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Apush 27-31 (31+review)

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Germany’s 1917 declaration of its intent to wage unrestricted submarine warfare was the most important factor in bringing the United States into World War I.
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A German offer to reward (zimmerman note)Mexico with U.S. territory should it join Germany in a war against the United States is one of reason
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The “New Immigration” was made up primarily of The “New Immigration” was made up primarily of a. Europeans who came for economic rather than religious reasons. b. Europeans who were better off financially than those of the “Old Immigration”. c. persons from Northern and Western Europe. d. persons from Southern and Eastern Europe. e. persons from Asia, Africa, and the Americas.
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d Some, such as persecuted Russian Jews, came for religious reasons (A). The great majority were financially less well off (B) than those of the “Old Immigration”, who came from Northern and Western Europe (C). Persons from Asia, Africa, and Americas would not generally be considered part of the “New Immigration.”
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Which of the following statements best summarizes Theodore Roosevelt’s position on trusts? a. Trusts are an economic evil and should be destroyed in every case. b. Only trusts in the railroad and oil industries are acceptable c. Good trusts should be tolerated while bad trusts are prevented from manipulating markets. d. Anything that stands in the way of complete and unrestricted economic competition is evil and should be removed.
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c. Roosevelt felt the good trusts should be tolerated and the bad controlled. Despite his reputation as a trust-buster, Roosevelt was by no means in favor of eliminating all trusts. Trusts of which he tended to take a particularly dim view were those in the railroad, oil, and meatpacking industries (B) and (D).
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All of the following were part of Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points EXCEPT a. self-determination b. open diplomacy c. freedom of the seas d. a League of Nations e. a restoration of the balance of power.
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e. Restoration of the balance of power was not a part of Wilson’s Fourteen Points. Instead Wilson favored collective security. Self-determination (A), open diplomacy (B), freedom of the seas (C), and a League of Nations (D) were all advocated in the Fourteen Points.
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fourteen points 1. abolish secret treaties 2. freedom of the sea 3. removal of economic barrier 4. reduction of armament burdens 5, an adjustment of colonial claims 6. independence “self determination 14th one–a league of Nation tp provide a system of collective security 7. guarantee the political independence and territorial integrity of all countries
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text
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In the negotiations leading to the Treaty of Versailles, Woodrow Wilson was willing to sacrifice other portions of his Fourteen Points in order to gain Allied approval of a. a ban on secret diplomacy. b. a strengthening of the Austrian Empire in order to restore the balance of power. c. a union of Germany and Austria in accordance with the right of self-determination of peoples. d.new rules of blockade that would provide more complete freedom of the seas. e. a League of Nations.
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a
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What proposal did President Woodrow Wilson make in 1918 that convinced the Germans they would be treated fairly if the surrendered? a. The Twenty-One demands b. The Fourteen Points c. The Jungle d. The Shame of the Cities e. The “New Freedom” policy
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b. In January 1918, Woodrow Wilson proposed Fourteen Points which enunciated his goals for the peace that would follow World War I. These were idealistic goals based on notions of open diplomacy, the elimination of secret treaties, self-determination, arms reduction, open trade, and a League of Nations to serve as an international forum to prevent future wars. The thrust of the Fourteen Points emphasized fairness and openness in international relationships. By November 1918, the Germans faced military and political collapse, but they approached an armistice with the Allies convinced that the postwar treaty would be a fair one based upon Wilson’s Fourteen Points. They reasoned that since the United States had turned the tide and saved France and Britain from almost certain defeat, the United States would dominate the peace negotiations. Unfortunately, they reasoned incorrectly and the Treaty of Versailles reflected British and French desires for vengeance more than it reflected the Wilsonian principles elucidated in his Fourteen Points.
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What was the reaction in the U.S. Senate to the terms of the 1918 Treaty of Versailles? a. The Senate overwhelmingly supported the major provisions of the treaty and only demanded a few minor adjustments before ratifying it. b. The Senate felt that in many ways the treaty was too harsh on Germany, but that overall it was a good plan for postwar peace. c. The Senate was angry at Wilson for the way he handled the negotiations, but felt that the treaty was too important to be destroyed by partisan politics. As a result, the Senate narrowly passed the ratification measure making the treaty official. d. The Senate was angry at Wilson for the way he handled the negotiations and had problems with several treaty articles. As a result, the Senate didn’t ratify the treaty until the second time Wilson sent it to them. Even then, the Senate refused to ratify the provisions calling for U.S. membership in a league of nations. e. The Senate was angry at Wilson for the way he handled the negotiations and for the treaty that the peace conference produced. Wilson refused to compromise on various treaty provisions and the Senate rejected the treaty both times it was sent to them.
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e
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The “Zimmerman Papers” were infamous because they a. exposed German atrocities against Jews and other prisoners of war and contributed directly to the U.S. entry into World War I b. exposed a German plot to enlist Mexico into an alliance with Germany in a war against the United States c. The Senate was angry at Wilson for the way he handled the negotiations, but felt that the treaty was too important to be destroyed by partisan politics. As a result, the Senate narrowly passed the ratification measure making the treaty official. d. The Senate was angry at Wilson for the way he handled the negotiations and had problems with several treaty articles. As a result, the Senate didn’t ratify the treaty until the second time Wilson sent it to them. Even then, the Senate refused to ratify the provisions calling for U.S. membership in a league of nations. e. revealed the existence of Communist spies in the highest levels of American government, following World War I, and led to the “Red Scare” in which hundreds of innocent people were victimized witch hunts trying to weed out Communists
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b
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The rejection of the Versailles Treaty by the United States Senate signaled what future for American foreign policy? a. The United States retreated into isolationism and backed away from a world leadership role. b. The United States played a secondary role to the European powers and took a more aggressive role in dominating world politics. c. The United States began taking an active part in promoting internationalism through its leadership in the League of Nations. d. The United States formed a defensive alliance with Britain and France to protect against further abuses by the Germans. e. The United States launched an aggressive campaign to force all the European powers to relinquish their colonial holdings to American control and eventual independence.
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a. The rejection of the Versailles Treaty by the United States Senate signal not only anger and frustration at Woodrow Wilson, but a generalized rejection of his whole effort to make America an international leader.
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Black Americans during World War I, for the most part, a. were treated with dignity in Europe b. suffered little discrimination at home c. believed integration was becoming a reality in American society d. refused to participate in the war effort e. endorsed the policy of nonviolent resistance
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a. Black Americans, both military and civilian, were better treated in Europe than in the United States. Generally, they were not subjected to the discrimination and segregation they experienced in the United States.
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Following World War I, Senator Henry Cabot Lodge led the fight against the a. establishment of the new nations of Europe b. harsh treatment of Germany c. United States occupation of Germany d. refused to participate in the war effort e. League of Nations
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e. Henry Cabot Lodge, United States Senator from Massachusetts from 1893 to 1924, was a conservative Republican. Lodge was a bitter foe of Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points; and as the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, he led the attack on the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations.
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President Woodrow Wilson’s idealism led to a. international acceptance of the Fourteen Points b. conflicts with European leaders c. the creation of the United Nations d. the Treaty of Versailles e. conciliation between France, Great Britain, and Germany
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b. The leaders of the victorious European powers sought revenge against Germany and did not agree with Woodrow Wilson’s conciliatory philosophy. At the peace conference, a fundamental and bitter clash developed between Premier Georges Clemenceau of France and Wilson. While Clemenceau wanted a hard peace that would mutilate Germany and make her harmless in the future, Wilson wanted a “just” peace free of any kind of vindictiveness.
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Which of the following was not a direct factor leading to World War I? a. The rise of militarism b. The creation of secret alliances c. Increased jingoism within states d. The rise of fascism within European states e. The race for colonial possessions
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d. Fascism arose after WWI Fascism is a political ideology that places the nation and its often autocratic leader above the individual citizen. It is often accompanied by fanatic nationalism and rejection of the socialist political ideology. In the wake of World War I, numerous European states began to adopt fascist regimes. After Italy received what it believed was an unfair deal with the Treaty of Versailles, Benito Mussolini rose to power and installed a fascist regime. It forcefully destroyed the socialist party and created a single-party authoritarian state. Hitler’s rise to power through his Nazi Party in Germany also illustrates the creation of the fascist state in the years following the First World War.
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Which of the following was not a reason for the initial American neutrality during the First World War? a. Wilson hoped neutrality would allow him to lead the peace at the end of the war. b. American military treaties prevented direct involvement. c. Neutrality allowed American businesses to trade with both sides of the conflict. d. Support by the U.S. population was divided between the two sides. e. Americans generally supported a policy of isolation.
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b. because no such treaty the United States’ policy in the early 20th century still in many ways followed George Washington’s call to avoid creation of intertwining treaties.
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The United States responded to the sinking of the Lusitania and other passengers ships by a. immediately declaring war on Germany b. forcing the creation of the Sussex Pledge c. entering a formal alliance with the Allied powers d. issuing the Zimmerman Telegram e. declaring war on Mexico
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b. Wilson called the action an act of barbarism but continued his push to keep the United States out of war. In 1915, the passenger ship Lusitania was sunk by German submarines, killing 128 Americans. Wilson demanded the end to the unrestricted use of submarine warfare. Eventually, in March 1916, after the sinking of the passenger ship Sussex, Germany issued the Sussex Pledge, stating three important promises: (1) German submarines would no longer target passenger ships; (2) merchant ships would not be attacked unless they were known to be carrying weapons; and (3) provisions would be made for personnel and passengers of merchant ships to get off the ship safely prior to its destruction.
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Which of the following events most directly brought the United States into the First World War? a. Britain’s use of a naval blockade b. Germany’s resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare c. The success of the communist revolution in Russia d. The collapse of the French army e. Italy’s decision to join the Allied powers
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b. For the United States, the use of unrestricted submarine warfare gave the nation little choice but to go to war, but Wilson waited for an “actual overt act” to take place. This act occurred when German submarines sunk seven unarmed American merchant ships and British intelligence agents intercepted the Zimmerman Telegram,
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A main reason many Republican senators objected to the plan for the League of Nations was that a. Article X would be too expensive for the United States to uphold b. it could pull the United States into future conflicts c. Russia would be allowed to play a leadership role in the league d. Germany would be allowed to retain in military e. the United States would have to reduce its military
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b
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Eugene V. Debs was arrested during World War I for a. selling fraudulent war bonds b. violating the Espionage and Sedition Acts c. organizing a strike during the war d. selling American secrets to the Germans e. declaring his candidacy against Woodrow Wilson
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b Eugene V. Debs, a labor organizer and perennial socialist presidential candidate, was arrested for violating this Sedition Acts in 1918 for giving a fiery speech against the draft.
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the # soldiers lost in WWI a. 1,700,000 Russia b. 1,600,000 Germany c. 1,385,000 France d. 900,000 British e. 800,000 Austria f. 462,000 Italy g. 53,000 USA
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textbook
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All of the following were factors contributing to the entrance of the United States into World War I in 1917 EXCEPT a. the clamor for war from mutinous makers, bankers, and Wall Street financiers seeking to protect their loans and profits b. the interception and publication of the Zimmerman note c. the resumption of unrestricted submarine warfare by Germany against all American vessels in the Atlantic war zone d. President Wilson’s moralistic and idealistic approach to America’s role in shaping a democratic world order the revolutionary e. overthrow of the tsarist regime in Russia, allowing America to fully champion democracy with its support of the Allies
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d
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82. The movement of tens of thousands of Southern blacks north during WWI resulted in A) better race relations in the South. B) racial violence in the North. C) fewer blacks willing to be used as strikebreakers. D) a new black middle class. E) jazz
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b
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50. The United States declared war on Germany A) because Wall Street bankers demanded it. B) after Mexico signed an alliance with Germany. C) after German U-boats sank four unarmed American merchant vessels. D) in response to demands by American munitions makers. E) as a result of treaty obligations.
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c
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55. Most wartime mobilization agencies relied on _______________ to prepare the economy for war. A) voluntary compliance B) court decisions C) business trade organizations. D) presidential edict E) congressional legislation
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a
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61. Russia’s withdrawal from World War I in 1918 resulted in A) the United States’ entry into the war. B) Germany’s surrender to the Allies. C) a communist takeover of that country. D) a setback for the idea of a “war for democracy.” E) the release of thousands of German troops for deployment on the front in France.
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e
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domestic economy during war at the beginning of the war, US was down in business recession, but when French and English orders came US, it brought to a peak of war-born prosperity
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textbook
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38. The U.S. faced all of the following problems after WWI except? a. violent labor strikes b. urban racial riots c. bomb scares d. anger towards anarchists e. food shortages
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e
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51. Which was true of African Americans during WWI? a. African American troops were segregated and rarely allowed to engage in combat b. African American troops were usually reserved for offensive action c. African American were not allowed to serve in the war d. Almost as many African Americans served in the war as did white Americans e. Many defected to Germany for more freedoms
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a