AP World History Rise of Islam Vocab
Flashcard maker : Rebecca Mallory
Majpr world religion having its origins in 610 C.E. in the Arabian peninsula; meaning literally submission; based on prophecy of Muhammad.
follower of Islam
Recitations of revelations received by Muhammad; holy book of Islam
Traditions of the prophet Muhammad
Nomadic pastoralists of the Arabian peninsula; culture based on camel and goat nomadism; early converts to Islam.
Community of the faithful within Islam; transcended old tribal boundaries to create degree of political unity
The political and religious successor to Muhammad
Political and theological division within Islam.
Also known as the Shi’a and Shi’ites; political and theological followers within Islam; Followers of Ali
non- Arab converts to Islam
Literally \”people of the book\”; applied as inclusive term to Jews and Christians in Islamic territories; later extended to Zoroastrians and even Hindus
the part of a Muslim palace or house reserved for the residence of women.
the wealthy landed elite that emerged in the early decades of Abbasid rule
a city in West Saudi Arabia: birthplace of Muhammad; spiritual center of Islam
Also known as Yathrib; town located northeast of Mecca; grew date palms whose fruit was sold to bedouins; became refuge for Muhammad following flight from Mecca (hijra)
Clan of bedouins who controlled Mecca in 7th century C.E. that dominated politics and commercial economy of Mecca; clan later able to establish dynasty as rulers of Islam.
Most revered religious shrine in pre-Islamic Arabia; located in Mecca; focus of obligatory annual truce among bedouin tribes; later incorporated as important shrine in Islam.
Tax for charity; obligatory for all Muslims.
the obligatory religious duties of all Muslims; confession of faith, prayer, fasting during Ramadan, zakat, and hajj
Cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad; one of the orthodox caliphs; focus for Shi’a
One of Muhammad’s earliest converts; succeeded Muhammad as first caliph of Muslim community
wars that followed muhammad’s death in 632; resulted in defeat of rival prophets and some of larger clans; restored unity of Islam
Struggle often used for wars in defense of the faith
the flight of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina to escape persecution a.d. 622: regarded as the beginning of the Muslim Era.
Third caliph and member of Umayyad clan; murdered by mutinous warriors returning from Egypt; death set off civil war in Islam between followers of Ali and the Umayyad clan
fought in 657 between forces of Ali and Umayyads; settled by negotiation that led to fragmentation of Ali’s party
Leader of Umayyad clan; first Umayyad caliph following civi war with Ali.
Site of defeat and death of Husayn, son of Ali; marked beginning of Shi’a resistance to Umayyad caliphate
head tax paid by all nonbelievers in Islamic territories
a member of a dynasty of caliphs ruling at Baghdad, a.d. 750-1258, governing most of the Islamic world and claiming descent from Abbas, uncle of Muhammad.
helper (\”right-hand man\”) for a high-ranking political (and sometimes religious) advisor or minister, often to a Muslim monarch such as a Caliph or Sultan.