Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile
monarchs of Christian kingdoms; their marriage created the future Spain; initiated exploration of New World.
Grants of estates Indian Laborers made to Spanish Conquerors and settlers in Latin America; established a framework for relations based on economic dominance.
1st island in Caribbean settled by Spaniards by Columbus on his second voyage.
Bartolome de las Casas
Dominican friar who supported peaceful conversion of the Native American Population; Opposed forced labor and advocated Indian Rights
Last Independent Aztec ruler; killed during Cortes’ conquest
Capital of New Spain, built on ruins of Tenochtitlan
Spanish colonial possessions in Mesoamerica in territories once part of Aztec imperial system
Began conquest of Inca Empire in 1535
Francisco Vazquez de Coronado
Led Spanish expedition into the southwestern US in search of gold
Pedro de Valdivia
Spanish conquistador; conquered Araucanian Indians of Chile and established city of Santiago in 1541.
Forced labor system replacing Indian slaves and encomienda workers; used to mobilize labor for mines and other projects.
Biological and ecological exchange that occurred after European arrival in the New World; peoples of Europe and Africa came to the Americas; animals, plants, and diseases moved between the Old and New Worlds.
Located in Bolivia, one of the richest silver mining centers and most populous cities in colonial Spanish America.
greatest mercury deposit in South America; used in American silver production.
Rural agricultural and herding estates in Spanish colonies in New World; produced agricultural products for consumers in America; basis of wealth and power for local aristocracy.
Casa de la Contratacion
Spanish Board of Trade operated out of Seville; regulated commerce with the New World
merchant guild of Seville with a virtual monopoly over goods shipped to Spanish America; handled much of silver shipped in return.
Large, heavily armed ships used to carry silver from New World colonies to Spain; basis for convoy system utilized by Spain for transportation of bullion.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Concluded in 1494 between Castile and Portugal; clarified spheres of influence and rights of possession; Brazil went to Portugal and the rest to Spain
Body of laws collected in 1681 for Spanish possessions in New World; basis of law in the Indies.
Council of the Indies
Spanish government body that issued all laws and advised king on all issues dealing with the New World colonies.
university-trained lawyers from Spain; basic personnel of the Spanish colonial bureaucratic system.
Major divisions of Spanish New World colonies headed by direct representatives of the king; one was based in Lima, the other in Mexico City.
A judicial council included in each of the viceroyalties of New Spain and Peru. Along with the corregidores (officers who presided over municipal courts), these offices provided the monarchy with a vast opportunities for patronage, usually bestowed on people born in Spain. Virtually all political power flowed from the top of this political structure downward, so there was little or no local initiative of self-government.
Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz
17th Century author, poet, and musician of New Spain; eventually gave up secular concerns to concentrate on spiritual matters
Pedro Alvares Cabral
Portuguese leader of an expedition to India; landed Brazil in 1500.
Areas along the Brazilian coast granted to Portuguese nobles for colonial development.
Backswoodsmen from São Paulo, Brazil; penetrated Brazilian interior in search of precious metals during the 17th century.
Brazilian region where gold was discovered in 1695; a gold rush followed.
Rio de Janeiro
Brazilian port used for mines of Minas Gerais; became capital in 1763.
Sociedad de castas
Spanish American social system based on racial origins; Europeans on top, mixed race in middle, Indians and African slaves at the bottom.
Spanish born residents of the New World
People who had Spanish or Portuguese parents but were born in Latin America.
Amigos del pais
Clubs and asociations dedicated to improvements and reform in Spanish colonies; flourished during the 18th century; called for material improvements rather than political reform
War of the Spanish Succession
(1701-1713) war fought over the Spanish throne; Louis XIV wanted it for his son and fought a war against the Dutch, English, and the Holy Roman Empire to gain the throne for France. , (1701-1713) war fought over the Spanish throne; Louis XIV wanted it for his son and fought a war against the Dutch, English, and the Holy Roman Empire to gain the throne for France. Ended at Utrecht in 1713; The big winner in the war was Great Britain.
Spanish enlightened monarch; ruled from 1759 to 1788; instituted fiscal, administrative, and military reforms in Spain and its empire.
Opened trade in ports of Spain and the Indies to all Spanish merchants during the reign of Charles III; undercut monopoly of consulados.
Jose de Galvez
Spanish minister of the West Indies and chief architect of colonial reform; moved to eliminate creoles from upper bureaucracy of the colonies; created intendents for local government
Marquis of Pombal
Prime Minister of Portugal from 1755 to 1776; acted to strengthen royal authority in Brazil; expelled Jesuits; enacted fiscal reforms and established monopoly companies to stimulate the colonial economy.
A popular revolt against Spanish rule in new Granada in 1781; suppressed due to government concessions and divisions among rebels.
Mestizo leader of Indian Revolt in Peru; supported by many in the lower social classes; revolt failed because of Creole fears of real social revolution
First area of Spanish exploration and settlement; served as experimental region for nature of Spanish colonial experience; encomienda system of colonial management initiated here.
The holder of a grant of Indians who were required to pay a tribute or provide labor. The encomendero was responsible for their integration into the church.
Actions of absolute rulers which have been influenced by the philosophical ideas of the Enlightenment
Term used in Mexico for local magistrates
War of Spanish Succession
(1701 – 1714) European war which was caused by the death of the last Spanish Hapsburg and the subsequent question of succession
European trading fortresses and compounds with resident merchants; utilized throughout Portuguese trading empire to assure secure landing places and commerce.
Important portuguese factory on the coast of modern Ghana
Afro-Portuguese traders who joined the economies of the African interior with coastal centers
Ruler of the Kongo kingdom (1507-1543); converted to Christianity and was renamed Afonso I; his efforts to integrate Portuguese and African ways foundered because of the slave trade.
Portuguese settlement founded in the 1520s; became the core for the colony of Angola.
Royal African Company
Chartered in 1660s to establish a monopoly over the slave trade among British merchants; supplied African slaves to colonies in Barbados, Jamaica, and Virginia.
A unit in the complex exchange system of the West African trade; based on the value of an adult male slave.
A three way system of trade during 1600-1800s Africa sent slaves to America, America sent Raw Materials to Europe, and Europe sent Guns and Rum to Africa
Akan state centered at Kumasi on the Gold Coast (now Ghana).
Important ruler who began centralization and expansion of Asante
Title, created by Osei Tutu, of the civil and religious ruler of Asante.
African Kingdom in the Bight of Benin; at the height of its power when Europeans arrived; active slave-trading state; famous for its bronze-casting techniques
African state among the Fon or Aja peoples; developed in the 17th century centered at Abomey; became a major slave trading state through utilization of Western firearms.
Nilotic people who migrated from the upper Nile regions to establish dynasties in the lakes region of central Africa
Uthman Dan Fodio
Muslim Fulani leader who launched a great religious movement among the Hausa
Movement inland during the 1830s of Dutch-ancestry settlers in South Africa seeking to escape their British colonial government.
A Zulu chief in Southern Africa who used soldiers and good military organization to create a large centralized state
Wars among Africans in southern Africa during the early 19th century; caused migrations and alterations in African political organization.
Swazi and Lesotho
African states formed by peoples reacting to the stresses of the Mfecane
A voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies
African religious practices in the British American islands.
African religious ideas and practices in Brazil, particularly among the Yoruba people.
African religious ideas and practices among descendants of African slaves in Haiti.
Angolan-led, large runaway slave state in 17th-century Brazil.
Descendants of 18th-century runaway slaves who found permanent refuge in the rain forests of Suriname and French Guiana.
British statesman and reformer; leader of abolitionist movement in English parliament that led to end of English slave trade in 1807.
Having more than one wife at a time
Term used for King in the Kingdom of Benin
Pastoral people of western Sudan; adopted purifying Sufi variant of Islam; under Usuman Dan Fodio in 1804, launched revolt against Hausa kingdoms; established state centered on Sokoto
Another term used for the Boer.
Boer farmers who migrated further into South Africa during the 1830s and 1840s.
War fought in 1879 between the British and the African Zulu tribes.
A Greek word meaning ‘dispersal,’ used to describe the communities of a given ethnic group living outside their homeland. Jews, for example, were spread from Israel to western Asia and Mediterranean lands in by the Romans.
Slaves transported from Africa; almost invariably black.
American-born descendants of saltwater slaves; result of sexual exploitation of slave women or process of miscegenation.
Turkic people who advanced from strongholds in Asia Minor during 1350s; conquered large part of Balkans; unified under Mehmed I; captured Constantinople in 1453; established empire from Balkans that included most of Arab world.
Ottoman sultan called the “Conqueror”; responsible for conquest of Constantinople in 1453; destroyed what remained of Byzantine Empire.
Ottoman infantry divisions that dominated Ottoman armies; forcibly conscripted as boys in conquered areas of Balkans, legally slaves; translated military service into political influence, particularly after 15th century.
Head of the Ottoman bureaucracy; after the 15th C. often more powerful than the Sultan
Great mosque built in Constantinople during the 16th-century reign of the Ottoman ruler Suleyman the Magnificent.
Founded by a Turkic nomad family with Shi’a Islamic beliefs; established a kingdom in Iran and ruled until 1722.
Sufi mystic and first ruler of the Safavid dynasty.
Established Shi’a Islam as the State religion, and became a religious tyrant, and put to death any citizen that would not convert to Shi’ism. Also, captured the City of Tabriz in 1501
Important battle between the Safavids and Ottomans in 1514; Ottoman victory demonstrated the importance of firearms and checked the western advance of their Shi’a state.
Abbas I (The Great)
Safavid shah (1587-1629); extended the empire to its greatest extent; used Western military technology.
Shi’a religious leaders who traced their descent to Ali’s successors.
Religious leaders under the Safavids; worked to convert all subjects to Shi’ism.
Safavid capital under Abbas the Great; planned city laid out according to shah’s plan; example of Safavid architecture.
established by Babur in India in 1526; the name is taken from the supposed Mongol descent of Babur, but there is little indication of any Mongol influence in the dynasty; became weak after rule of Aurangzeb in first decades of 18th century.
Turkic leader who founded Mughal dynasty; died in 1530.
Son and successor of Babur; expelled from India in 1540, but restored Mughal rule by 1556; died shortly thereafter
(1542-1605) son and successor of Humayan; oversaw building of military and administrative systems that became typical of Mughal rule in India; pursued policy of cooperation with Hindu princes; attempted to create new religion to bind Muslim and Hindu populations of India.
religion initiated by Akbar that blended elements of Islam and Hinduism; did not survive his death.
Ritual burning of high-caste Hindu women on their husband’s funeral pyres
Beautiful mausoleum at Agra built by the Mogul emperor Shah Jahan (completed in 1649) in memory of Mumtaz Mahal
The wife of Jahangir who did most of the ruling, most powerful ruler in Indian History
son and successor of Shah Jahan; pushed extent of Mughal control in India; reversed previous policies to purify Islam of Hindu influences; incessant warfare depleted the empire’s resources; died in 1707.
name given to Safavid followers because of their distinctive red headgear
Turkic term used for Emperor
Safavid term used for king of kings
Nadir Khan Afsher
(1688 – 1747) Soldier-adventurer following fall of Safavid dynasty in 1722; proclaimed himself shah in 1736; established short-lived dynasty in reduced kingdom.
Head tax paid by all nonbelievers in Islamic territories
(1593 – 1631) Wife of Shah Jahan; took an active political role in Mughal court; entombed in Taj Mahal.
Western India peoples who rebelled against Mughal control early in 18th century
Members of a Hindu religious sect. founded in northern India around 1500. They believe in one god and reject the caste system.
Asian Sea Trading Network
Divided, from West to East, into three zones prior to the European arrival: an Arab zone based on glass, carpets, and tapestries; an Indian zone, with cotton textiles; and a Chinese zone, with paper, porcelain, and silks.
Indian City developed by the Portuguese as a major Indian Ocean base; developed an important Indo-European Population
Portuguese establishment at the southern end of the Persian Gulf; a major trading base
City on the tip of the Malayan peninsula; a center for trade to the southeastern Asian islands; became a major Portuguese trading base.
Dutch Establishment on Java; created in 1620
Treaty of Gijanti (1757)
Reduced the remaining independent Javanese princes to vassals of the Dutch East India Company; allowed the Dutch to monopolize Java’s coffee production.
Northern island of Philippines; conquered by Spain during the 1560s; site of major Catholic missionary effort.
Southern island of Philippines; a Muslim kingdom that was able to successfully resist Spanish conquest.
Franciscan missionary who worked in India during the 1540s among outcast and lower-caste groups; later worked in Japan.
Chinese admiral who led seven overseas trade expeditions under Ming emperor Yunglo between 1405 and 1423; demonstrated that the Chinese were capable of major ocean exploration.
Matteo Ricci and Adam Schall
Jesuit scholars at the Ming court; also skilled scientists; won few converts to Christianity.
Last of the Ming emperors; committed suicide in 1644 in the face of a Jurchen invasion of the Forbidden City at Beijing.
Zurchen people from region to the northeast of the Chinese empire; seized power and created the Qing Dynasty after the collapse of the Ming.
The first Japanese daimyo to make extensive use of firearms; in 1573 deposed the last Ashikaga shogun; unified much of central Honshu; died in 1582.
Toyotomo (as earlier) Hideyoshi
General under Nobunaga; succeeded as a leading military power in central Japan; continued efforts to break power of the daimyos; became military master of Japan in 1590; died 1598.
Vassal of Toyotomi Hideyoshi; succeeded him as most powerful military figure in Japan; granted title of shogun in 1603 and established Tokugawa Shogunate; established political unity in Japan
Capital of the Tokugawa shogunate established by Tokugawa Ieyasu. This was later renamed Tokyo. Established political unity in Japan
Island port in Nagasaki Bay; the only port open to foreigners, the Dutch, after the 1640s.
School of National Learning
18th-century ideology that emphasized Japan’s unique historical experience and the revival of indigenous culture at the expense of Confucianism and other Chinese influences.
Slender, long-hulled vessels utilized by Portuguese; highly maneuverable and able to sail against the wind; key to development of Portuguese trade empire in Asia.
An economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
Dutch Trading Empire
The Dutch system extending into Asia with fortified towns and factories, warships on patrol, and monopoly control of a limited number of products.
Members of Roman Catholic religious orders