AP World History Unit 2 Study Guide

What is NOT an advantage offered by iron?
It can be heated at lower temperatures

What was the first real empire in the world?
Assyria

Why did the rulers of the Neo-Assyrian military follow the trade routes in their campaigns?
The caravans were an excellent source of booty

What made possible the Assyrians’ conquest of their empire?
Their military organization and technology

In Assyria, the term HUMAN BEINGS referred to?
All people of the empire

The text of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) best reflects the view of?
The fifth century B.C.E. priests who controlled the Temple of Jerusalem

Because of its lack of land, the Phoenician civilization concentrated on?
Trade and manufacturing

Who developed the first alphabetic system of writing?

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Why do historians know more about Carthage than they know about the Phoenician homeland?
Roman and Greek records tell more about Carthage than other Phoenician city-states

What was NOT one of the internal reasons for the fall of the Assyrian Empire?
The failure of the Assyrian economy when the Phoenicians discovered the secret of making glass

What was NOT one of the external reasons for the fall of the Assyrian Empire?
The kingdom of Israel waged a successful campaign against the Assyrians

Textile production has generally been the preserve of women because?
It was possible to care for children and spin or weave at the same time

How many murex snails does it take to produce one gram of purple dye?
Nine thousand

How did Egyptian officials respond to Hatshepsut’s rule?
Some were opposed to the concept of having a woman as a ruler

What was Akhenaten’s motivation in modifying the Egyptian religion to emphasize the primacy of Aten (the sun)?
He was attempting to reassert the superiority of the pharaoh and to renew belief in his own divinity

Ramesses II, the greatest monarch of the Ramessides dynasty is an important figure in archaeological records because?
He undertook monumental building projects

What was the source of the rivalry between Egypt and the Hittite kingdom?
Control of the trade routes in Syria-Palestine, the region lying between them

What did NOT encourage the inhabitants of the Aegean islands to commerce seafaring?
Frequent flooding of their farmlands

Cultural uniformity among early Greeks is best explained by?
Extensive contacts and commerce among the various Greek kingdoms

The plot of the Iliad revolves around?
The difficulties Agamemmon has in asserting control over other Greek leaders

The annihilation of the major trading partners and the disruption of trade routes…?
Helped bring about the end of Mycenaean civilization, thus illustrating the degree to which major centers of the Late Bronze Age were interdependent

The ________ capital of Ashur was the leading urban center on the northern Tigris.
Assyrian

Around 1640 B.C.E. Egypt came under control of the ________.
Hyksos

In 1323 B.C.E. _________ established a new Egyptian dynasty.
Ramesses II

The ________ civilization was established on Crete by 2000 B.C.E.
Minoan

Information about Mycenaean life is provided by tablets written in a script now called ________.
Linear B

The Iliad tells the story of the destruction of the city of ________.
Troy

The _________ built royal palaces at Kalhu and Nineveh.
Assyrians

The library of the Assyrian king _____________ contained much of the scientific and literary heritage of Mesopotamia.
Ashurbanipal

Abraham’s son, ________, and his grandson, Jacob, were early leaders of the Hebrews.
Isaac

The reign of David’s son, _________, marked the high point of the Israelite monarchy.
Solomon

What were NOT fundamental environmental factors in Iran?
The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

The Medes were the first Iranian people to…?
Reach a complex level of political organization

The king responsible for unifying Iran was…?
Cyrus

The three social and occupational classes in Ancient Iran were…?
Warriors, priests, and peasants

Cyrus and his father ruled the empire by following a practical approach of…?
Respecting local priests and native traditions

The Persian provinces were administered by…?
Satraps (hereditary provincial governors)

Although Greece is described as “resource poor” in the chapter, it economically prospered…?
Through access to foreign resources, markets, and ideas

The Greeks viewed the sea as…?
An important “connector”

To ensure good crops, the Greek farmers relied entirely on…?
Annual rainfall

The Greek Dark Age was a period of…?
Poverty, isolation, and depopulation

The Archaic Period in Greece began…?
Because of renewed contacts with Phoenicia

The Phoenician alphabetic writing system was a great gift to Greece because…?
It allowed for widespread literacy without years of study

What is NOT a characteristic of the recovery of the Archaic Period?
The cure of various infectious diseases

Hostility and jealousy between city-states led to the emergence of new types of warfare with soldiers called…?
Hoplites

A Greek population explosion led to…?
The colonization of North Africa, Sicily, Southern Italy, and the Black Sea

An oligarchy is a society where…?
Wealthy members of society have political power

The Greek concept of democracy included political participation of…?
All free, native-born, adult males

The Greeks believed that their gods gave advice through…?
Oracles

The Archaic Greek development of humanism, a lasting feature of Western Civilization, was…?
Valuing the uniqueness, rights, and talents of individuals

Pre-Socratic philosophers were primarily concerned with…?
Creating theoretical models to explain the natural world

The father of history in the western tradition is…?
Herodotus

The Spartan city-state can be described as…?
A militaristic society

The result of the Persian Wars was…?
The expulsion of the Persians from Greece

What can be considered the symbol of Athenian naval success?
The trireme

Wise men who provided lessons in logic and rhetoric were…?
Sophists

The three great Greek philosophers were…?
Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle

One irony of Athenian democracy was…?
An abundance of slaves

How did Peloponnesian War reveal an inherent flow in Greek society?
The independent polis fostered rivalry and mistrust among neighbors

What is NOT one of the policies used by Alexander the Great to control his vast empire?
He promoted local militia

When Alexander the Great died, his vast empire…?
Was broken up into three Macedonian dynasties

The greatest of the cities of the Hellenistic Age is…?
Alexandria

The Hellenistic Age refers to…?
Political and social cultural influence of Greece over foreign subjects

The growth of the Roman State was NOT based on…?
Regular rainfall from the monsoons

The economic wealth of the early Roman State was based on…?
Farming

The Roman Republic was not a true democracy; it was ruled by…?
Several assemblies of wealthy male citizens

The family was the basic unit of Roman society under the authority of…?
The paterfamilias

What is true about Roman women?
They exercised influence over husbands and sons

How did the Romans view the natural world?
As filled with numerous invisible shapeless forces called numina

One key to the Romans’ success in winning the loyalty of all Italy was…?
Granting Roman citizenship to conquered peoples

Two protracted and bloody wars against the Carthaginians were important because…?
Rome won control of the Western Mediterranean

When Rome took control of a foreign land, it…?
Allowed considerable autonomy to cooperative local elites

As the numbers of independent farmers declined in the later republic, Italian landowners increasingly turned to…?
Inexpensive slaves

On what factor do scholars agree was the reason behind why Rome and Han China flourished simultaneously?
Actually, no theory has won the support of most scholars

The emperor responsible for the reorganization of the Roman government after 31 B.C.E. was…?
Octavian

One of the most enduring consequences of the Roman Empire has been the…?
Romanization of the Western Mediterranean

Before 212 C.E., many people living outside Italy became Roman citizens…?
After serving lengthy terms of military service

The circumstance surrounding Jesus’ ministry and acclimation by his followers as the messiah was…?
The Roman occupation of Judaea

Why was becoming Christian considered an act of disloyalty in the Roman Empire?
Christians could not worship the emperor as a deity

Roman architecture departed from the Greek style because of the…?
Roman invention of concrete

Roman technological expertise is evident in…?
Engineering roads, aqueducts, concrete, and arches

From the reign of Augustus, the Roman army was reorganized and redeployed to…?
Shift from an offensive to a defensive strategy

The most visible symptom of Rome’s “third-century crisis” was the…?
Frequent change of rulers

Who reformed Rome in the 3rd century C.E. and saved it from decline?
Diocletian

What city became the new imperial capital of the Roman Empire?
Constantinople

The conversion to Christianity of which Roman emperor ushered in a time of tolerance, acceptance, and eventual dominance of Christianity?
Constantine

In addition to agriculture, a fundamental resource of China was…?
Human labor

A result of the competition among states in the Warring States Period was…?
The creation of the first empire under the Qin state

The Chinese family was considered to include…?
All generations, living and dead

Because of the influence of Confucian ethics, Chinese values emphasized…?
Obedience and proper conduct

The Confucian view of proper female behavior was exemplified by the…?
The three submissions

It was customary for young brides in China to…?
Live with their husbands’ families

The Qin ruler took the title Shi Huangdi, which meant…?
“First Emperor”

When the Qin government abolished primogeniture, this meant that…?
The number of small landholders would grow

The Qin emperor was committed to standardization of coinage, weights and measures, the law code, and writing. This shows a commitment to…?
The creation of a unified Chinese civilization

The early Han emperors reformed the Legalist system by…?
Incorporating Confucianism

In order to supply administrators for the empire, the Han used officials from the gentry class and adopted…?
A version of Confucianism to guide government

What does NOT explain why Daoism was popular among the common people?
It encouraged education and involvement in government to cure the ills of society

The important Han innovations include the development of…?
The horse collar, watermill, and crossbow

The leading export commodity of China during the Han was…?
Silk

What is NOT generally considered by scholars to be a factor helping to explain the fall of the Han Empire?
The subversive ideas of Buddhism

According to the book, what CANNOT be said to contribute to India’s diversity?
It has great regional dietary differences

Northern India is bordered by the…?
Himalayas

Three harvests each year have been possible in some parts of India because of…?
High rainfall from the monsoons

The Vedic Age was a new historical period in India marked by…?
The dominance of Indo-Europeans over India

The varna system was developed in order to create…?
Social order between groups

The class and caste systems in India were connected to…?
A widespread belief of reincarnation

The reincarnation of the atman (soul) into a given class depends on…?
Karma (fate) or deeds in life

What is the underlying message of the cycle of reincarnation?
You are where you deserve to be

The Brahmins were important because they…?
Knew how to perform essential sacrifices correctly

The collection of Indian poetic hymns dedicated to the various deities and describing sacred practices is…?
The Rig Veda

What statement about women in the Vedic Age CANNOT be learned from Vedic literature?
They are depicted as slaves to men

To be released from the cycle of reincarnation is the concept of…?
Moksha

Jainism emphasizes the principles of…?
Nonviolence, nudity, and asceticism

Siddhartha Gautama articulated the “Four Noble Truths,” which taught that…?
Life is suffering, and suffering is caused by desire

Some followers of Buddhism took vows of…?
Celibacy, non-violence, and poverty

The ultimate spiritual reward in Buddhism is…?
Nirvana

What is NOT an element of the Hindu religion?
The denial of the existence of a soul

Although Hindus worship different deities such as Vishnu and Shiva, they are really…?
Incarnations of a single divine force in the universe.

What is NOT a factor in India’s habitual political fragmentation historically?
Competition between different claimants for political power

The Mauryan government united much of India after…?
The death of Alexander the Great

In order to improve trade, the Mauryan Empire…?
Issued standard coinage throughout the empire

The Mauryan leader Ashoka converted to Buddhism and became a unique leader because of…?
He was overwhelmed by the brutality of his early conquests

During the first centuries C.E., the two great epics of India take their final form; they are…?
The Ramayana and the Mahabharata

The story of the great hero Arjuna, who is tutored by Krishna, is called…?
The Bhagavad Gita

The chief source of revenue for the Gupta Empire was…?
A 25% tax on agricultural produce

One of the most important contributions made by Gupta intellectuals was the…?
The concept of zero

The practice of cremating widows on their husband’s funeral pyre was called…?
Sati

The Gupta Empire collapsed in 550 C.E….?
After invasions by the Huns of Central Asia

The Silk Road was a trade route connecting…?
China and the Middle East

The initial key to opening the Silk Road was the…?
Chinese eagerness for Western horses

General Zhang Jian credited with introducing what to China?
Persian rugs

Among the products that China exported along the Silk Road were…?
Timber, ivory, and myrrh

What military technologies did the Silk Road spread?
Chariot warfare, mounted bowman, stirrup

The mariners involved in the Indian Ocean trade were…?
A multilingual and multiethnic group

The Indian Ocean maritime system forged economic and social ties between…?
East African, Arabia, India, China and Southeast Asia

The importance of the monsoon was that…?
It facilitated sailing across the Indian Ocean

One difference between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean seafaring was that…?
Mediterranean seamen rarley sailed far from shore

The early inhabitants of the East African island of Madagascar came from…?
The islands of Southeast Asia

The Peripherals of the Erythraean Sea is an important account because it describes…?
A vast interconnected trading system

Indian Ocean society could be described as bicultural because…?
Sailors often married women in port cities

The book contends that of what theories for the development of trans-Saharan trade routes is most plausible?
Camel domestication

The most convincing evidence indicates that camels were introduced to the Sahara from…?
Arabia

The most important African network of cultural exchange can be described as…?
Mainly internal folk migrations within sub-Saharan Africa

The development of metallurgy in Africa included…?
Iron

Most sub-Saharan languages come from one giant linguistic family, called…?
Bantu

From where did the Israelites'(and later the Muslims’) prohibition of pork eating probably derive?
Egypt

The Silk Road and Indian Ocean trade fostered the spread of which religion?
Buddhism

The geographic location of Iran (ancient Persia)…?
Makes a link between West, South, and Central Asia

Cyrus was able to take over Babylon by…?
Making a deal with disaffected elements of the city

Why did satrapies have more autonomy the farther they were from the central seat of government?
Communication was so slow that it was impractical to refer matters to the central government

Darius can be considered a second founder of the Persian Empire because…?
He created a new organizational structure that remained for two centuries

What did the walled garden called “paradayadam” (paradise) symbolize to the Persians?
The prosperity that the king and empire could bring to those who served them

Which group of Persian workers received the most pay?
Pregnant women

Historians now believe that the sculpture on the foundations, walls, and stairwells of the buildings at Persepolis represent…?
Public relations or propaganda

What was NOT true of Zoroastrianism?
It preached a belief in multiple deities

For the Greeks and other peoples living around it, the Mediterranean was…?
A connector

What is NOT a reason for the population explosion in Greece during the eighth century?
Specialization of labor

What did NOT help inaugurate the outward-looking seafaring activities of the Greek Archaic period?
The competition between Athens and Sparta

What about Greek colonies is NOT true?
The colonists set out after receiving a blessing from the goddess Athena

Greek states were defended by…?
Private citizens

What was NOT a benefit of the invention of coins?
It made currency standard for all areas

What was the central ritual of Greek religion?
Sacrifice

Why is Herodotus considered the “father of history?”
He sought the causes behind historical events

To the Persians, the conflict with the Greeks…?
Was less important than it was to the Greeks

What enabled the rowers of Athenian battleships to gain an equal voice in the democratic system?
The great importance of the navy to the Athenian military

To become part of the privileged and wealthy ruling class, ambitious members of the indigenous populations conquered by Greece…?
Learned the Greek language and adopted elements of the Greek way of life

Socrates’ disciple, _______, may represent the first generation of Greeks to be truly literate
Plato

________ united the various Persian tribes around 550 B.C.E.
Cyrus

________ extended Persian control eastward as far as the Indus Valley
Darius I

Darius’ empire was divided into twenty provinces governed by _______
Satraps

Darius constructed a ceremonial capital at __________
Persepolis

________ is said to be the originator of a Persian religion that centers on the struggle between good and evil
Zoroaster

The Greek ______ consisted of an urban center and rural territories
Polis

An ________ was an open area where Greek citizens gathered to ratify the decisions of their leaders
Agora

Greek soldiers called ________ were heavily armored infantrymen who fought in close formation
Hoplites

The _______ built a society organized around warfare
Spartans

By the late sixth century B.C.E. the ________ was the premier Greek warship
Trireme

Roman senators served in the Senate for ______
Life

In Rome’s hierarchical society, individuals and families were connected by complex ties of obligation. The common relationship was the _____________ relationship
Patron/Client

The city of ______ was built on seven hills
Rome

The majority of the Roman population was called _________ and the elite were called patricians
Plebeians

_________ was Rome’s ruler during the Roman Principate
Augustus

During the period called the ____________, commerce expanded and Rome enjoyed considerable stability
Pax romana

_______ led the effort to convert the gentiles to Christianity
Paul

Roman _________ channeled water from its source into Roman cities
Aqueducts

The ______ dynasty ruled China from 206 B.C.E. to 220 C.E.
Han

The Han built canals to connect the Yangzi and ________ Rivers
Yellow

The Han’s first capital was at ________ in the Wei Valley
Chang’an

The major external threat to the Han came from a confederacy of Turkic people called the __________
Xiongnu

Evidence that representatives of Rome visited Chine in 166 C.E. shows that…?
Rome and china were linked by far-flung international trading networks

In agricultural societies, the basis of wealth is…?
The land

During the Roman Republic, all adult male citizens had the right to vote…?
But the votes were weighted so that the votes of the wealthy counted for more

Technically an advisory council, first to the kings and later to the Republican officials, the Roman Senate was actually…?
The real center of power

What was NOT common to both Rome and Han China?
Slavery was indispensable

In a legal sense, Roman women…?
Were equal to children

What provides the most convincing explanation for Rome’s expansion?
The Romans wanted a buffer against attack

The missionary career of the Apostle Paul…?
Exemplifies the cosmopolitan nature of the Roman empire

Aqueducts worked with the aid of…?
Gravity

Why did the people of the Late Roman Empire revert to a barter economy?
The emperors were cutting back on the precious metals in the coins, thereby causing them to be devalued

In the Chinese and Roman empires, the majority of the population lived in…?
The countryside

What does NOT represent one way in which the Chinese tried to control nomadic raids?
They tried to reason with the nomads, citing the Buddhist principle of nonviolence

What is NOT one of the reasons that Constantine moved the capital of the Roman Empire to Constantinople?
There were few Christians in the eastern empire, so there was more opportunity to gain new converts

Why did the majority of the Chinese population during the Han dynasty live in eastern China?
The best farmland was concentrated in eastern China

The Qin government abolished slavery because…?
Slaves did not pay taxes but free people did

When the Han took over, they…?
Retained the Qin system with minor modifications

During the Han dynasty, the emperor’s chief widow did what upon his death?
Chose a new husband from among the male members of the ruling clan

China’s most valuable commodity was…?
Silk

What makes tracing Indian civilization back to the Indus Valley civilization of the 3rd and early 2nd millennium B.C.E. difficult?
The writings from that period have not as yet been deciphered

Indo-European nomads tended to be…?
Patriarchal

In the Vedic religion, when an individual was reborn, whether the new body was an insect, an animal, or a human, depended on…?
Karma

Why did members of the higher castes fear contact with the lower castes?
They feared pollution from contact with lower-caste individuals

What was the purpose of sacrifice in Vedic Religion?
It invigorated the gods and promoted stability in the world

Why did Brahmins resist widespread adoption of writing?
They might have lost their monopoly on religious rituals if the rites were written down

What is NOT among the practices of Jainism?
Farming in order to stay close to the land

Bodhisattvas are men and women who have achieved enlightment and…?
Choose to be reborn into mortal bodies

After 6 years of strict asceticism, Siddhartha Gautama decided to…?
Adhere to a “Middle Path” of moderation

What is NOT a characteristic of Buddhism?
It demands frequent sacrifices of small animals

Why was Buddha originally represented by symbols?
To emphasize his achievement of a state of nonexistence

What factor did NOT contribute to a tendency toward disunity in ancient India?
The threat of outside invasion

What purpose did Ashoka’s famous stone pillars serve?
They were inscribed with his belief in nonviolence, morality, moderation, and religious tolerance both in government and in private life

In the absence of a strong central authority and to facilitate trade, Indian towns developed…?
Powerful guilds of merchants and artisans

What is NOT part of Southeast Asia’s three geographic zones?
The Japanese islands

The region of Southeast Asia first rose to prominence and prosperity because…?
Of its intermediary role in the trade between southern and eastern Asia

What is NOT true about Borobodur?
The temple was destroyed by invading Muslims in the 13th century

The development and spread of belief systems- Vedism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Hinduism- are important to scholars because…?
In this part of the world, nearly all sources from antiquity are religious

The main source of information about the “Vedic Age” comes from the _______, religious texts from the period
Vedas

The Srivijaya built the temple complex of _________, the largest human construction in the Southern Hemisphere at the time
Borobodur

By 683 C.E., the _________ Kingdom dominated the Strait of Malacca
Srivijayan

Two empires arose in the Ganges plain: the Mauryan Empire of the fourth to second centuries B.C.E. and the _______ Empire of the fourth to the sixth centuries C.E.
Gupta

India gets most of its moisture from its annual ________ rains
Monsoon

The period of Indian history from 1500-500 B.C.E. is called the ________ Age
Vedic

The _______ system divided the Indian society into four classes
Varna

Believers in ________ emphasized the holiness of the life force that animates all living things
Jainism

_________ and Shiva are the preeminent gods in the Hindu pantheon
Vishnu

Chandragupta was the founder of the ________ Empire
Mauryan

The second great Indian empire was the ________ Empire
Gupta

The first major Southeast Asian center was called _______ by the Chinese
Funan

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