creds, and was the first supreme commander of NATO from 1950-1952, he left the rough campaigning to Nixon who charged his opponents that they cultivated corruption and caved in Korea. Nixon was considered to not be VP when reports surfaced about him of a secretly financed “slush fund” when he was holding a seat in the senate. But went on tv and delivered the “Checkers speech” and saved his vp. Eisenhower eventually filmed some answers to questions which were taped later. Tv would eventually make a “plebiscitarian” politics which politicians could go straight to voters without the influence of parties or other institution. Eisenhower pledged to go personally to Korea to end the war if he was Pres. He got about 34 million votes compared to Stevenson’s 27 million and had 442 electoral votes. As promised he took a three day visit to Korea in December 1952, but he couldn’t budge the peace negotiations 7 months later Eisenhower threatened to use atomic weapons and finally an armistice was signed
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What was the Checkers Speech?
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Made by Nixon after reports surfaced about him, he went on national tv with a theatrical appeal filled with self pity, which he referred to the family cocker spaniel, Checkers, this speech saved him but it also showed that political potentialities of tv and showed the disturbing power of the new, vivid medium which communicated with far more immediacy and effect.
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Who was Joseph R McCarthy?
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senator, and was an anticommunist “crusader” in FEB 1950 he charged in a public speech that the Secretary of State Dean Acheson was knowingly employing 205 communist party members in the state department. He later said on 57 and failed to root out one. McCarthy flourished in the Cold War atmosphere of suspicion and fear. He was a master at manipulating the media and exploiting the anxieties of politicians and the public. Many careers of countless officials, writers, and actors were ruined by him when McCarthy called them communist or communist sympathizers. Many approved of McCarthy. When he attacked the US army, embattled military men fought back in 35 days of televised hearings in the spring of 1954, three years later he died of chronic alcoholism and “McCarthyism” is known as a label for the dangerous forces of unfairness and fear that a dem society can unleash only at its peril
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Describe Segregation
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15 million blacks citizens lived in the US, 2/3 lived in the South, which they were bound to Jim Crow laws that governed all the aspects of their lives. They were segregated from schools, public toilets, drinking fountains, buses, etc. Only 20 percent of eligible southern blacks were registered to votem and fewer in the deep south. When the law didn’t suffice many people would use violence to do the job
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How did others defy the color barrier?
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In his 1944 novel, An American Dilemma, Swedish scholar Gunnar Myrdal had exposed the hypocrisy of American life, noting how while “every man [was] created equal,” Blacks were certainly treated worse than Whites. Even though Jackie Robinson had cracked the racial barrier by signing with the Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947, the nation’s conscience still paid little attention to the suffering of Blacks, thus prolonging their pain. However, with organizations such as the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, such rulings as the 1950 case of Sweatt vs. Painter, where the Supreme Court ruled that separate professional schools for Blacks failed to meet the test of equality
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What was the Montgomery Bus Boycott?
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Rosa Parks a college educated black seamtress in December 1955 boarded a bus and took a seat in the white only section and refused to give it up, she was arrested and this sparked a yearlong boycott of the city buses and served notice throughout the south that blacks would no longer take this
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Who was MLK JR?
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Was reverend and was raised in a prosperous black family in Atlanta and was partly educated in the North and for most of his life been sheltered from the cruelties of seg. Because of his oratorical skills, his devotion to the bible and constitutional conceptions of justice and non violent principles of Ghandi he was destined to be the leader of the black rev. He formed the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in 1957 and it aimed to mobilized the vast power of the black churches on the behalf of black rights
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What was the Brown v Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas?
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(May 1954) the justices ruled that segregation in the public schools was “inherently unequal” and thus unconstitutional. The decision startled the conservatives because it reversed the Plessy v Ferguson case. The Border states made reasonable efforts to comply to this ruling, but the deep south organized massive resistance and more than a 100 southern congressional rep and senators signed a “declaration of constitutional principles” in 1956 pledging their unyielding resistance to desegregation. Schools switched from public to private and ten years later only 2 percent of eligible blacks in the deep south were sitting in classrooms with whites
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What happened at Little Rock Central High School?
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On Sept 1956, Orval Faubus the governor of Arkansas mobilized the National Guard to prevent nine black students from enrolling the CHS, Eisenhower sent troops to escort the children to their classes. White mobs jeered the first black students at CHS
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What were “sit ins”
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Was a movement started on feb 1 1960 when four black college freshmen in Greensboro, N. Carolina, w/o a detailed plan they demanded service at the white only Woolworths lunch counter. the black waitress refused to serve them, but they kept their seats and returned the next day with 19 classmates, the day after that 85 students joined at the end of the week 1,000. The sit in movement spread all over the South in wade in, lie ins and pray ins at restaurants transportation employment etc. in april 1960 the black students formed the Student Non Violent Coordinating Committee to give more focus and force to these efforts
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What were somethings that Eisenhower did during his presidency?
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Eisenhower came into the White House pledging a policy of “dynamic conservatism,” which stated that he would be liberal with people but conservative with their money. Ike decreased government spending by decreasing military spending, trying to transfer control of offshore oil fields to the states, and trying to curb the TVA’s by setting up a private company to take their places. His secretary of health, education, and welfare condemned free distribution of the Salk anti-polio vaccine. Secretary of Agriculture Ezra Taft Benson tackled with agriculture issues, but despite government purchase of surplus grain, which it stored in giant silos costing Americans $2 million a day, farmers didn’t see prosperity.Eisenhower also cracked down on illegal Mexican immigration that cut down on the success of the bracero program by rounding up 1 million Mexicans and returning them to their native country in 1954. With Indians, though, Ike proposed ending the FDR-style treatment toward Indians and reverting to a Dawes Severalty Act-style policy toward Native Americans, but due to protest and resistance, this was disbanded. However, Eisenhower kept many of the New Deal programs, since some, like Social Security and unemployment insurance, simply had to stay. Still, Eisenhower only balanced the budget three times in his eight years of office, and in 1959, he incurred the biggest peacetime deficit in U.S. history. Still, critics said that he was economically timid, blaming the president for the sharp economic downturn of 1957-58. Also, the AF of L merged with the CIO to end 20 years of bitter division in labor unions.
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What was the Interstate Highway Act of 1956?
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This was even better than some of the New Deals for public works, it was a $27 billion plan to build 42,000 miles of sleek fast motorways. This created many jobs. This act offered juicy benefits to the trucking, automobile, oil, and travel industries while at the same time robbing the railroads and passenger trains of business. It exacerbated problems of air quality and energy consumption, and consequences for cities
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Who was John Foster Dulles?
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He was the incoming secretary of state, who promised not merely to stem the red tide but to “roll back” its gains and “liberate captive people” and at the same time the new administration promised to balance the budget by cutting military spending. He would do this with the “policy of boldness” which Eisenhower would relegate the army and the vary to the back seat and build up an air fleet of superbombers called the strategic air command equipped with city flattening nuclear bombs, these weapons would inflict massive retaliation on the Soviets and Chinese if they got out of hand. The advantage of this new policy were thought to be paralyzing nuclear impact and its cheaper price tag when compared with conventional forces.
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What happened in French Indochina?
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Nationalist movements had sought for years to throw off french colonial in indochina. Vietnamese leader Ho Chi Minh had tried to appeal to Woodrow Wilson in Paris as early as 1919 to support self determination for the people of SE Asia, FDR had likewise inspired hope about asian nationalist. Ho Chi Minh became increasingly communist, by 1954 american taxpayers were financing nearly 80 percent of the cost of a french colonial war in Indochina. French forces continued to crumble under Viet Minh guerrilla. In March 1954 a key French garrison was trapped hopelessly in the fortress of Dienbienphu at nw corner of Vietnam, the new “policy of boldness” was put to test but Eisenhower held back. Dienbienphu fell and multination conference at Geneva roughly halved the two vietnams at the 17 parallel. Ho Chi Minh in the north consented of this arrangement on the assurance that Vietnam wide elections would be held within two years, in south a pro western gov under Ngo Dinh Diem was entrenched at Saigon, the Vietnamese never held the elections and Vietnam remained a divided country
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What is the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization?
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SEATO, was an 8 member treaty with Britain, US, and France it was an imitation of NATO, and it was a frail crutch on which to lean for the security of S. Vietnam
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What was the Warsaw Pact?
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(1955) Eastern European countries and the Soviets signed the Warsaw pact creating a red military counterweight to the newly bolstered NATO forces in the west
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What was the false hope given by Khrushchev ?
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but the Cold War did seem to be thawing a bit, as Eisenhower pressed for reduction of arms, and the Soviets were surprisingly cooperative, and Khrushchev publicly denounced Stalin’s brutality. However, in 1956, when the Hungarians revolted against the USSR, the Soviets crushed them with brutality and massive bloodshed. The U.S. did change some of its immigration laws to let 30,000 Hungarians into American as immigrants.
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Who was the shah of Iran in 1953 ?
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CIA engineered a coup in 1953 and installed Mohammed Reza Pahlevi as a kind of dictator. Successful in the short run in securing Iranian oil for the west, the American intervention left a bitter legacy of resentment among many Iranians. Two decades after they took revenge on the shah and his american allies
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What was the Suez Crisis?
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Pres Nasser of Egypt wanted to build a dam on the upper Nile for irrigation and power. American and Britain offered financial help but when Nasser was talking communist camp Sec. of State Dulles withdrew the dam offer. He nationalized the Suez canal which was owned by British and French stockholders. His action placed a razor edge at Western Europe’s oil supply which transited the canal from the Persian gulf into the Med. Secretary Dulles ward off armed intervention by the cornered European powers as well as soviets and any western invasion by pouring “volunteers” into Egypt and perhaps launching nuclear attacks in Paris and London. Israel, France and Britain staged a joint assault on Egypt in oct 1956. thinking that the U.S. would supply them with needed oil, as had been the case in WWII, but Eisenhower did not, and the attackers had to withdraw. The Suez crisis marked the last time the U.S. could brandish its “oil weapon.”
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What was the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries?
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The poor sheikdoms increased resolved to reap for themselves the share of enormous oil wealth that western companies pumped out of the Middle Eastern Deserts. In a move with portentous implications Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iraq, and Iran joined with Venezuela to form OPEC, in the next two decades OPEC’s stranglehold on western economies would tighten to a degree that even Nasser could even imagine
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What was the Eisenhower Doctrine?
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Truman and the congress proclaimed the ED which would pledge military and economic aid to ME nations threatened by communist aggression. The real problem wasn’t communism but nationalism as Nassers popularity among the masses of all Arab countries demonstrated.
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What was the pres election of 1956 like?
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Rep renominated Eisenhower and Nixon, dems also renominated Adlai Stevenson. Voters were thus presented with two warmed over pres candidates which hasn’t happened since 1900. Dem charged that the only thing Eisenhower did was mark time, they railed rep for their stand pattism, and Eisenhower’s shaky health. the GOP preened itself on peace, prosperity and happiness. Eisenhower had 36 million pop votes and 457 electoral votes, he failed to win for his party in either house which hasn’t happened since Zachary Taylor’s election in 1848, the country was heavily dem.
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What was Eisenhower’s second term like?
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After Secretary of State Dulles died of cancer in 1959 and presidential assistant Sherman Adams was forced to leave under a cloud of scandal due to bribery charges, Eisenhower, without his two most trusted and most helpful aides, was forced to govern more. A drastic labor-reform bill in 1959 grew from recurrent strikes in critical industries. Teamster chief “Dave” Beck was sent to prison for embezzlement, and his successor, James R. Hoffa’s appointment got the Teamsters expelled out of the AF of L-CIO. Hoffa was later jailed for jury tampering and then disappeared in prison, allegedly murdered by some gangsters that he had crossed. The 1959 Landrum-Griffin Act was designed to bring labor leaders to book for financial shenanigans and prevent bullying tactics. Anti-laborites forced into the bill bans against “secondary boycotts” and certain types of picketing.
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What was the Sputniks?
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Soviets astounded the world on Oct 4, 1957 when they lofted into orbit around the globe a “baby moon” (sputnik 1) weighing 184 pounds and a month later they sent a larger satellite (sputnik 2) weighing 1,120 pounds with a dog. This shattered American confidence, the soviets were trying to convince the uncommitted nations that the shortcut to superior industrial production lay through communism and this proved that. Plus they could fire missiles at the US from space. Four months after Sputnik I, the U.S. sent its own satellite (weighing only 2.5 lbs) into space, but the apparent U.S. lack of technology sent concerns over U.S. education, since American children seemed to be learning less advanced information than Soviet kids. The 1958 National Defense and Education Act (NDEA) gave $887 million in loads to needy college students and grants for the improvement of schools.
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The continuation of the Cold War.
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Humanity-minded scientists called for an end to atmospheric nuclear testing, lest future generations be deformed and mutated. Beginning October 1958, Washington did halt “dirty” testing, as did the USSR, but attempts to regularize such suspensions were unsuccessful. However, in 1959, Khrushchev was invited by Ike to America for talks, and when he arrived in New York, he immediately talked about disarmament but gave no means of how to do it. Later, at Camp David, talks did show upward signs, as the Soviet premier said that his ultimatum for the evacuation of Berlin would be extended indefinitely. However, at the Paris conference, Khrushchev came in angry that the U.S. had flown a spy plane over Soviet territory (the plane had been shot down and Eisenhower had taken personal responsibility), and tensions immediately tightened again
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Who was Dr. Fidel Castro?
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He engineered a rev. in Cuba in early 1959. He denounced the yankee imperialists and began to expropriate valuable American properties in pursuing a land distribution program. The US released cuba from “imperialistic slavery” by cutting off the heavy us imports of Cuban sugar. Castro retaliated with further wholesale confiscation of Yankee property and in effect made his left wing dictatorship an economic and military satellite of Moscow. Many anti Castro cubans fled for the US especially florida, about 750,000 arrived during 1960 to1990, Washington broke relations with cuba in 1961.
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Presidential Elections of 1960?
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Rep nominee was Nixon who was in the limelight than any earlier vp, and had traveled globally as a “trouble shooter” in various capacities. He defended american democracy with Khrushchev in Moscow in 1959 with a vp of Henry Cabot Lodge Jr. Dem nominee was JFK who was youthful with Lyndon B Johnson as his vp, but he was a roman catholic but defended himself and encouraged Catholics to vote for him, and if he lost votes from the South due to his religion, he got them back from the North due to the bitter Catholics there. In four nationally televised debates, JFK held his own and looked more charismatic, perhaps helping him to win the election by a comfortable margin, becoming the youngest president elected (but not served) ever. He won with 303 electoral votes but had a close margin for pop votes. He had strong support from workers, catholics and african americans
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The death of Eisenhower
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Eisenhower had his critics, but he was appreciated more and more for ending one war and keeping the U.S. out of others. Even though the 1951-passed 22nd Amendment had limited him to two terms as president, Ike displayed more vigor and controlled Congress more during his second term. In 1959, Alaska and Hawaii became the 49th and 50th states to join the Union. Perhaps Eisenhower’s greatest weakness was his ignorance of social problems of the time, preferring to smile them away rather than deal with them, even though he was no bigot.
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How did the economics change?
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The economy really sprouted during the 50s, and the invention of the transistor exploded the electronics field, especially in computers, helping such companies as International Business Machines (IBM) expand and prosper. Aerospace industries progressed, as the Boeing company made the first passenger-jet airplane (adapted from the superbombers of the Strategic Air Command), the 707. In 1956, “white-collar” workers outnumbered “blue collar” workers for the first time, meaning that the industrial era was passing on. As this occurred, labor unions also labored, since most of their members were industrial workers. Women appeared more and more in the workplace, despite the stereotypical role of women as housewives that was being portrayed on TV shows such as “Ozzie and Harriet” and “Leave It to Beaver.” More than 40 million new jobs were created. Women’s expansion into the workplace shocked some, but really wasn’t surprising if one observed the trends in history, and now, they were both housewives and workers. Betty Friedan’s 1963 book The Feminine Mystique was a best-seller and a classic of modern feminine protest literature
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What was the consumer culture of 1950’s like?
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Credit cards, fast food productions and new forms of recreation all affected this time period. TV was very important in the development of that lifestyle. in 1951 7 million sets were sold when in the 40’s only rich people could afford it, attendance at movie theaters went down. advertisers used television to sell products while “televangelists” like Billy Graham, Oral Roberts, and Fulton J. Sheen used TV to preach the gospel and encourage religion. Sports were also affected, in 1958 NY giants moved to San Fran and the Brooklyn Dodgers abandoned Flatbush for LA, this touched off a new westward movement of sports franchise and expansion of major league baseball, football and basketball. Traditionalists were shocked by Elvis’s shockingly open sexuality, and Marilyn Monroe (in her Playboy magazine spread) continued in the redefinition of the new sensuous sexuality. Critics, such as David Riesman in The Lonely Crowd, William H. Whyte, Jr. in The Organization Man, and Sloan Wilson in The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit, lamented this new consumerist style. Harvard economist John Kenneth Galbraith questioned the relation between private wealth and public good in The Affluent Society. Bell found further such paradoxes, as did C. Wright Mills.
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Who was Elvis Presley?
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Was born in 1935 in Tupelo, Mississippi, he fused black rhythm and blues with white bluegrass and country styles and created a new musical idiom rock and roll. It was a kind of religious rite when dancing to it for the millions of baby boomers he died at 42
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Who was Tennessee Williams?
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was a playwright who wrote a series of searing dramas about psychological misfits struggling to hold themselves together amid the disintegrating forces of modern life. Noteworthy were a Streetcar Named Desire and Cat on a Hot Tin Roof
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Who was Arthur Miller?
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brought to stage searching probes of American values notably Death of a Salesman and the Crucible which treated the salem witch trials as a dark parable warning against the dangers of McCarthyism
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Arthurs, Playwrights and Poets Post WWII
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Ernest Hemingway’s The Old Man and the Sea and John Steinbeck’s East of Eden and Travels with Charlie showed that prewar writers could still be successful, but new writers, who, except for Norman Mailer’s The Naked and the Dead and James Jones’s From Here to Eternity, spurned realism, were successful as well. Joseph Heller’s Catch-22 and Kurt Vonnegut, Jr.’s Slaughterhouse-Five crackled with fantastic and psychedelic prose, satiring the suffering of the war. Authors and books that explored problems created by the new mobility and affluence of American life: John Updike’s Rabbit, Run and Couples; John Cheever’s The Wapshot Chronicle and The Wapshot Scandal; Louis Auchincloss’s books, Gore Vidal’s Myra Breckinridge. the poetry of Ezra Pound, Wallace Stevens, William Carlos Williams, Theodore Roethke, Robert Lowell (For the Union Dead), Sylvia Plath (Ariel and The Bell-Jar), Anne Sexton, and John Berryman reflected the twisted emotions of the war, but some poets were troubled in their own minds as well, often committing suicide or living miserable lives.Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin in the Sun portrayed African-American life while Edward Albee’s Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? revealed the underside of middle class life. Books by black authors such as Richard Wright, Ralph Ellison, and James Baldwin made best-seller’s lists; Black playwrights like LeRoi Jones made powerful plays (The Dutchman). The South had literary artists like William Faulkner, Walker Percy, and Eudora Welty. jewish authors also had famous books, such as J.D. Salinger’s Catcher in the Rye.