AP World History-Vocab 2

Flashcard maker : Tiffany Hanchett
Axial Age
The time period after 600 BCE where major religions and philosophies addressed questions and concerns that were not sufficiently answered with the previous traditions. These questions/concerns represented the core ideas around which a society revolves.
Dharma
A Hindu belief that everyone is born with a duty in life and if that duty is followed then the world runs smoothly.
Karma
The sum of all good and bad deeds performed, good karma is achieved when one’s dharma is followed.
Samsara
The level in your social class, you can move up in the levels of samsara for your next life by living your current with good karma.
Moksha
The ultimate goal of the Hindu religion, moksha is achieved when you are one with the universe.
Buddha
Buddhist leader/preacher, the \”enlightened one\”, His real name was Siddhartha Gautama and he lived from 563 BCE to 483 BCE.
Four Noble Truths
A Buddhist belief taught by Buddha, if these were followed than moksha could be achieved.
The Four Noble Truths:
1. All life is suffering
2. Suffering is caused by desire
3. There is a way out of suffering
4. The way out of suffering is to follow the Eightfold Path
Eightfold Path
The elements that must be done right in your life to stop desiring, which if followed you can achieve nirvana (moksha).
The elements of the Eightfold Path:
1. Understanding
2. Purpose
3. Speech
4. Conduct
5. Livelihood
6. Effort
7. Awareness
8. Concentration
Nirvana
Nirvana, achieved by successfully following the Eightfold Path, when achieved it releases you from the cycles of reincarnation and the achievement of union with the universe. (Moksha)
Asoka (Ashoka)
The Mauryan emperor that was a major part of the spread of Buddhism into Asia where it thrived in Central and Eastern Asia.
Mahayana Buddhism
One of the two major branches of Buddhism, Mahayana is the largest practiced branch but its practices have been changed/altered from the original Buddhist practices.
Theravada Buddhism
One of the two major branches of Buddhism, Theravada is the oldest practiced branch of Buddhism and its practices are closest to those of the original/traditional Buddhism
Era of Warring States Period
The period in China where no strong central government existed and China was filled with constant fighting and disorder. Lasted from ~700 to 221 BCE, afterward the Qin Dynasty gained control of China
Confucianism
Confucius (551 to 479 BCE) was a philosopher who believed the philosophy that should be embraced to control China is to eliminate warfare and bringing back peace. Believed to be a good neutral position between Daoism (Taoism) and Legalism.
Filial Piety
A key concept of Confucianism meaning \”respect for one’s parents\”
5 Key Relationships
The five key relationships according to Confucius
1. Ruler to subject
2. Father to son
3. Husband to wife
4. Older brother to younger brother
5. Friend to friend
Daoism (Taoism)
Chinese philosophy created and taught by the Chinese Sage Laozi at around the same time as Confucius (~600 – ~500 BCE). It’s a peaceful/passive philosophy that’s focused around nature and the natural balance. Dao = the way of nature.
Tao te Ching
A collection of Daoist wisdom attributed to Laozi. (Ancient Chinese text)
Legalism
A Chinese philosophy that was based on the idea that man was inherently evil and needed strict laws and punishments to behave properly and maintain order. Adopted by the first emperor of the Qin Dynasty, Qin Shihuangdi, it ended the Warring States Period and centralized China.
Judaism
Religion of the Hebrews, monotheistic religion who’s one god (Yahweh or YHWH) was believed to protect the Hebrews, his chosen people.
Exodus
The Hebrew’s escape from Egyptian control where they fled to Israel, their \”promised land\”, led by Moses sometime after 1300 BCE
Monotheism
Religious belief in a single god. Judaism was the first monotheistic religion in recorded history.
Diaspora
The spread or scattering of the Jews where they survived and established societies around the Mediterranean region, Persia, and Central Asia
Jesus Christ
Born at ~4 BCE to Jewish parents in Judea (present day Israel), he became a preacher/missionary for Christianity throughout the Roman Empire until his crucifixion/execution on a cross in the early 30s CE, believed to be the \”son of God\” and could perform miracles.
Paul
One of Jesus’ earliest followers who spread Jesus’ message in the first century CE, Paul helped spread Christianity outside of Rome and into Mesopotamia and throughout Asia.

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