AP World History Chapter 9 Study Guide

Two major civilizations
Byzantine- Eastern Orthodox Church
a. Maintained high level of political, economic, cultural life
b. Leaders saw selves as Roman Emperors
c. Empire lasted for 1000 years until Turkish invaders
d. Constantinople – most , important city in Europe
e. Spread civilization to previously uncivilized areas (Russia,Balkans)


Similarities between the East and the West
1. Both influenced by Islam
2. Both civilizations spread northward
3. Polytheism gave way to monotheism
4. Northern areas struggled for political definition
5. New trading activities north and south
6. Borrowed from the Greeks and Romans

Differences between the East and the West
1. Different versions of Christianity
2. Little mutual contact (no trade east/west)
3. East more advanced politically, culturally, economically

Origins of the Byzantine Empire
4th century C.E.- Roman capital moved to Constantinople
a. Christian churches
b. Greek becomes used language – Latin looked at as inferior
c. High levels of commerce
d. Recruited armies from barbarians
e. Emperor kept separate

Justinian’s Achievements
a. Rebuilding of Constantinople
b. Codification of Roman Law
i. reduced confusion
ii. organized empire
iii. spread Roman legal principles
c. With Bellisaurius reconquer north Africa

Justinian’s Failures
a. Unable to take/hold Italian empire
b. Westward expansion weakened his empire
1. Persian forces attacked from East
2. New tax pressure

Arab Pressure and the Empire’s Defenses
1. New focus is to defend the empire’s borders
a. Withstood invasions of Arab Muslims in 7th century
1. Greek fire devastated Arab ships
2. Victoriuos but…
1. constant threat on borders
2. new economic burdens
3. Less power for farmers lead to greater power to aristocratic generals

The Split between the East and the West
1. Different focus
a. East economic orientation, link to Asia more than Europe
2. Disagreement
a. papal attempts to interfere over icons
b. Charlemagne claims to be Roman emperor
c. Rituals in Latin, not Greek
d. pope as first bishop
e. religious art
f. celibacy for priests
3. 1054 Schism – split between Roman Church and Eastern Orthodox

Byzantine Decline
1. Invasion – 11th century – Seljuk Turks
a. Cut off source of tax revenue
b. Cut off food supplying territory
2. Creation of independent Slavic kingdoms
3. During Crusades – Italian merchant cities like Venice gained trading advantages
4. 1453 – Turkish sultan brought army w/ artillery
5. Importance
a. Anchored vital corner of Mediterranean
b. Key trading contacts
c. Maintained classical learning
d. Spread Christian learning

The Spread of Civilization in Eastern Europe
1. Contacts with Russia due to missionary activity and trade routes
2. Regional kingdoms formed
3. Brought to an end by Mongol invasions
4. Missionaries
a. Cyril and Methodius – created written script for language
b. Slavic alphabet – Cyrillic
c. Religion allowed to have vernacular/local languages

Emergence of Kievan Rus
1. Early culture in this region
a. Animist
b. Strong family tribes/villages
c. Folk music, oral legend
2. Scandinavian traders set up trade stop at Kiev
a. Monarchy emerged
b. Rurik, Denmark native, became first monarch
c. Russia – Greek word for “red” – hair color of Norse traders

Kievan Decline
1. Rival princes set up regional governments
2. Rapid decline of Byzantium
a. relied on prosperity/manufacturing of southern neighbor
3. 1237-1241 Mongol Invasion
a. Tatars control – two centuries
1. literature languished
2. trade lapsed
3. north-south commerce ceases
4. left day to day control to locals