AP World History Exam review Vocab

Flashcard maker : James Hopper
Abraham
the founding father of Judaism
agriculture
the practice of cultivating the land or raising stock
Akkadian Empire
Began in 2350 BCE when Sargon – King of Akkad – began conquering Sumerian cities. The empire was the first to unite city-states under a single ruler and ruled for 200 years.
Alexander of Macedon
The son of King Philip who inherited all of his father’s army. A very powerful and successful leader. He and his army conquered all of Persia and into India. He neglected to appoint a successor so all his conquered land was split up and distributed.
animism
the doctrine that all natural objects and the universe itself have souls
aristocracy
a government in which power is in the hands of a hereditary ruling class or nobility
Aryans
Indo-European speaking nomads who entered India from the Central Asian steppes between 1500 and 1000 BC and greatly affected Indian society.
Asoka
The grandson of Chandragupta who also was a leader of the Mauryan Empire. He converted to Buddhism from Hinduism and tolerated other religions other then Buddhism when he was the leader. He is the most honored leader of the Mauryan Empire and controlled a very successful civilization.
Assyrians
They are the next group to take over the Fertile Crescent after the Sargon.Their king was king Ashurbanipal.They were defeated by the Medes and the Chaldeans
Augustus Caesar
The first empreror of Rome, the adopted son of Julius Caesar, help Rome come into Pax Romana, or the Age of Roman Peace
Babylonians
Of or relating to Babylonia or Babylon or their people, culture, or language.An ancient empire of Mesopotamia in the Euphrates River valley. It flourished under Hammurabi and Nebuchadnezzar II but declined after 562 B.C. and fell to the Persians in 539.
bodhisattva
a person who has attained enlightenment but who has postponed nirvana in order to help others achieve enlightenment
Buddhism
the teaching of Buddha that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth
bureaucracy
system of managing government through departments run by appointed officials
caste system
a set of rigid social categories that determined not only a person’s occupation and economic potential, but also his or her position in society
Catal Hayuk
A large neolithic city in modern Turkey. They used stone and bone for tools but died out before metal was used. It was from 6500BCE-5700BCE.
city-state
state consisting or city and all the countryside around it
civilization
a society in an advanced state of social development (e.g., with complex legal and political and religious organizations)
classical civilizations
Very Organized Civilizations that had strong Central Governments, made major Contributions to our Society(Architecture, Law, Government, Science), and developed large Trade Networks., 1029-600 BC- expanded trade; reevaluated key institutions upon decline/fall of empires, policies, values; created new religions; increased agricultural options; extended territories; integrated people/societies (Includes China, Greece/Rome; India)
Confucianism
The system of ethics, education, and statesmanship taught by Confucius and his disciples, stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct.
Constantine
Roman Emperor (4th century A.D.) who promoted tolerance to all religions in the Roman Empire and legalized Christianity
cultural diffusion
The spread of ideas, customs, and technologies from one people to another
cuneiform
Sumerian writing made by pressing a wedge-shaped tool into clay tablets
Cyrus the Great
king of Persia and founder of the Persian empire (circa 600-529 BC), A remarkable leader who managed to reunite the Persian Empire in a powerful kingdom. Under Cyrus, Persia began building an empire larger than any yet seen in the world
Dao
The proper way Chinese kings were expected to rule under the mandate of heaven.
Daoism
philosophical system developed by of Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events
Darius I
was the 3rd great ruler of the Persians and when he was ruling, the Persian empire reached its maximal extent. He developed a stable coinage, king of Persia who expanded the empire and invaded Greece but was defeated at the Battle of Marathon (550-486 BC)
Delian League
an alliance headed by Athens that says that all Greek city-states will come together and help fight the Persians
democracy
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
dharma
in Hinduism, the duties and obligations of each caste
Diocletian
Roman emperor who was faced with military problems, when that happend he decided to divide the empire between himself in the east and maximian in the west. he did the last persecution of the Christians
division of labor
Division of work into a number of separate tasks to be performed by different workers
Dravidian
Speakers of a language group found in India since earliest times; mostly spoken in South India today.
dynasty
a sequence of powerful leaders in the same family
dynastic cycles
long periods of rule by a family punctuated by times of chaos when the family lost its power and was challenged by a new and ultimately successful ruling dynasty
Eightfold Path
Principal teaching of Buddha. Code of behavior. Provides the answer to alleviating the suffering of all humankind and leads to Nirvana, right views, right thought, right speech, right conduct, right livelihood, right endeavor, right awareness, and right contemplation. seen as the \”midle way\”
Epic of Gilgamesh
The Epic of Gilgamesh is an epic poem from Ancient Mesopotamia and is among the earliest known works of literary fiction.
feudalism
a political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages; nobles offered protection and land in return for service
filial piety
in Confucian thought, one of the virtues to be cultivated, a love and respect for one’s parents and ancestors
Four Noble Truths
1) All life is full of suffering, pain, and sorrow. 2) The cause of suffering is nonvirtue, or negative deeds and mindsets such as hated and desire. 3) The only cure for suffering is to overcome nonvirture. 4) The way to overcome nonvirtue is to follow the Eightfold Path
Great Wall
a fortification 1,500 miles long built across northern China in the 3rd century BC
Gupta Empire
The Gupta emperors organized a strong central government and promoted peace and prosperity. Under the Guptas, who ruled from A.D. 320 to about 540, India enjoyed a golden age, or a period of great cultural achievement. The Gupta rule was probably looser than that of the Mauryas. Power was left in the hands of individual villages and city governments selected by merchants. Trade and farming flourished across the Gupta empire. Farmers harvested crops of wheat, rive and sugar cane. The prosperity of the Guptas India contributed to a flowering in the arts and learning. Under the Gupta rule, Students were educated in religious schools. They were mostly taught mathematics, medicine physics, languages, literature, and other subjects. Gupta mathematicians devised the system of writing number that we use today. Indian mathematicians also originated the concept of zero and developed the decimal system. By Gupta timed, Indian physicians were using herbs and other remedies to treat illness. Surgeons were skilled in setting bones and in simple surgery to repair injures.
Hammurabi
King of the Babylonian empire; creator of the Code of Hammurabi, one of the world’s oldest codes of law.
Hammurabi’s Code
Oldest written system of laws. They were created by King Hammurabi of Babylonia in th mid 18th century BCE and placed on stones tablets for all to see.
Han Wu Ti
Torah
(Judaism) the scroll of parchment on which the first five books of the Hebrew Scripture is written, the first of three divisions of the Hebrew Scriptures comprising the first five books of the Hebrew Bible considered as a unit
Hellenic culture
The Hellenic Period of Greek Culture is regarded by many as one of the most creative periods in world history. Works developed in this period inspired developments not only in Rome and Western Europe, but also among Persians, Buddhists and Muslims as well., Alexander’s blending of cultures especially egyptian and grecian
Hellenism
Blending of Egyptian, Persian and Greek culture; emphasis on philosophy and sciences.
Hinduism
the predominant religion of India, An eastern religion which evolved from an ancient Aryan religion in which followers strive to free their soul from reincarnation until the soul is finally freed. This religion is practiced primarily in India.
Hittites
A people from central Anatolia who established an empire in Anatolia and Syria in the Late Bronze Age. With wealth from the trade in metals and military power based on chariot forces, the hittites vied with New Kingdom Egypt over Syria (p.64)
Hun
a member of a nomadic people who invaded Europe in the 4th century
Hyksos
the people who invaded Egypt thus beginning the second Intermediate period during which the Hyksos ( a word meaning \”foreigner) ruled as pharaohs in Lower Egypt and exacted tribute from the royal families in Thebes.
independent invention
development of the same culture trait or pattern in separate cultures as a result of comparable needs and circumstances
jati
sub castes; were groups of people within each caste that worked together for one economic function
Jericho
early walled urban culture based on sedentary agriculture; located in modern Israel-occupied West Bank near Jordan River.
Jesus of Nazareth
a teacher and prophet born in bethlehem and active in nazareth; his life and sermons form the basis for christianity
Judaism
the monotheistic religion of the Jews having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in the Torah and in the Talmud
Julius Caesar
Roman general, statesman, and historian who invaded Britain (55), crushed the army of his political enemy Pompey (48), pursued other enemies to Egypt, where he installed Cleopatra as queen (47), returned to Rome, and was given a mandate by the people to rule as dictator for life (45). On March 15 of the following year he was murdered by a group of republicans led by Cassius and Brutus, who feared he intended to establish a monarchy ruled by himself.
karma
(Hinduism and Buddhism) the effects of a person’s actions that determine his destiny in his next incarnation
Laozi
the \”Old Master\” who encouraged people to give up worldly desires in favor of nature; he founded Taoism (Daoism)
Legalism
In China, a political philosophy that emphasized the unruliness of human nature and justified state coercion and control. The Qin ruling class invoked it to validate the authoritarian nature of their regime. (p.52)
Lucy
incomplete skeleton of female found in eastern Ethiopia in 1974
Mahabharata
A vast epic chronicling the events leading up to a cataclysmic battle between related kinship groups in early India. It includes the Bhagavad-Gita, the most important work of Indian sacred literature. (p. 185)
Mandate of Heaven
Chinese religious and political ideology developed by the Zhou, was the prerogative of Heaven, the chief deity, to grant power to the ruler of China.
matrilineal
relating to a social system in which family descent and inheritance rights are traced through the mother
Mauryan Dynasty
The first united Indian state, founded by Chandragupta in 324 BC, after Alexander’s defeat of weakened India; it lasted for more than 100 years, before it declined, and fell in 183 BC
Maya
a member of an American Indian people of Yucatan and Belize and Guatemala who had a culture (which reached its peak between AD 300 and 900) characterized by outstanding architecture and pottery and astronomy
Minoans
a seafaring and trading people that lived on the island of Crete from about 2000-1400 BC
moksha
The Hindu concept of the spirit’s ‘liberation’ from the endless cycle of rebirths. (179)
monarchy
an autocracy governed by a monarch who usually inherits the authority
monotheism
belief in a single God
Mycenaeans
first Greek-speaking people; invaded Minoans; dominated Greek world 1400 B.C. to 1200 B.C.; sea traders; lived in separate city-states; invovled in Trojan War against Troy
natural law
the concept that there is a universal order built into nature that can guide moral thinking
Neolithic Revolution
the shift from hunting of animals and gathering of food to the keeping of animals and the growing of food on a regular basis around 8,000 BC
nirvana
in Buddhism, the release from pain and suffering achieved after enlightenment
oligarchy
form of government in which a few people have the power
Olmecs
(1400 B.C.E. to 500 B.C.E.) earliest known Mexican civilization,lived in rainforests along the Gulf of Mexico, developed calendar and constructed public buildings and temples, carried on trade with other groups.
oracle bones
cattle bones or tortoise shells on which Chinese priests would write questions and then interpret answers from the cracks that formed when the bones were heated
Paleolithic Age
The old stone age 2.5 million – 8000 B.C. was known for the use of stone tools
pastorialism
a type of agriculture activity based on nomadic animal husbandry or the raising of livestock to provide food, clothing, and shelter
patriarchal
relating to a society in which men hold the greatest legal and moral authority
Paul of Tarsus
A Jew from Asia Minor that played the most influential role in the spread of Christianity. Paul never met Jesus but he had a vision one day of speaking to him. Executed because spreading of Christianity was a threat to the government.
Pax Romana
A period of peace and prosperity throughout the Roman Empire, lasting from 27 B.C. to A.D. 180.
Peloponnesian War
Conflict between Athenian And Spartan Alliances. The war was largely a consequence of Athenian imperialism. Possession of a naval empire allowed Athens to fight a war of attrition. Ultimately, Sparta prevailed because of Athenian errors/Persian $$$ (135)
Pericles
Athenian statesman whose leadership contributed to Athen’s political and cultural supremacy in Greece, Athenian leader noted for advancing democracy in Athens and for ordering the construction of the Parthenon.
Plato
ancient Athenian philosopher, Student of Socrates, wrote The Republic about the perfectly governed society
polis
Greek city-state
polytheisim
belief of more than one god
Punic wars
A series of three wars between Rome and Carthage (264-146 B.C.); resulted in the destruction of Carthage and Rome’s dominance over the western Mediterranean.
Qin Dynasty
the Chinese dynasty (from 246 BC to 206 BC) that established the first centralized imperial government and built much of the Great Wall, The dynasty that replaced the Zhou dynasty and employed Legalist ideas in order to control warring states and unify the country.
Qin Shi Huangdi
First Emperor; only emperor of Qin Dynasty; legalist; abolished feudalism and established a bureaucracy; anti-religion; building of Great Wall and other public works, qin ruler; wanted to unify china; known for his book burning; not popular, scholars and poor people hated him; built great wall to protect china
Ramayana
one of two classical Hindu epics telling of the banishment of Rama from his kingdom and the abduction of his wife by a demon and Rama’s restoration to the throne
reincarnation
belief that the individual soul is reborn in a different form after death
Roman Empire
Existed from 27 BCE to about 400 CE. Conquiered entire Mediterranean coast and most of Europe. Ruled by an emperor. Eventually oversaw the rise and spread of Christianity.
Roman Republic
The period from 507 to 31 B.C.E., during which Rome was largely governed by the aristocratic Roman Senate. (p. 148)
satraps
The governor of a province in the ancient Persian Empire
scholar gentry
Controlled much of the land of China, and many were civil servants, replaced the old aristocracy as the political and econmic elite of china
secularism
The belief in material things instead of religious things. This was a shift away from Medieval thinking.
Shiva
an important Hindu deity who in the trinity of gods was the Destroyer
Siddhartha Gautama
founder of Buddism; born a prince; left his father’s wealth to find the cause of human suffering; also know as Buddha
Socrates
philosopher who believed in an absolute right or wrong; asked students pointed questions to make them use their reason, later became Socratic method, Athenian philosopher (ca. 470-399 B.C.E.) who shifted the emphasis of philosophical investigation from questions of natural science to ethics and human behavior. He made enemies in government by revealing the ignorance of others. (133)
surplus
an amount beyond what is required, excess; more than what is needed or expected
The Analects
Written by Confucius, or \”The Master.\” Lists Confucius’ great ideas on moral behavior.
theocracy
government run by religious leaders
tyrants
in ancient Greece, rulers who seized power by force but who ruled with the people’s support; later came to refer to rulers who exercise brutal and oppressive power
Vedas
Ancient Sanskrit writings that are the earliest sacred texts of Hinduism.
rig Veda
A collection of 1,017 Sanskrit hymns composed about 1500 BC or earlier; Hinduism’s oldest sacred text.
Vishnu
A Hindu god considered the preserver of the world
Warring States Period
the period from 5th century BC to the unification of China by the Qin Dynasty in 221 BC when regional warlords battled amongst eachother and there was no ruler
Xerxes
son of Darius; became Persian king. He vowed revenge on the Athenians. He invaded Greece with 180,000 troops in 480 B.C.
xiao
filial piety, the virtue of reverence and respect for family (CONFUCIANISM)
ren
The Confucian virtue of ____ (\”benevolence\” or \”humaneness\”) means that a person will always do what is right, regardless of the consequences.
li
ceremonies, rituals, and rules of proper conduct in Confucian tradition
Zhou literature
Book of Changes, Book of Rites, Book of History, and Book of Songs

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