AP World History Unit 1 combined set

Flashcard maker : Suzette Hendon
irrigation systems
Replacement or supplementation of rainfall with water from another source in order to grow crops
Ice Age
Any period of time during which glaciers covered a large part of the earth’s surface
ethnocentrism
Belief in the superiority of one’s own ethnic group
nomadic
(of groups of people) tending to travel and change settlements frequently
cultural diffusion
The spread of cultural elements from one society to another
Homo sapiens
the only surviving hominid
Paleolithic
second part of the Stone Age beginning about 750,00 to 500,000 years BC and lasting until the end of the last ice age about 8,500 years BC
Neolithic Revolution
the shift from hunting of animals and gathering of food to the keeping of animals and the growing of food on a regular basis around 8,000 BC
Jericho
a village in Jordan near the north end of the Dead Sea
Catal Huyuk
One of first true cities in history, created in the Neolithic Era in 6500 to 5500 BC, from which were created agriculture, trading, temples, housing, and religions
Metallurgy
the science or art of metals. It includes the study of their properties and structure, the separation and refining of metals from their ores, the production of alloys, and the shaping and treatment of metals by heat and rolling.
Lucy
A forty percent complete skeleton discovery of an Australopithecus afarensis, or a species within the category of hominid. She was rediscovered on November 24, 1974 in Hadar, Ethiopia.
Gilgamesh
a legendary Sumerian king who was the hero of an epic collection of mythic stories
Hammurabi
Amorite ruler of Babylon (r. 1792-1750 B.C.E.). He conquered many city-states in southern and northern Mesopotamia and is best known for a code of laws, inscribed on a black stone pillar, illustrating the principles to be used in legal cases. (p. 34)
Nebuchadnezzar
A Babylonian king who conquered Jerusalem,and built the Hanging Gardens of Babylon
Mesopotamia
first civilization located between the Tigris & Eurphrates Rivers in present day Iraq; term means \”land between the rivers;\” Sumerian culture
fertile crescent
Found along the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, this was the first early river civilization. The cities in this area were governed by city-states and used irrigation to produced their corps.
ziggurat
a rectangular tiered temple or terraced mound erected by the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians
Patriarchy
a form of social organization in which a male is the family head and title is traced through the male line
Cuneiform
an ancient wedge-shaped script used in Mesopotamia and Persia
Palestine
an ancient country is southwestern Asia on the east coast of the Mediterranean
Torah
(Judaism) the scroll of parchment on which the first five books of the Hebrew Scripture is written
Bible
The book that contains the writings or scriptures that Christians recognize as the written word of God.
Phoenicians
Sailing and trading people who had many colonies on the Mediterranean coast
Sargon of Akkad
an ancient Mesopotamian ruler who reigned approximately 2334-2279 BC, and was one of the earliest of the world’s great empire builders, conquering all of southern Mesopotamia as well as parts of Syria, Anatolia, and Elam (western Iran). He established the region’s first Semitic dynasty and was considered the founder of the Mesopotamian military tradition.
Hebrews
the ethnic group claiming descent from Abraham and Isaac (especially from Isaac’s son Jacob)
Abraham
Founder of Judaism who, according to the Bible, led his family from Ur to Canaan in obedience to God’s command.
Menes
king of upper egypt united the two kingdoms of upper and lower egypt
Hatshepsut
Queen of Egypt (1473-1458 B.C.E.). Dispatched a naval expedition down the Red Sea to Punt (possibly Somalia), the faraway source of myrrh. There is evidence of opposition to a woman as ruler, and after her death her name was frequently expunged. (p.66)
Nile River
the world’s longest river (4180 miles)
Nubia
an ancient region of northeastern Africa (southern Egypt and northern Sudan) on the Nile
Pharaoh
a king of ancient Egypt, considered a god as well as a political and military leader
Hieroglyphs
pictures, characters, or symbols standing for words, ideas, or sounds; ancient Egyptians used instead of an alphabet like ours
Bantu
a family of languages widely spoken in the southern half of the African continent
Indra
chief deity of the Aryans; depicted as a colossal, hard-drinking warrior God of thunder and strength
Aryans
Indo-European speaking nomads who entered India from the Central Asian steppes between 1500 and 1000 BC and greatly affected Indian society.
Dravidians
one of the main groups of people in India; probably descended from the Indus River culture that flourished at the dawn of Indian civilization over 4,000 yrs. ago
Harappan
Civilization that developed along the Indus River (Present Day Pakistan), Controlled larges areas of land on both sides of the Indus River, Largest two settlements were _______ and Mohenjo Daro, Known for City planning, sewer systems, indoor plumbing, and fortresses around their cities
Mohenjo-daro
Largest city of the Indus Valley civilization. It was centrally located in the extensive floodplain of the Indus River. Little is known about the political institutions of Indus Valley communities, but the large-scale implies central planning. Not Harappa
Sanskrit
(Hinduism) an ancient language of India (the language of the Vedas and of Hinduism)
Vedas
sacred texts in the Hindu religion, they are a set of four collections of hymns and religious ceremonies transmitted by memory through the centuries by Aryan priests
Ganges River
Located in India, this river is considered sacred to Hindus and is used for spiritual cleansing, funeral rites, and other Hindu rituals.
Caste
a social class separated from others by distinctions of hereditary rank or profession or wealth
Brahmins
Priests, at the top of the caste system which the Aryans established
Jati
sub castes; were groups of people within each caste that worked together for one economic function
Sati
a ritual that required a woman to throw herself on her late husband’s funeral pyre or burn herself. This was done gladly and if a woman didn’t comply with this she would be disgraced.
Upanishads
A group of writings sacred in Hinduism concerning the relations of humans, God, and the universe.
karma
(Hinduism and Buddhism) the effects of a person’s actions that determine his destiny in his next incarnation
Dharma
In Hinduism, the duties and obligations of each caste
Xia dynasty
This was the earliest known dynasty. There is no written evidence of this early time period, but artifacts have been found. The people of this time were farmers and made pottery.
Huang He
a major river of Asia in northern China
Shang dynasty
Second Chinese dynasty (about 1750-1122 B.C.) which was mostly a farming society ruled by an aristocracy mostly concerned with war. They’re best remembered for their art of bronze casting.
Mandate of Heaven
People believed that heaven gave them the authority to rule. They also believed that heaven would take it away
Zhou dynasty
the imperial dynasty of China from 1122 to 221 BC; notable for the rise of Confucianism and Taoism
Period of the Warring State
Civil War broke out in during the Zhou Dynasty, beginning an age known in Chinese historical records as the \”____________ of the ____________________ _____________________.\”
Oracle bones
cattle bones or tortoise shells on which Chinese priests would write questions and then interpret answers from the cracks that formed when the bones were heated
Steppe lands
-semiarid grasslands
-stretch from Russia to the Great Wall of CHina
Book of Songs
The Oldest of the Five Classics, preserves 305 of the earliest Chinese poems. Poems deal with political themes, ritual, and romance.
Land bridges
long ago, after the Flood, little trails of land connecting the continents together
Olmecs
(1400 B.C.E. to 500 B.C.E.) earliest known Mexican civilization,lived in rainforests along the Gulf of Mexico, developed calendar and constructed public buildings and temples, carried on trade with other groups.
Maya
a member of an American Indian people of Yucatan and Belize and Guatemala who had a culture (which reached its peak between AD 300 and 900) characterized by outstanding architecture and pottery and astronomy
Tikal
the most important Maya political center between the 4th-9th centuries. It was a city that had temples, pyramids, palaces, and public buildings.
Chichen Itza
Originally a Mayan city; conquered by Toltecs circa 1000 and ruled by Toltec dynasties; architecture featured pyramid of Feathered Serpent (Quetzacoatl).
Popol Vuh
the most famous of the Maya books that recounts the Highland Maya’s version of the story of creation.
Teotihuacan
first major metropolis in Mesoamerica, collapsed around 800 CE. It is most remembered for the gigantic \”pyramid of the sun\”.
Temple of the Giant Jaguar
a stepped pyramid rising sharply to a height of 47 meters (154 feet); dominated the skyline and represented Tikal’s control over the surrounding region
Chavin cult
a new religion that appeared in the Andes mountains after 1000 BCE; enjoyed enormous popularity during the 900 to 800 BCE; spread in the area of modern Peru; vanished about 300 BCE; no information survives on the significance of the cults
Mochica
Mochica is a society in the Andean valleys, near the Moche River, that left behind a remarkable artistic legacy. They made ceramics that represented gods and everyday life.
Austronesians
earliest inhabitants of New Guinea and Oceania; had remarkable seafaring skills and maritime technology; used canoes; later migrated to the Pacific Islands
Lapita
Society from New Guinea to Tonga (1500-500 B.C.E.) with agricultural villages, networks of trade and communication, and hierarchical chiefdoms.
civilization
a society in an advanced state of social development (e.g., with complex legal and political and religious organizations)
civilization
indicators include: settled agricultural life, and certain political, social economic and technological traits
in the floodplains of great rivers (ex. Mesopotamia- Tigris and Euphrates)
societies exhibiting traits of civilization appeared _____
culture
the attitudes and behavior that are characteristic of a particular social group or organization
Stone Age
started around 2 million years ago, divided into two major subdivisions, Paleolithic and Neolithic
Paleolithic
Old Stone Age
Neolithic
New Stone AGe
foragers
hunting and food gathering peoples
Agricultural Revolutions
The change from food gathering to food production that occurred between ca. 8000 and 2000 B.C.E. aka Neolithic Revolution
Holocene
approximately the last 10,000 years
Earth Mother
the rituals of farmers often centered her, a deity that was considered to be the source of life
Sky God
usually a male deity, representing fire, wind and rain
megaliths
believed to relate to religious beliefs, translates to \”big stones\”
Babylon
The largest and most important city in Mesopotamia. It achieved particular eminence as the capital of the Amorite king Hammurabi in the eighteenth century B.C.E. and the Neo-Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar in the sixth century B.C.E. (p. 29)
Mesopotamia
\”land between the rivers\”. in this case, Tigris and Euphrates
Fertile Crescent
A geographical area of fertile land in the Middle East stretching in a broad semicircle from the Nile to the Tigris and Euphrates
Sumerians
written record begins with ____, The people who dominated southern Mesopotamia through the end of the third millennium B.C.E. They were responsible for the creation of many fundamental elements of Mesopotamian culture-such as irrigation technology, cuneiform, and religious conceptions.
Semitic languages
a family of languages spoken in parts of western Asia and northern Africa. Includes Hebrew, Aramaic and PhoenicProxy-Connection: keep-alive Cache-Control: max-age=0 n of the ancient world and Arabic today
Epic of Gilgamesh
Mesopotamian narrative poem that was first told in Sumer
lugal
\”big man\”, what we would call a king, emerged in Sumer in the 3rd millenium BCE
Hammurabi
Amorite ruler of Babylon (r. 1792-1750 B.C.E.). He conquered many city-states in southern and northern Mesopotamia and is best known for a code of laws, inscribed on a black stone pillar, illustrating the principles to be used in legal cases. (p. 34)
the 3 classes in Mesopotamia
1. free landowning class 2. class of dependent farmers and artisans 3. slaves, primarily employed in domestic service
scribe
an administrator or scholar charged by the temple or palace with reading and writing tasks. In Mesopotamia, a dominantly male position, and their writings reflected elite male activities.
Sumerian Gods
embodied the forces of nature. examples : Anu (sky), Enlil (air), Enki (water), Utu (sun), Nanna (moon)
anthropomorphic
people imagined their gods as ____, like humans in form and contact
ziggurat
a temple tower of the ancient Assyrians and Babylonians, having the form of a terraced pyramid of successively receding stories
amulets
small charms meant to protect the bearer from evil, suggests widespread belief in magic
cuneiform
a system of writing used in ancient Mesootamia, in which wedge-shaped characters were produced b pressing a stylus into a soft clay tablet, which was then baked or otherwise hardened
Upper Egypt
the southern part of Egypt
Lower Egypt
the northern part of Egypt
pharaoh
ruler of Ancient Egypt
ma’at
the divinely authorized order of this universe, pharaoh maintained as their job
pyramid
a series of stone platforms laid on top of each other, used as royal tombs for kings
Memphis
an ancient city of Egypt on the Nile (south of Cairo)
Thebes
an ancient Egyptian city on the Nile River that flourished from the 22nd century BC to the 18th century BC
hieroglyphics
Egypt’s form of writing, using picture symbols standing for words, syllables or sounds. We can read this because of the discovery of the Rosetta Stone
papyrus
reed plant of the Nile Valley, used to make a form of paper
mummy
The dead body of a human or animal that has been embalmed and prepared for burial, as according to the practices of the ancient Egyptians.
Nile River
the river valley that the Egyptian civilization depended on for survival
Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
two urban sites of the Indus River Valley civilization
China
isolated from the rest of the Eastern Hemisphere by the Himalayas, Pamir and Tian mountains, Takla Makan Desert, Mongolian steppe and the Gobi Desert
Yellow and Yangzi Rivers
great river systems of China
loess
yellow-brown soil
Shang
The dominant people in the earliest Chinese dynasty for which we have written records (ca. 1750-1027 B.C.E.). Ancestor worship, divination by means of oracle bones, and the use of bronze vessels for ritual purposes were major elements of Shang culture.
feng shui
arrangement of objects to achieve harmony in your environment
divination
techniques used to determine the will of gods
Zhou
The people and dynasty that took over the dominant position in north China from the Shang and created the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to justify their rule. Remembered as prosperous era in Chinese History. (p. 61)
Mandate of Heaven
the theory that those in power have the right to be in power because they have been chosen by a deity
Spring and Autumn Period
after the fall of the western zhou dynasty china entered what later beocame known as the _______
Warring States Period
covers the period from some time in the 5th century BC to the unification of China by the Qin Dynasty in 221 BC.
Legalism
a political theory that strict codes of law must be made for humans to behave in an orderly fashion. Every aspect of society must be controlled
Confucius
Kongzi; a philosopher that believed that one leader was all society needed. Everyone should have good morals, and that is how the government should be based
Mencius
Confucius’ follower that spread Confucianism after Confucius’ death
Daoism
created by Laozi, wants humanity to follow their \”path\”, and avoid violence whenever possible. Leaders aren’t necessary in this society because for every action, there is a negative reaction
Nubia
an ancient region in the Nile River Vally, on the cite of present- day southern Egypt and northern Sudan
Kush
an ancient nubian kingdom whose rulers contolled egypt between 2000 and 1000 B.C.
Meroe
city in the Kushite empire that become known for its ironworking. They made weapons and tools.
Candace
the Nubian queen, but it is debatable whether there was one particular queen named Candace or that was the title given, as there are written records of a Candace at different points in Nubian history
Olmec
The first Mesoamerican civilization. Between ca. 1200 and 400 B.C.E., the Olmec people of central Mexico created a vibrant civilization that included intensive agriculture, wide-ranging trade, ceremonial centers, and monumental construction. (86)
Chavin
A culture that thrived in the Andean region from 900 B.C. to 200 B.C.
llamas
used to move goods, increased trade
Iron Age
the period of time when tools were starting to be made with iron instead of bronze
Hittites
Indo-European people who settles in Anatolia
Neo-Assyrian Empire
911-612 BCE; the first to rule over lots of lands and a diverse population. located in western Asia and the eastern Mediterranean
mass deportation
Removal of entire peoples used as terror tactic by Assyrian and Persian Empires. (95)
Library of Ashurbanipal
A large collection of writings drawn from the ancient literary, religious, and scientific traditions of Mesopotamia. It was assembled by the sixth century B.C.E. Assyrian ruler Ashurbanipal. (98)
Israel
has been called various names: Canaan, Palestine, Hebrews, Israelites, Jews. located on the western edge of the Assyrian empire.
Hebrew Bible
the Old Testament to Christians, a compilation of several collections of materials
Abraham
Founder of Judaism who, according to the Bible, led his family from Ur to Canaan in obedience to God’s command.
First Temple
built by King Solomon to strengthen the link between religius and secular authority. a central shrine and set of rituals that could compete with religions in the are
monotheism
the absolute belief in one god, in the case of Judaism, Yahweh
Diaspora
\”dispersion, scattering\”. dispersion outside the homeland
synagogue
built because of the Diapora to maintain their religion and culture outside the homeland
Phoenicians
Sailing and trading people who had many colonies on the Mediterranean coast. \”red men\”
Carthage
Phoenician city in modern-day Tunisia which grew to become a major power in the western Mediterranean.
tophets
walled enclosures where thousands of small, sealed urns containing the burned bones of children laid
Neo-Babylonian Kingdom
626-539 BCE. most of the territory of the Assyrian Empire became ____ thanks to the kings of Nabopolassar and Nebuchadnezzar

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