APES Topic Outline

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Geologic time scales
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a timeline that organizes the events in Earth’s history Eon, Era, Period, Epoch in descending order.
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plate tectonics
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The theory that explains how large pieces of the lithosphere, called plates, move and change shape
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earthquake
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Shaking and vibration at the surface of the earth resulting from underground movement along a fault plane of from volcanic activity
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volcanism
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Any activity that includes the movement of magma toward or onto Earth’s surface
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seasons
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Caused by the tilt of Earth on its axis as it revolves around the Sun
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solar intensity
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the spectrum of the radiation emitted by the sun; effected by latitude (closer to equator has higher solar intensity)
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composition
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THE MAKEUP OF SOMETHING
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structure
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how it is put together
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weather
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The condition of Earth’s atmosphere at a particular time and place.
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climate
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Overall weather in an area over a long period of time
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atmospheric circulation
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redistributes heat over earth’s surface by exchanging warm tropical air with cold polar air.
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Coriolis effect
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The apparent curvature of global winds, ocean currents, and anything else that moves freely across the Earth’s surface, due to the rotation of the Earth on its axis – Northern Hemisphere = to the right – Southern Hemisphere = to the left – Strongest at poles – Nonexistent at the equator
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ENSO
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El Nino Southern Oscillation, trade winds weaken & warm surface water moves toward South America. Diminished fisheries off South America, drought in western Pacific, increased precipitation in southwestern North America, fewer Atlantic hurricanes.
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freshwater
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Does not contain any saltwater and can be rivers, lakes, streams,ponds, and wetlands
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saltwater
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Oceans, estuaries, coastal wetlands, shorelines, coral reeds, mangroves
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ocean circulation
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the large scale movement of waters in the ocean basins. Winds drive surface circulation, and the cooling and sinking of waters in the polar regions drive deep circulation.
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surface water issues
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– not distributed evenly in space or time
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groundwater issues
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– Major aquifier extraction at one site and lower water table affecting other properties
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conservation
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Careful use of resources.
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rock cycle
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A series of processes on the surface and inside Earth that slowly changes rocks from one kind to another
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main soil types
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Clay,sand,silt,acidic,alkaline
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soil erosion
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The wearing away of surface soil by water and wind

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