AP World History Unit 2 Vocabulary

Flashcard maker : Josephine Mack
Byzantine Empire
Historians’ name for the eastern portion of the Roman Empire from the fourth century onward, taken from ‘Byzantion,’ an early name for Constantinople, the Byzantine capital city. The empire fell to the Ottomans in 1453
Caesaropapism
Where the emperor not only ruled as a secular lord but also was the head of the ecclesiastical affairs. Found in Byzantium.
Justinian’s Code
Collection of Roman laws organized by the byzantine emperor Justinian and later serving as a model for the catholic church and medieval monarchs; Corpus iuris civilis (The Body of the Civil Law)
Constantinople
Previously known as Byzantium, Constantine changed the name of the city and moved the capitol of the Roman Empire here from Rome; Greek was the religious language; Caesoropapist emperors; walled and bordered oceanic trade routes
Hippodrome
Built by Justinian; A huge stadium; Held athletic events and games; Seated 60,000 people located in Constantinople. Site of Nike Revolt
Iconoclasm
A challenge to or overturning of traditional beliefs, customs, and values, any movement against the religious use of icons in the religious world
Schism
A formal split within a religious organization; any division or separation of a group or organization into hostile factions; mutual excommunication between pope and the emperor; power stuggle
Muhammad
Founder of Islam, considered the greatest prophet in Islam
Quran’
The sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
The Five Pillars
1. only one god 2. pray five times a day, 3. fast during Romadan, 4. alms to the poor 5. Pilgrimage to Mecca; taught by Muhammad
Hijira
Muhammad’s migration from Mecca to Medina in 622, marking the starting point of the official Islamic calendar
Caliph
A supreme political and religious leader in a Muslim government; rule of the Islamic empire and also the name of that empire (Abu bakr was the head of state, chief judge, religious leader, and military commander after the succession to the Prophet Muhammad)
Sharia
Body of Islamic law that includes interpretation of the Quran and applies Islamic principles to everyday life; Islam became a religion and a way of life
Umma
The community of all Muslims. A major innovation against the background of seventh-century Arabia, where traditionally kinship rather than faith had determined membership in a community
Ulama Qadis
Set moral standards in local communities and tried to solve disputes; not priests; formal education; worked against the permanent division of the Islamic umma
Umayyad Dynasty
ESstablished by Muawiya, moved capital from Medina to Damascus, that action split Islam (Shi’ites & Sunnites)
Abbasid Dynasty
Descent from Abbas, the uncle of Muhammad (more acceptable to Shi’ites than Umayyad); opened the faith to ALL \”comers\” on equal basis; enabled Islam to become a true world religion; empire became too large and people too diverse; new capital finally built at Baghdad
Sufis
Mystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting, & simple life; effective missionaries that encouraged by singing and dnacing; encouraged Allah in own personal beliefs

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