AP World History Rise of Islam Vocab

Flashcard maker : Rebecca Mallory
Islam
Majpr world religion having its origins in 610 C.E. in the Arabian peninsula; meaning literally submission; based on prophecy of Muhammad.
Muslim
follower of Islam
Quran
Recitations of revelations received by Muhammad; holy book of Islam
Hadith
Traditions of the prophet Muhammad
Bedouin
Nomadic pastoralists of the Arabian peninsula; culture based on camel and goat nomadism; early converts to Islam.
Umma
Community of the faithful within Islam; transcended old tribal boundaries to create degree of political unity
Caliph
The political and religious successor to Muhammad
Sunnis
Political and theological division within Islam.
Shi’is
Also known as the Shi’a and Shi’ites; political and theological followers within Islam; Followers of Ali
Mawali
non- Arab converts to Islam
Dhimmi
Literally \”people of the book\”; applied as inclusive term to Jews and Christians in Islamic territories; later extended to Zoroastrians and even Hindus
Harem
the part of a Muslim palace or house reserved for the residence of women.
Ayan
the wealthy landed elite that emerged in the early decades of Abbasid rule
Mecca
a city in West Saudi Arabia: birthplace of Muhammad; spiritual center of Islam
Medina
Also known as Yathrib; town located northeast of Mecca; grew date palms whose fruit was sold to bedouins; became refuge for Muhammad following flight from Mecca (hijra)
Umayyad
Clan of bedouins who controlled Mecca in 7th century C.E. that dominated politics and commercial economy of Mecca; clan later able to establish dynasty as rulers of Islam.
Ka’ba
Most revered religious shrine in pre-Islamic Arabia; located in Mecca; focus of obligatory annual truce among bedouin tribes; later incorporated as important shrine in Islam.
Zakat
Tax for charity; obligatory for all Muslims.
Five Pillars
the obligatory religious duties of all Muslims; confession of faith, prayer, fasting during Ramadan, zakat, and hajj
Ali
Cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad; one of the orthodox caliphs; focus for Shi’a
Abu Bakr
One of Muhammad’s earliest converts; succeeded Muhammad as first caliph of Muslim community
Ridda
wars that followed muhammad’s death in 632; resulted in defeat of rival prophets and some of larger clans; restored unity of Islam
Jihad
Struggle often used for wars in defense of the faith
Hijra
the flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina to escape persecution a.d. 622: regarded as the beginning of the Muslim Era.
Uthman
Third caliph and member of Umayyad clan; murdered by mutinous warriors returning from Egypt; death set off civil war in Islam between followers of Ali and the Umayyad clan
Siffin
fought in 657 between forces of Ali and Umayyads; settled by negotiation that led to fragmentation of Ali’s party
Mu’awiya
Leader of Umayyad clan; first Umayyad caliph following civi war with Ali.
Karbala
Site of defeat and death of Husayn, son of Ali; marked beginning of Shi’a resistance to Umayyad caliphate
Jizya
head tax paid by all nonbelievers in Islamic territories
Abbasids
a member of a dynasty of caliphs ruling at Baghdad, a.d. 750-1258, governing most of the Islamic world and claiming descent from Abbas, uncle of Muhammad.
Wazir
helper (\”right-hand man\”) for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or minister, often to a Muslim monarch such as a Caliph or Sultan.

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