AP World History Unit 2 Study Guide

What is NOT an advantage offered by iron?
It can be heated at lower temperatures
What was the first real empire in the world?
Assyria
Why did the rulers of the Neo-Assyrian military follow the trade routes in their campaigns?
The caravans were an excellent source of booty
What made possible the Assyrians’ conquest of their empire?
Their military organization and technology
In Assyria, the term HUMAN BEINGS referred to?
All people of the empire
The text of the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) best reflects the view of?
The fifth century B.C.E. priests who controlled the Temple of Jerusalem
Because of its lack of land, the Phoenician civilization concentrated on?
Trade and manufacturing
Who developed the first alphabetic system of writing?
Phoenicians
Why do historians know more about Carthage than they know about the Phoenician homeland?
Roman and Greek records tell more about Carthage than other Phoenician city-states
What was NOT one of the internal reasons for the fall of the Assyrian Empire?
The failure of the Assyrian economy when the Phoenicians discovered the secret of making glass
What was NOT one of the external reasons for the fall of the Assyrian Empire?
The kingdom of Israel waged a successful campaign against the Assyrians
Textile production has generally been the preserve of women because?
It was possible to care for children and spin or weave at the same time
How many murex snails does it take to produce one gram of purple dye?
Nine thousand
How did Egyptian officials respond to Hatshepsut’s rule?
Some were opposed to the concept of having a woman as a ruler
What was Akhenaten’s motivation in modifying the Egyptian religion to emphasize the primacy of Aten (the sun)?
He was attempting to reassert the superiority of the pharaoh and to renew belief in his own divinity
Ramesses II, the greatest monarch of the Ramessides dynasty is an important figure in archaeological records because?
He undertook monumental building projects
What was the source of the rivalry between Egypt and the Hittite kingdom?
Control of the trade routes in Syria-Palestine, the region lying between them
What did NOT encourage the inhabitants of the Aegean islands to commerce seafaring?
Frequent flooding of their farmlands
Cultural uniformity among early Greeks is best explained by?
Extensive contacts and commerce among the various Greek kingdoms
The plot of the Iliad revolves around?
The difficulties Agamemmon has in asserting control over other Greek leaders
The annihilation of the major trading partners and the disruption of trade routes…?
Helped bring about the end of Mycenaean civilization, thus illustrating the degree to which major centers of the Late Bronze Age were interdependent
The ________ capital of Ashur was the leading urban center on the northern Tigris.
Assyrian
Around 1640 B.C.E. Egypt came under control of the ________.
Hyksos
In 1323 B.C.E. _________ established a new Egyptian dynasty.
Ramesses II
The ________ civilization was established on Crete by 2000 B.C.E.
Minoan
Information about Mycenaean life is provided by tablets written in a script now called ________.
Linear B
The Iliad tells the story of the destruction of the city of ________.
Troy
The _________ built royal palaces at Kalhu and Nineveh.
Assyrians
The library of the Assyrian king _____________ contained much of the scientific and literary heritage of Mesopotamia.
Ashurbanipal
Abraham’s son, ________, and his grandson, Jacob, were early leaders of the Hebrews.
Isaac
The reign of David’s son, _________, marked the high point of the Israelite monarchy.
Solomon
What were NOT fundamental environmental factors in Iran?
The Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
The Medes were the first Iranian people to…?
Reach a complex level of political organization
The king responsible for unifying Iran was…?
Cyrus
The three social and occupational classes in Ancient Iran were…?
Warriors, priests, and peasants
Cyrus and his father ruled the empire by following a practical approach of…?
Respecting local priests and native traditions
The Persian provinces were administered by…?
Satraps (hereditary provincial governors)
Although Greece is described as “resource poor” in the chapter, it economically prospered…?
Through access to foreign resources, markets, and ideas
The Greeks viewed the sea as…?
An important “connector”
To ensure good crops, the Greek farmers relied entirely on…?
Annual rainfall
The Greek Dark Age was a period of…?
Poverty, isolation, and depopulation
The Archaic Period in Greece began…?
Because of renewed contacts with Phoenicia
The Phoenician alphabetic writing system was a great gift to Greece because…?
It allowed for widespread literacy without years of study
What is NOT a characteristic of the recovery of the Archaic Period?
The cure of various infectious diseases
Hostility and jealousy between city-states led to the emergence of new types of warfare with soldiers called…?
Hoplites
A Greek population explosion led to…?
The colonization of North Africa, Sicily, Southern Italy, and the Black Sea
An oligarchy is a society where…?
Wealthy members of society have political power
The Greek concept of democracy included political participation of…?
All free, native-born, adult males
The Greeks believed that their gods gave advice through…?
Oracles
The Archaic Greek development of humanism, a lasting feature of Western Civilization, was…?
Valuing the uniqueness, rights, and talents of individuals
Pre-Socratic philosophers were primarily concerned with…?
Creating theoretical models to explain the natural world
The father of history in the western tradition is…?
Herodotus
The Spartan city-state can be described as…?
A militaristic society
The result of the Persian Wars was…?
The expulsion of the Persians from Greece
What can be considered the symbol of Athenian naval success?
The trireme
Wise men who provided lessons in logic and rhetoric were…?
Sophists
The three great Greek philosophers were…?
Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle
One irony of Athenian democracy was…?
An abundance of slaves
How did Peloponnesian War reveal an inherent flow in Greek society?
The independent polis fostered rivalry and mistrust among neighbors
What is NOT one of the policies used by Alexander the Great to control his vast empire?
He promoted local militia
When Alexander the Great died, his vast empire…?
Was broken up into three Macedonian dynasties
The greatest of the cities of the Hellenistic Age is…?
Alexandria
The Hellenistic Age refers to…?
Political and social cultural influence of Greece over foreign subjects
The growth of the Roman State was NOT based on…?
Regular rainfall from the monsoons
The economic wealth of the early Roman State was based on…?
Farming
The Roman Republic was not a true democracy; it was ruled by…?
Several assemblies of wealthy male citizens
The family was the basic unit of Roman society under the authority of…?
The paterfamilias
What is true about Roman women?
They exercised influence over husbands and sons
How did the Romans view the natural world?
As filled with numerous invisible shapeless forces called numina
One key to the Romans’ success in winning the loyalty of all Italy was…?
Granting Roman citizenship to conquered peoples
Two protracted and bloody wars against the Carthaginians were important because…?
Rome won control of the Western Mediterranean
When Rome took control of a foreign land, it…?
Allowed considerable autonomy to cooperative local elites
As the numbers of independent farmers declined in the later republic, Italian landowners increasingly turned to…?
Inexpensive slaves
On what factor do scholars agree was the reason behind why Rome and Han China flourished simultaneously?
Actually, no theory has won the support of most scholars
The emperor responsible for the reorganization of the Roman government after 31 B.C.E. was…?
Octavian
One of the most enduring consequences of the Roman Empire has been the…?
Romanization of the Western Mediterranean
Before 212 C.E., many people living outside Italy became Roman citizens…?
After serving lengthy terms of military service
The circumstance surrounding Jesus’ ministry and acclimation by his followers as the messiah was…?
The Roman occupation of Judaea
Why was becoming Christian considered an act of disloyalty in the Roman Empire?
Christians could not worship the emperor as a deity
Roman architecture departed from the Greek style because of the…?
Roman invention of concrete
Roman technological expertise is evident in…?
Engineering roads, aqueducts, concrete, and arches
From the reign of Augustus, the Roman army was reorganized and redeployed to…?
Shift from an offensive to a defensive strategy
The most visible symptom of Rome’s “third-century crisis” was the…?
Frequent change of rulers
Who reformed Rome in the 3rd century C.E. and saved it from decline?
Diocletian
What city became the new imperial capital of the Roman Empire?
Constantinople
The conversion to Christianity of which Roman emperor ushered in a time of tolerance, acceptance, and eventual dominance of Christianity?
Constantine
In addition to agriculture, a fundamental resource of China was…?
Human labor
A result of the competition among states in the Warring States Period was…?
The creation of the first empire under the Qin state
The Chinese family was considered to include…?
All generations, living and dead
Because of the influence of Confucian ethics, Chinese values emphasized…?
Obedience and proper conduct
The Confucian view of proper female behavior was exemplified by the…?
The three submissions
It was customary for young brides in China to…?
Live with their husbands’ families
The Qin ruler took the title Shi Huangdi, which meant…?
“First Emperor”
When the Qin government abolished primogeniture, this meant that…?
The number of small landholders would grow
The Qin emperor was committed to standardization of coinage, weights and measures, the law code, and writing. This shows a commitment to…?
The creation of a unified Chinese civilization
The early Han emperors reformed the Legalist system by…?
Incorporating Confucianism
In order to supply administrators for the empire, the Han used officials from the gentry class and adopted…?
A version of Confucianism to guide government
What does NOT explain why Daoism was popular among the common people?
It encouraged education and involvement in government to cure the ills of society
The important Han innovations include the development of…?
The horse collar, watermill, and crossbow
The leading export commodity of China during the Han was…?
Silk
What is NOT generally considered by scholars to be a factor helping to explain the fall of the Han Empire?
The subversive ideas of Buddhism
According to the book, what CANNOT be said to contribute to India’s diversity?
It has great regional dietary differences
Northern India is bordered by the…?
Himalayas
Three harvests each year have been possible in some parts of India because of…?
High rainfall from the monsoons
The Vedic Age was a new historical period in India marked by…?
The dominance of Indo-Europeans over India
The varna system was developed in order to create…?
Social order between groups
The class and caste systems in India were connected to…?
A widespread belief of reincarnation
The reincarnation of the atman (soul) into a given class depends on…?
Karma (fate) or deeds in life
What is the underlying message of the cycle of reincarnation?
You are where you deserve to be
The Brahmins were important because they…?
Knew how to perform essential sacrifices correctly
The collection of Indian poetic hymns dedicated to the various deities and describing sacred practices is…?
The Rig Veda
What statement about women in the Vedic Age CANNOT be learned from Vedic literature?
They are depicted as slaves to men
To be released from the cycle of reincarnation is the concept of…?
Moksha
Jainism emphasizes the principles of…?
Nonviolence, nudity, and asceticism
Siddhartha Gautama articulated the “Four Noble Truths,” which taught that…?
Life is suffering, and suffering is caused by desire
Some followers of Buddhism took vows of…?
Celibacy, non-violence, and poverty
The ultimate spiritual reward in Buddhism is…?
Nirvana
What is NOT an element of the Hindu religion?
The denial of the existence of a soul
Although Hindus worship different deities such as Vishnu and Shiva, they are really…?
Incarnations of a single divine force in the universe.
What is NOT a factor in India’s habitual political fragmentation historically?
Competition between different claimants for political power
The Mauryan government united much of India after…?
The death of Alexander the Great
In order to improve trade, the Mauryan Empire…?
Issued standard coinage throughout the empire
The Mauryan leader Ashoka converted to Buddhism and became a unique leader because of…?
He was overwhelmed by the brutality of his early conquests
During the first centuries C.E., the two great epics of India take their final form; they are…?
The Ramayana and the Mahabharata
The story of the great hero Arjuna, who is tutored by Krishna, is called…?
The Bhagavad Gita
The chief source of revenue for the Gupta Empire was…?
A 25% tax on agricultural produce
One of the most important contributions made by Gupta intellectuals was the…?
The concept of zero
The practice of cremating widows on their husband’s funeral pyre was called…?
Sati
The Gupta Empire collapsed in 550 C.E….?
After invasions by the Huns of Central Asia
The Silk Road was a trade route connecting…?
China and the Middle East
The initial key to opening the Silk Road was the…?
Chinese eagerness for Western horses
General Zhang Jian credited with introducing what to China?
Persian rugs
Among the products that China exported along the Silk Road were…?
Timber, ivory, and myrrh
What military technologies did the Silk Road spread?
Chariot warfare, mounted bowman, stirrup
The mariners involved in the Indian Ocean trade were…?
A multilingual and multiethnic group
The Indian Ocean maritime system forged economic and social ties between…?
East African, Arabia, India, China and Southeast Asia
The importance of the monsoon was that…?
It facilitated sailing across the Indian Ocean
One difference between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean seafaring was that…?
Mediterranean seamen rarley sailed far from shore
The early inhabitants of the East African island of Madagascar came from…?
The islands of Southeast Asia
The Peripherals of the Erythraean Sea is an important account because it describes…?
A vast interconnected trading system
Indian Ocean society could be described as bicultural because…?
Sailors often married women in port cities
The book contends that of what theories for the development of trans-Saharan trade routes is most plausible?
Camel domestication
The most convincing evidence indicates that camels were introduced to the Sahara from…?
Arabia
The most important African network of cultural exchange can be described as…?
Mainly internal folk migrations within sub-Saharan Africa
The development of metallurgy in Africa included…?
Iron
Most sub-Saharan languages come from one giant linguistic family, called…?
Bantu
From where did the Israelites'(and later the Muslims’) prohibition of pork eating probably derive?
Egypt
The Silk Road and Indian Ocean trade fostered the spread of which religion?
Buddhism
The geographic location of Iran (ancient Persia)…?
Makes a link between West, South, and Central Asia
Cyrus was able to take over Babylon by…?
Making a deal with disaffected elements of the city
Why did satrapies have more autonomy the farther they were from the central seat of government?
Communication was so slow that it was impractical to refer matters to the central government
Darius can be considered a second founder of the Persian Empire because…?
He created a new organizational structure that remained for two centuries
What did the walled garden called “paradayadam” (paradise) symbolize to the Persians?
The prosperity that the king and empire could bring to those who served them
Which group of Persian workers received the most pay?
Pregnant women
Historians now believe that the sculpture on the foundations, walls, and stairwells of the buildings at Persepolis represent…?
Public relations or propaganda
What was NOT true of Zoroastrianism?
It preached a belief in multiple deities
For the Greeks and other peoples living around it, the Mediterranean was…?
A connector
What is NOT a reason for the population explosion in Greece during the eighth century?
Specialization of labor
What did NOT help inaugurate the outward-looking seafaring activities of the Greek Archaic period?
The competition between Athens and Sparta
What about Greek colonies is NOT true?
The colonists set out after receiving a blessing from the goddess Athena
Greek states were defended by…?
Private citizens
What was NOT a benefit of the invention of coins?
It made currency standard for all areas
What was the central ritual of Greek religion?
Sacrifice
Why is Herodotus considered the “father of history?”
He sought the causes behind historical events
To the Persians, the conflict with the Greeks…?
Was less important than it was to the Greeks
What enabled the rowers of Athenian battleships to gain an equal voice in the democratic system?
The great importance of the navy to the Athenian military
To become part of the privileged and wealthy ruling class, ambitious members of the indigenous populations conquered by Greece…?
Learned the Greek language and adopted elements of the Greek way of life
Socrates’ disciple, _______, may represent the first generation of Greeks to be truly literate
Plato
________ united the various Persian tribes around 550 B.C.E.
Cyrus
________ extended Persian control eastward as far as the Indus Valley
Darius I
Darius’ empire was divided into twenty provinces governed by _______
Satraps
Darius constructed a ceremonial capital at __________
Persepolis
________ is said to be the originator of a Persian religion that centers on the struggle between good and evil
Zoroaster
The Greek ______ consisted of an urban center and rural territories
Polis
An ________ was an open area where Greek citizens gathered to ratify the decisions of their leaders
Agora
Greek soldiers called ________ were heavily armored infantrymen who fought in close formation
Hoplites
The _______ built a society organized around warfare
Spartans
By the late sixth century B.C.E. the ________ was the premier Greek warship
Trireme
Roman senators served in the Senate for ______
Life
In Rome’s hierarchical society, individuals and families were connected by complex ties of obligation. The common relationship was the _____________ relationship
Patron/Client
The city of ______ was built on seven hills
Rome
The majority of the Roman population was called _________ and the elite were called patricians
Plebeians
_________ was Rome’s ruler during the Roman Principate
Augustus
During the period called the ____________, commerce expanded and Rome enjoyed considerable stability
Pax romana
_______ led the effort to convert the gentiles to Christianity
Paul
Roman _________ channeled water from its source into Roman cities
Aqueducts
The ______ dynasty ruled China from 206 B.C.E. to 220 C.E.
Han
The Han built canals to connect the Yangzi and ________ Rivers
Yellow
The Han’s first capital was at ________ in the Wei Valley
Chang’an
The major external threat to the Han came from a confederacy of Turkic people called the __________
Xiongnu
Evidence that representatives of Rome visited Chine in 166 C.E. shows that…?
Rome and china were linked by far-flung international trading networks
In agricultural societies, the basis of wealth is…?
The land
During the Roman Republic, all adult male citizens had the right to vote…?
But the votes were weighted so that the votes of the wealthy counted for more
Technically an advisory council, first to the kings and later to the Republican officials, the Roman Senate was actually…?
The real center of power
What was NOT common to both Rome and Han China?
Slavery was indispensable
In a legal sense, Roman women…?
Were equal to children
What provides the most convincing explanation for Rome’s expansion?
The Romans wanted a buffer against attack
The missionary career of the Apostle Paul…?
Exemplifies the cosmopolitan nature of the Roman empire
Aqueducts worked with the aid of…?
Gravity
Why did the people of the Late Roman Empire revert to a barter economy?
The emperors were cutting back on the precious metals in the coins, thereby causing them to be devalued
In the Chinese and Roman empires, the majority of the population lived in…?
The countryside
What does NOT represent one way in which the Chinese tried to control nomadic raids?
They tried to reason with the nomads, citing the Buddhist principle of nonviolence
What is NOT one of the reasons that Constantine moved the capital of the Roman Empire to Constantinople?
There were few Christians in the eastern empire, so there was more opportunity to gain new converts
Why did the majority of the Chinese population during the Han dynasty live in eastern China?
The best farmland was concentrated in eastern China
The Qin government abolished slavery because…?
Slaves did not pay taxes but free people did
When the Han took over, they…?
Retained the Qin system with minor modifications
During the Han dynasty, the emperor’s chief widow did what upon his death?
Chose a new husband from among the male members of the ruling clan
China’s most valuable commodity was…?
Silk
What makes tracing Indian civilization back to the Indus Valley civilization of the 3rd and early 2nd millennium B.C.E. difficult?
The writings from that period have not as yet been deciphered
Indo-European nomads tended to be…?
Patriarchal
In the Vedic religion, when an individual was reborn, whether the new body was an insect, an animal, or a human, depended on…?
Karma
Why did members of the higher castes fear contact with the lower castes?
They feared pollution from contact with lower-caste individuals
What was the purpose of sacrifice in Vedic Religion?
It invigorated the gods and promoted stability in the world
Why did Brahmins resist widespread adoption of writing?
They might have lost their monopoly on religious rituals if the rites were written down
What is NOT among the practices of Jainism?
Farming in order to stay close to the land
Bodhisattvas are men and women who have achieved enlightment and…?
Choose to be reborn into mortal bodies
After 6 years of strict asceticism, Siddhartha Gautama decided to…?
Adhere to a “Middle Path” of moderation
What is NOT a characteristic of Buddhism?
It demands frequent sacrifices of small animals
Why was Buddha originally represented by symbols?
To emphasize his achievement of a state of nonexistence
What factor did NOT contribute to a tendency toward disunity in ancient India?
The threat of outside invasion
What purpose did Ashoka’s famous stone pillars serve?
They were inscribed with his belief in nonviolence, morality, moderation, and religious tolerance both in government and in private life
In the absence of a strong central authority and to facilitate trade, Indian towns developed…?
Powerful guilds of merchants and artisans
What is NOT part of Southeast Asia’s three geographic zones?
The Japanese islands
The region of Southeast Asia first rose to prominence and prosperity because…?
Of its intermediary role in the trade between southern and eastern Asia
What is NOT true about Borobodur?
The temple was destroyed by invading Muslims in the 13th century
The development and spread of belief systems- Vedism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Hinduism- are important to scholars because…?
In this part of the world, nearly all sources from antiquity are religious
The main source of information about the “Vedic Age” comes from the _______, religious texts from the period
Vedas
The Srivijaya built the temple complex of _________, the largest human construction in the Southern Hemisphere at the time
Borobodur
By 683 C.E., the _________ Kingdom dominated the Strait of Malacca
Srivijayan
Two empires arose in the Ganges plain: the Mauryan Empire of the fourth to second centuries B.C.E. and the _______ Empire of the fourth to the sixth centuries C.E.
Gupta
India gets most of its moisture from its annual ________ rains
Monsoon
The period of Indian history from 1500-500 B.C.E. is called the ________ Age
Vedic
The _______ system divided the Indian society into four classes
Varna
Believers in ________ emphasized the holiness of the life force that animates all living things
Jainism
_________ and Shiva are the preeminent gods in the Hindu pantheon
Vishnu
Chandragupta was the founder of the ________ Empire
Mauryan
The second great Indian empire was the ________ Empire
Gupta
The first major Southeast Asian center was called _______ by the Chinese
Funan