AP World History Chapter 17 Test

Flashcard maker : Kenneth McQuaid
Define revolution.
Complete change in the economic, political, and/or social system of a nation or civilization.
What are revolutions usually brought about by?
Force (war).
What are revolutions sometimes caused by?
New inventions or ideas (Scientific Revolution, Industrial Revolution).
What were the Enlightenment ideas of revolutionaries?
1) Liberty and equality.
2) Free trade.
3) Religious tolerance.
4) \”Republicanism\”: election of leaders.
5) \”Popular sovereignty\”: idea that authority to govern comes from the people.
Define \”republicanism.\”
Form of government characterized by the election of leaders.
Define \”popular sovereignty.\”
Idea that authority to govern comes from the people.
What type of government did the American colonies have?
Self-government: free men elected to \”assembly\” to make laws.
Why did the British tax the American colonies?
British government needs money.
What were the causes of the American revolution (1775-1783)?
1) British government taxes American colonies without their approval (No Taxation Without Representation).
2) British takes away rights and confiscates weapons.
How did France help America during the American Revolution?
France sent supplies, army, and navy.
Who helps the Americans to beat the British and gain independence?
France.
How \”revolutionary\” was the American Revolution?
1) Conservative revolution, preserved existing freedoms.
2) Women and slaves could not vote.
3) Does not give freedom to slaves.
4) Wealthy citizens keep their wealth and land.
5) World’s most democratic nation, first modern \”republic.\”
What kind of government did France have?
\”Absolute monarchy\”: King has complete power over all aspects of a nation.
Define \”absolute monarchy.\”
A form of government in which the king has complete power over all aspects of a nation.
Define \”Divine Right.\”
Idea that kings get their power from God.
Who was King Louis XVI?
Absolute monarch of France.
Who was Marie Antoinette?
Queen of France, married to King Louis XVI.
Why did the King of France tax the people?
To pay for his rich lifestyle and for wars.
Why was France in a lot of debt?
After helping America to win its revolution.
What were the 3 Estates?
Political, social, and economic classes of France.
What was the organization of French society?
1) \”1st Estate\”: Clergy (priests, employees of the Church); pay very low taxes (2% of total taxes); 1% of the population.
2) \”2nd Estate\”: Nobility (relatives of King); paid almost no taxes; rich; owned about 1/3 of all land; held powerful positions in government and military; 2% of the population.
3) \”3rd Estate\”: everyone else; paid almost all the taxes; poor; 97% of the population (90% peasants, 7% \”bourgeoisie\”: middle class).
Define \”bourgeoisie.\”
French middle class.
What ideas did the Enlightenment promote?
Liberty, equality, and democracy.
How did the Enlightenment help to cause the French and American Revolutions?
1) Influences people to question the government and old traditions.
2) People began to demand Enlightenment ideas of liberty, equality, and democracy.
3) Revolutionary leaders use Enlightenment ideas to justify Revolution.
What happened in France in 1789 and what was the crisis that followed?
There was a bad harvest which led to a food shortage and increased prices. The crisis was that there was not enough food and people faced starvation.
Why did King Louis XVI want higher taxes?
To pay off debt.
What did King Louis XVI call?
\”Estates General\”: meeting of 3 estates to discuss or vote on issues (issue: taxation).
Define \”Estates General.\”
Meeting of 3 French estates to discuss or vote on issues.
What was the political inequality in the Estates General?
Each Estate gets 1 vote; 1st and 2nd Estates can always outvote the 3rd Estate.
What did the 3rd Estate demand in regards to the Estate General?
3rd Estate demands to vote as individual members, not as Estates (groups), which would give the 3rd Estate more votes. King Louis XVI refused.
What was the result of the King’s refusal to the 3rd Estate’s demand?
3rd Estate calls itself \”National Assembly\” and makes \”Tennis Court Oath\”: pledge to create a new government.
Define \”Tennis Court Oath.\”
Pledge made by the French National Assembly (3rd Estate) to create a new government.
Describe \”Bastille Day\” (July 14th, 1789).
Hungry crowd breaks into the Bastille (prison), takes weapons, frees prisoners, and destroys the building.
What did Bastille Day (July 14th, 1789) symbolize?
The start of the French Revolution; peasants began to rebel.
What happened when a group of French women broke into the palace?
Forced the royal family back to Paris.
What did the National Assembly write in 1791?
\”Constitution of 1791\”: creates a \”constitutional monarchy\”: government that limits power of the King, King is no longer absolute monarch.
Define \”Constitution of 1791.\”
Constitution written by the National Assembly during the French Revolution that created a constitutional monarchy (limited power of the King).
Define \”constitutional monarchy.\”
A form of government in which the power of the King is limited.
What other document besides the Constitution of 1791 did the National Assembly write?
\”Declaration of the Rights of Man\”: document that establishes personal freedoms (speech, religion, vote, etc).
Define \”Declaration of the Rights of Man.\”
A document written by the National Assembly during the French Revolution that established personal freedoms (speech, religion, vote, etc).
What did the National Assembly rename itself?
\”Legislative Assembly\”: organization of representatives that make laws for France instead of the King.
Define \”Legislative Assembly.\”
Organization of representatives that make laws for France instead of the King.
Who did France declare war on in 1792 and why?
Austria and Prussia (Eastern Germany), because they threaten to stop the French Revolution and put the King back in power.
What were the causes of the French Revolution?
1) Political inequality – common people have no voice/power in government.
2) Economic inequality – most people are poor while nobility and King are rich.
3) Enlightenment ideas encourage people to want liberty and equality (and democracy).
Who was the Legislative Assembly controlled by?
The \”Jacobins\” (1793-1794): political group that demand extreme changes in the political, economic, and social order of France.
Who were the Jacobins?
Political group that controlled the Legislative Assembly in 1793-1794 who demanded extreme changes in the political, economic, and social order of France.
What did the Jacobins do?
1) Abolish Constitution of 1791.
2) Turn Legislative Assembly into \”National Convention\”: make laws for government.
3) Abolish monarchy.
4) Set up \”republic\”: government run by elected officials.
Define \”National Convention.\”
Renamed Legislative Assembly (under request of Jacobins) that makes laws for the government.
What happens to King Louis XVI and why?
King Louis XVI tries to escape Paris and is caught by revolutionaries, and is then executed by use of \”guillotine\”: execution device that decapitates people.
Describe the Reign of Terror (1793-1794).
Period of fear and mass executions of French people accused of being \”enemies of the Revolution\”: people who oppose Robespierre and Jacobins.
Who was Robespierre?
Jacobin leader, became leader of the \”Committee of Public Safety\”: small group of Jacobins who control the government.
Define \”Committee of Public Safety.\”
Small group of Jacobins led by Robespierre who controlled the French government.
How did Robespierre rule?
Like a dictator (king).
Who did the French government need support from during the Revolution?
The people.
How many people did Robespierre and the Committee have executed (with use of a guillotine) for being \”enemies\”?
40,000.
How did Robespierre turn France into a new society?
1) Calls it \”Republic of Virtue\”: loyalty to liberty and equality.
2) Abolish Christian Church (de-Christianization) and all aspects/supports of old France.
3) Creates new religion for all people to follow: \”Cult of the Supreme Being\”: religion created by Robespierre where people worship liberty and democracy.
4) To continue \”Reign of Terror\” to keep people loyal to new France (because they were afraid).
Define \”Cult of the Supreme Being.\”
A religion created by Robespierre where people worship liberty and democracy.
Describe the end of the Reign of Terror (1794).
People see Robespierre’s changes as too extreme and strange; believe Robespierre is too powerful and is ruling like a dictator (new king); Jacobins arrest and execute Robespierre.
Who was Napoleon Bonaparte?
French general and war hero; helps to defeat other nations attacking France.
When did Napoleon take over the French government?
1799.
What did Napoleon rule as?
A dictator.
Define \”dictator.\”
One person holds all political power and controls government.
Why did Napoleon come to power?
1) People are tired of the Revolution, fear, and instability.
2) Napoleon brings order, security, and economic freedom (people can make money).
What did Napoleon’s rule end?
The French Revolution.
In 1804, what happened to Napoleon?
He became the Emperor of France.
When was Napoleon’s Empire?
1799-1815.
Where does Napoleon conquer?
Most of Europe (except Russia and Britain: biggest enemy).
Who was Napoleon’s (France’s) biggest enemy?
Great Britain.
Describe the \”Continental System.\”
System set up by Napoleon that forces all countries to not buy or sell goods to Great Britain.
What was the goal of the Continental System?
To ruin the British economy.
What does Russia refuse to do?
To not buy or sell goods to Great Britain.
What happens when Russia refuses the Continental System?
Napoleon attacks Russia and captures Moscow; Russians retreat.
What happens to Napoleon’s army in Russia?
Napoleon’s army freezes and starves in Russian winter; invasion fails.
What happens to Napoleon’s army after the Russian winter?
Napoleon’s army is destroyed; most of Europe attacks France.
What is Napoleon forced into during the war?
He is forced into \”exile\”: forced to leave your home/country as punishment.
Define \”exile.\”
Forced to leave your home/country as punishment.
Describe the \”Battle of Waterloo (1815).\”
Napoleon defeated by British, Russian, and Austrian forces.
What happens to Napoleon after the Battle of Waterloo?
He is sent to exile and dies (1821).
Describe the Congress of Vienna.
Meeting between Britain, Austria, and Russia to restore order in Europe. It restored the French monarchy.

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