AP World History Unit 3 Review: The Early Modern Era
Flashcard maker : Steven Ramirez
Hundred Years War
series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families. England loses and losses half of its land but that land was in France. The negative impact- France became an absolute power. Positive impact- France formed a nation-state. Ended in 1453.
a system of government in which the head of state is a hereditary position and the king or queen has almost complete power
king of France from 1643 to 1715; his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles (1638-1715)
a legislative assembly in certain countries (e.g., Great Britain), A body of representatives that makes laws for a nation
The great period of rebirth in art, literature, and learning in the 14th-16th centuries, which marked the transition into the modern periods of European history
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
a movement in the 18th century that advocated the use of reason in the reappraisal of accepted ideas and social institutions, movement during the 1700’s that spread the idea that knowledge, reason, and science could improve society
an era between 16th and 18th centuries when scientists began doing research in a new way using the scientific method, the era of scientific thought in europe during which careful observation of the natural world was made, and accepted beliefs were questioned
an increase in the overall level of prices in the economy, increased prices for goods and services combined with the reduced value of money
Joint stock company
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company’s profits and debts.
a renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements
Russian landholding aristocrats; possessed less political power than their western European counterparts
Breakaway Orthodox Christian sect, many which fled to Siberia
Serfdom was still the basic social institution. Bound to the lord on a hereditary basis, the peasant serf was little more than a slave. Individual serfs and serf families were regularly sold, with and without land, in the early nineteenth century. Serfs were obliged to furnish labor services or money payments as the lord saw fit. Moreover, the lord could choose freely among serfs for army recruits, who had to serve for twenty-five years, and he could punish a serf with deportation to Siberia. Sexual exploitation of female serfs by their lords was common. 4. Serfdom had become the great moral and political issue for the government by the 1840’s, but is still might have lasted many more years if it wasn’t for the Crimean War (1853-1856). (p.838)
Peter the Great
(1672-1725) Russian tsar (r. 1689-1725). He enthusiastically introduced Western languages and technologies to the Russian elite, moving the capital from Moscow to the new city of St. Petersburg.
Catherine the Great
German-born Russian tsarina in the 18th century; ruled after assassination of her husband; gave appearance of enlightened rule; accepted Western cultural influence; maintained nobility as service aristocracy by granting them new power over peasantry.
Major divisions of Spanish New World colonies headed by direct representatives of the king; one was based in Lima, the other in Mexico City.
Spain and Portugal penensula where exploration of slave trade began
Grants of Indian laborers made to Spanish conquerors and settlers in Mesoamerica and South America; basis for earliest forms of coerced labor in Spanish colonies.
Large Spanish colonial estates usually owned by wealthy families but worked by many peasants, Rural estates in Spanish colonies in New World; produced agricultural products for consumers in America; basis of wealth and power for local aristocracy.
The Spanish soldiers, explorers, and fortune hunters who took part in the conquest of the Americas in the 16th century
The exchange of plants, animals, diseases, and technologies between the Americas and the rest of the world following Columbus’s voyages.
The backbone of New England’s economy during the colonial period. Ships from New England sailed first to Africa, exchanging New England rum for slaves. The slaves were shipped from Africa to the Caribbean (this was known as the Middle Passage, when many slaves died on the ships). In the Caribbean, the slaves were traded for sugar and molasses. Then the ships returned to New England, where the molasses were used to make rum.
Benin alone exported more than 10,000 slaves per year, the Kongo kingdom had more than 20,00 slaves from neighboring areas in Africa
Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade
New Atlantic trade systems were made because of European empires in the Americas. This system was mainly from Africa to the Americas and mainly took people out of Africa.
Trans-Saharan Slave Trade
a fairly small-scale trade that developed in the twelfth century CE, exporting West African slaves captured in raids across the Sahara for sale mostly as household servants in Islamic North Africa; the difficulty of travel across the desert limited the scope of this trade
African kingdom on the Gold Coast that expanded rapidly after 1680. Asante participated in the Atlantic economy, trading gold, slaves, and ivory. It resisted British imperial ambitions for a quarter century before being absorbed into Britain. 1902 (736)
(ca. 1650- 1894) African kingdom in present day southern Benin, reaching its height of influence in the eighteenth century. Its leaders sought regional power by raiding for slaves in other kingdoms and then selling them, for firearms and other European goods
warrior/ military aristocrats
Ottoman infantry divisions that dominated Ottoman armies; forcibly conscripted as boys in conquered areas of Balkans, legally slaves; translated military service into political influence, particularly after 15th century.
The most famous Muslim ruler of India during the period of Mughal rule. Famous for his religious tolerance, his investment in rich cultural feats, and the creation of a centralized governmental administration, which was not typical of ancient and post-classical India.
Indian ocean Trade Zones
Prior to intervention of Europeans, consisted of three zones: Arab zone based on glass, carpets, and tapestries; India based on cotton textiles; China based on paper, porcelain, and silk.
Two of the most famous Jesuit missionaries of the 1500s were Francis Xavier, who worked in India and Japan, and Matteo Ricci, who worked in China. , Catholic missionaries; labored zealously to save the Indians for Christ and from the fur-trappers; some of them, their efforts scorned, suffered unspeakable tortures at the hands of the Indians; they made few permanent converts; played a vital role as explorers and geographers.
Vassal of Toyotomi Hideyoshi; succeeded him as most powerful military figure in Japan; granted title of shogun in 1603 and established Tokugawa Shogunate; established political unity in Japan