AP World history unit 4: 1450-1750 vocabulary

Flashcard maker : Christine Brunetti
Indulgence
A document whose purchase was said to grant the bearer the forgiveness of sins
Mercantilism
A European economic policy of the sixteenth through the eighteenth centuries that held that there was a limited amount of wealth available, and that each country must adopt policies to obtain as much wealth as possible for itself; key to the attainment of wealth was the acquisition of colonies
Scientific Revolution
A European intellectual movement in the seventeenth century that established the basis for modern science
Parliamentary Monarchy
A government with a king or queen whose power is limited by the power of a parliament
Northwest Passage
A passage through the North America Continent that was sought early by explorers to North America as a route to trade with the east
Enlightenment
A philosophical movement in eighteenth century Europe that was based on reason and the concept that education and training could improve human society
Viceroyalty
A political unit ruled by a viceroy that was the basis of organization of the Spanish colonies
Encomienda
A practice in the Spanish colonies that granted land and the labor of Native Americans on that land to European Colonists
Devshirme
A practice of the Ottoman empire to take Christian boys from their home communities to serve as Janissaries
Protestant Reformation
A religious movement began by Martin Luther in 1517 that attempted to reform the beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic Church; it resulted in the formation of new Christian denominations
Caravel
A small, easily steerable ship used by the Spanish and Portuguese in their explorations
Nation-State
A sovereign state whose people share a common culture and national identity
Creoles
A term used in colonial Spanish America to describe a person born in the Americas of European parents
Empirical Research
a way of gaining knowledge by means of direct observation or experience.
Taj Mahal
a white marble mausoleum built at Agra, India, by the Mogul emperor Shah Jahan (fl. 1628-58) for his favorite wife
Factor
An agent with trade privileges in early Russia
Laissez-Faire Economies
An economic concept that holds that the government should not interfere with or regulate business and industries
Capitalism
An economic system based on private ownership and opportunity for profit-making
Northern Renaissance
An extension of the Italian Renaissance to the nations of northern Europe; the northern Renaissance took on a more religious nature than the Italian Renaissance
Philosophes
French Enlightenment social thinkers
Peninsulares
In the Spanish and Portuguese colonies a person of mixed African and European descent
Repartamiento
In the Spanish colonies, a replacement for the encomienda system that limited the number of working hours for laborers and provided fair wages
Mestizo
In the Spanish colonies, persons of mixed European and native descent
Mulato
In the Spanish colonies, those who were born in Europe.
Qing Dynasty
Manchurian rule of China beginning in 1644 and lasting until 1914
Janissaries
Members of the Ottoman army, often slaves, who were taken from Christian lands
Jesuits
Members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic missionary and educational order founded by Ignatius of Loyola in 1534
Manchus
Peoples from northeastern Asia who founded China’s Qing dynasty
Natural Law
Principles that govern nature
Absolute Monarch
Rule by a king or queen whose power is not limited by a constitution
Mughal Dynasty
Rulers who controlled most of India in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
Boyars
Russian Nobility
Cossacks
Russians who conquered and settled Siberia in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
Sovereignty
Self-rule
Treaty Of Tordesillas
The 1494 treaty in which the pope divided unexplored territories between Spain and Portugal
Divine Right
The belief of absolute rulers that their right to govern is granted by God
Predestination
The belief of Protestant reformer John Calvin that God had chosen some people for heaven and others for hell
Glorious Revolution
The bloodless overthrow English King James I and the placement of William and Mary on the English Throne
Hagia Sophia
The church in Constantinople that was converted to a mosque after the Ottoman conquest
Deism
The concept of God common to the scientific revolution; the god was believed to have set the world in motion and then allowed it to operate by natural laws
Heliocentric Revolution
The concept that the sun is the center of the solar system
Triangular Trade
The eighteenth century trade network between Europe, Africa, and the Americas
Columbian Exchange
The exchange of food, crops, livestock, and disease between Eastern and Western hemispheres after the voyages of Columbus
Commercial Revolution
The expansion of trade and commerce in Europe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries
Tokugawa Shogunate
The feudal rulers of Japan who moved the capital to Edo. They ruled from 1603 to 1868.
Purdah
The Hindu custom of secluding women
Middle Passage
The portion of the trans-Atlantic trade that involved the passage of Africans from Africa to the Americas
Excommunication
The practice of the Roman Catholic and other Christian churches of prohibiting participation in the sacraments to those who do not comply with church teachings or practices.
Reconquista
The recapture of Muslim-held lands in Spain by Christian forces; it was completed in 1492
Catholic Reformation
The religious reform movement within the Roman Catholic Church that occurred in response to the Protestant reformation. It reaffirmed Catholic beliefs and promoted education
Estates-General
The traditional legislative body of France
Dutch Learning
Western learning embraced by some Japanese in the eighteenth century
Ninety-Five These
Work by Martin Luther where he laid out his arguments against the Roman Catholic Church

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