AP World History: Tang and Song Dynasties

Flashcard maker : Bernice Cooper
Describe China between Han and Sui dynasties
Period of instability
Weak trade due to simultaneous collapse of Rome
Describe the Sui Dynasty, including public work projects
Strong, centralized gov’t
Public works projects: Palace and granary construction, repair o defensive walls, demanded labor for Grand Canal
Reason for resentment in Sui China
Public works projects required massive labor recruitments, especially building of the Grand Canal, caused peasant rebellion and resentment
Why did the Sui Dynasty end?
Labor resenment and high taxation caused tensions
Sui Yangdi assassinated and dynasty ended
Under what policies did the Tang Dynasty rule?
Confucian policies allowed it to have a stable government
Adopted confucian edu action system from Ha Dynasty
What are some accomplishments of the Tang Dynasty that would lead to it being considered the Golden Age?
Low rice price, low peasant taxes
What are three reasons for success of the early Tang?
1. Transportation and communication network: Grand Canal, great roads
2. Equal Field System
3. Reliance on Bureaucracy of Merit
What are some reasons for decline of the Tang Dynasty?
Weak leaders who focused on luxury than the general population
Nomadic pressure from north from the Mongols; nomads raided Chinese silk and paper and sold them for food, weakening of equal-field system and land distribution problems, not enough revenue to run large bureaucracy
Why was Chinese expansion relevant to economic success?
Westward expansion protected silk roads from nomads b/c silk was more valuable outside of China and they had to protect their trading rights
Describe how the Song Dynasty ruled
Centralized imperial rule
Very large bureaucracy
Emphasis on civil administration, industry, education, and arts than the military
Describe Song China’s relationship with its military
Distrusted military
Saw as source of revolt
Not powerful military
Describe the Song in relationship to the Tang in terms of territory
Smaller than the Tang and established more in the south for protection against nomads/Mongols
How did the Song view Nomads?
Barbaric, felt superior
What caused Song decline?
Inefficient military: Scholars couldn’t run military
Too much paper money: inflation
Lost northern half of empire to nomads
Peasant rebellion from taxation; Needed revenue to run large bureaucracy
What were some Tang and Song innovations?
Fast-ripening rice
Naval technologies
Gunpowder (secret military advantage)
Porcelain=Large amount of wealth
Magnetic compass= navigational aid that assisted exploration
Letters of credit (flying cash)
Paper money
Moveable type printer
What type of an economy did Tang and Song China have?
Market economy: Economy system in which population determines prices
High demands=high prices
Describe China’s relationship with Korea vs. its relationship with Vietnam
-Both were tributary states to China
-Maintained own government but paid tribute (taxes and gifts) to Chinese emperors
-Helped connect China and Japan; Korea never developed bureaucracy of merit-kept royal houses
-Adapted Chinese court and bureaucracy and Confucian traditions; interest in Buddhism
Describe China’s relationship with Vietnam
More tense relationship than with Korea
Vietnams developed Chinese administration and bureaucracy
Adopted Buddhism and Confucianism
Why was the Grand Canal so economically important?
Facilitated trade between northern and southern China; brought rice and other products from Yangzi River Valley in the north to other regions
What was the equal-field system?
-Based on number of family members and fertility of land
-Equal distribution of land to all based on recipient’s needs; 1/5 of land was hereditary
Why did the equal-field system fail in late Tang years?
Population increase; not enough land
Difficulty breaking power of large landowners
Describe’s China’s relationship with Buddhism
-Made its way to China via Silk Roads
-Received hostility from Daoism and Confucianism: anti-Buddhist campaign that attacked Buddhism for economic and political power it obtained
-Persecuted against, but survived due to popularity
What is Neo-Confucianism?
Blending of Buddhist and Confucian values
Individual self-improvement, strive and perfect oneself
How did the Song Dynasty attempt to keep nomads away?
By gifting nomads with silk to keep peace
In which dynasty did the civil service exam have prominence?
Song Dynasty
When did foot binding start?
Song Dynasty
Why was foot binding encouraged?
Secured better marriage
Increased restriction of freedom of women

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